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Summary This category concerns the work of French philosopher, Sophie de Grouchy (1764-1822). She is the author of Letters on Sympathy (1798), which she published alongside her French translation of Adam Smith's The Theory of Moral Sentiments and The Origins of Language. Her translation of Smith's works remained in print until the late 20th century. Grouchy also edited the journal Le Républicain (1791) with her husband, Condorcet. She produced translations of Thomas Paine's works and her own writings as well. Grouchy's work touches on a number of subject including sympathy, moral virtue, justice, and liberty.
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  1. Egalitarian sympathies? Adam Smith and Sophie de Grouchy on inequality and social order.Robin Douglass - 2024 - European Journal of Philosophy 32 (1):17-31.
    This article analyses Adam Smith's and Sophie de Grouchy's accounts of sympathy to show how they arrive at strikingly different views on whether inequality is a threat to, or precondition of, social order. Where many scholars have recently sought to recover Smith's egalitarianism, I instead focus on how his account of sympathy in The Theory of Moral Sentiments naturalises socioeconomic inequalities, while also highlighting the wider inegalitarian implications of his analysis. I demonstrate that Grouchy was alert to these implications and (...)
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  2. Sophie de Grouchy’s Political Thought in the Letters on Sympathy (1798).Minchul Kim - 2024 - Journal of the History of Ideas 85 (2):237-255.
    This article proposes a reading of Sophie de Grouchy’s moral, political, and economic thought as embedded in the tradition of natural jurisprudence, adapted to the context of the French First Republic. A close reading of her French translation of Adam Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiment and her eight Letters on Sympathy confirms that there are points to be made by reading her works in the context of the language of early modern natural law. This sheds light on the important question (...)
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  3. Reviewing women’s philosophical works during the French revolution: the case of P.-L. Roederer.Sandrine Bergès - 2023 - History of European Ideas 49 (8):1332-1344.
    This paper looks at selected reviews of women’s philosophical (and literary) works by Revolutionary author and politician Pierre-Louis Roederer. This study occasions the following remarks. Women’s works, when they raised political radical and sometimes feminist agendas were not only read and reviewed, but considered part of the general Revolutionary effort to relieve social and political inequalities. Secondly Roederer appears, from these reviews, as committed to convincing the French intellectual community that works by women ought to be taken as seriously as (...)
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  4. From deep learning to rational machines: what the history of philosophy can teach us about the future of artifical intelligence.Cameron J. Buckner - 2023 - New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    This book provides a framework for thinking about foundational philosophical questions surrounding machine learning as an approach to artificial intelligence. Specifically, it links recent breakthroughs in deep learning to classical empiricist philosophy of mind. In recent assessments of deep learning's current capabilities and future potential, prominent scientists have cited historical figures from the perennial philosophical debate between nativism and empiricism, which primarily concerns the origins of abstract knowledge. These empiricists were generally faculty psychologists; that is, they argued that the active (...)
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  5. Remorse and Moral Progress in Sophie de Grouchy's Letters on Sympathy.Getty L. Lustila - 2023 - In Karen Detlefsen & Lisa Shapiro (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Women and Early Modern European Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 584-596.
    This chapter explores the place of remorse in Sophie de Grouchy’s moral theory, as presented in her 1798 work, Letters on Sympathy, which was originally published with her translation of Adam Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiments. I argue that, for Grouchy, a cultivated sense of remorse weakens our self-conceit by drawing our attention to the ways in which we harm others, even for seemingly justifiable reasons. In so doing, we are led to recognize the equal standing of others, which gives (...)
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  6. Sophie de Grouchy on the Problem of Economic Inequality.Getty L. Lustila - 2023 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 61 (1):112-132.
    In this article, I consider Grouchy's critique of economic inequality and her proposed solution to what she perceives as this grave social ill. On her view, economic inequality chips away at the bonds of accountability in society and prevents people from seeing one another as moral equals. As a step toward restoring these bonds between people, Grouchy argues that: first, we should expand property ownership, thereby giving each person a stake in the community; second, we should ensure access to education (...)
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  7. Il serait aisé d’appliquer aux femmes tout ce que j’ai dit des hommes: Le féminisme silencieux de Sophie de Grouchy.Kathleen McCrudden Illert - 2023 - Annales Historiques de la Révolution Française 401:123–140.
    Joan Scott, dans son texte fondateur sur le féminisme dans la Révolution française, a écrit sur la position « paradoxale » dans laquelle la nouvelle définition, exclusivement masculine, de la citoyenneté a placé les femmes qui cherchaient à s’intégrer dans la sphère politique. Selon elle, les femmes étaient contraintes soit de nier leur différence avec les hommes, soit d’affirmer leur féminité et de saper ainsi leur cause. Cet article soutient qu’il existait cependant une troisième manière, tout aussi paradoxale, mais potentiellement (...)
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  8. Sophie de Grouchy as an Activist Interpreter of Adam Smith.Kathleen McCrudden Illert - 2023 - In Paul Sagar (ed.), Interpreting Adam Smith: Critical Essays. Cambridge University Press. pp. 214-231.
    Every edition of the French translation of Adam Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiments published between 1798 and 1981 was accompanied by the Letters on Sympathy: the philosophical text of Smith’s French translator and interlocutor, Sophie de Grouchy (1763–1822). Grouchy declared that she intended to massage the message delivered in TMS for a French audience. Yet there has been little attempt to analyse the political motivations for the changes she made to Smith’s theory. This chapter describes two key critiques that Grouchy (...)
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  9. Liberty in Their Names: The Women Philosophers of the French Revolution.Sandrine Bergès - 2022 - New York: Bloomsbury.
    Telling the story of three overlooked revolutionary thinkers, Liberty in Their Names explores the lives and works of Olympe de Gouges, Sophie de Grouchy and Manon Roland. All three were thinking and writing about political philosophy, especially equality and social justice, before the French Revolution. As they became engaged in its efforts, their political writing became more urgent. At a time when women could neither vote nor speak at the Assembly, they became influential through their writings. Yet instead of Gouges, (...)
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  10. Changing Society and Institutions in the Theories of Adam Smith and Sophie de Grouchy.Anna Markwart - 2022 - Journal of Scottish Philosophy 20 (1):55-72.
    The aim of this paper is to present a comparative analysis and reconstruction of the approach to social, moral, and institutional change in the theories of Adam Smith and Sophie de Grouchy. In their theories moral philosophy is inextricably linked with social thought. I also discuss the role of education and institutions in such a process. I argue that Smith's and de Grouchy's understanding of the roles of sympathy and institutions are strictly connected to the way they perceive the process (...)
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  11. The Sympathy of Sophie de Grouchy, translator and critic of Adam Smith.Simona Pisanelli - 2022 - European Journal of the History of Economic Thought 29 (4):579-599.
    Sophie de Grouchy is known to the public for her highly appreciated French translation of the Theory of Moral Sentiments (TMS) by Adam Smith (1794) and for her publication of the Letters on Sympathy (1798). This article aims to reconstruct Sophie de Grouchy’s criticism of TMS and to show that it is based on a misinterpretation of Smith’s concept of sympathy. In her interpretation, Sophie de Grouchy seems to decontextualise the category of sympathy from the whole of the Scottish thinker’s (...)
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  12. Review of Sophie de Grouchy's Letters on Sympathy: A Critical Engagement with Adam Smith's The Theory of Moral Sentiments. [REVIEW]Olivia Bailey - 2020 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
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  13. Republicanism and Religious Optimism in Mary Wollstonecraft and Germaine de Staël.Martin Fog Lantz Arndal - 2019 - Australasian Philosophical Review 3 (4):422-430.
    In Sandrine Bergès’s article ‘Revolution and Republicanism: Women Political Philosophers of Late Eighteenth-Century France and Why They Matter’ [2021], neo-Athenian and neo-Roman principles of republicanism are fused in order to show the idiosyncratic political position of Olympe de Gouges, Marie-Jeanne Phlipon Roland, and Sophie de Grouchy. As Bergès acknowledges, this amalgamation renders possible republican readings of women’s writings which so far have not been regarded as republican. Through my reading of Germaine de Staël and Mary Wollstonecraft, my aim will be (...)
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  14. Revolution and Republicanism: Women Political Philosophers of Late Eighteenth-Century France and Why They Matter.Sandrine Bergès - 2019 - Australasian Philosophical Review 3 (4):351-370.
    In this article, I present the arguments of three republican women philosophers of eighteenth-century France, focusing especially on two themes: equality (of class, gender, and race) and the family. I argue that these philosophers, Olympe de Gouges, Marie-Jeanne Phlipon Roland, and Sophie de Grouchy, who are interesting and original in their own right, belong to the neo-republican tradition and that re-discovering their texts is an opportunity to reflect on women’s perspectives on the ideas that shaped our current political thought.
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  15. On the Philosophical Significance of Eighteenth-Century Female ‘Republicans’.Karen Green - 2019 - Australasian Philosophical Review 3 (4):371-380.
    While agreeing with Bergès on the importance for philosophy of reading the works of women such as Roland, Gouges, and Grouchy, her account of them as committed to the concept of liberty as non-domination, articulated by Philip Pettit, is questioned. It is argued that their views are more accurately described as involving a commitment to the tradition of positive liberty, that was criticised by Berlin in his famous essay ‘Two Concepts of Liberty’. The republican writings of Catharine Macaulay are shown (...)
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  16. De Grouchy, Wollstonecraft, and Smith on Sympathy, Inequality, and Rights.Lena Halldenius - 2019 - Australasian Philosophical Review 3 (4):381-391.
    This article offers an analysis of Sophie de Grouchy’s Letters on Sympathy [1798]. The focus is on the republican implications of her views on sympathy, with comparisons to Adam Smith and Mary Wollstonecraft. Critical attention is paid to claims made on de Grouchy’s behalf that her philosophy is republican and that she offers republican arguments for gender and class equality. These claims are made by Sandrine Bergès [2021] in ‘Revolution and Republicanism: Women Political Philosophers of Late Eighteenth-Century France and Why (...)
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  17. Sophie de Grouchy, Adam Smith, and the Politics of Sympathy.Eric Schliesser - 2019 - In Eileen O’Neill & Marcy P. Lascano (eds.), Feminist History of Philosophy: The Recovery and Evaluation of Women’s Philosophical Thought. Springer, NM 87747, USA: Springer. pp. 193-219.
    This paper explains Sophie de Grouchy’s philosophical debts to Adam Smith. I have three main reasons for this: first, it should explain why eighteenth-century philosophical feminists found Smith, who has—to put it mildly—not been a focus of much recent feminist admiration, a congenial starting point for their own thinking; second, it illuminates De Grouchy’s considerable philosophical originality, especially her important, overlooked contributions to political theory; third, it is designed to remove some unfortunate misconceptions that have found their way into Karin (...)
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  18. Excluding Manners and Deference from the Post-Revolution Republic: Sophie de Grouchy’s Letters on Sympathy on the Conditions of Non-Domination.Spyridon Tegos - 2019 - Australasian Philosophical Review 3 (4):413-421.
    This paper argues that the republican ideal of non-domination, central in Bergès’s paper, rests on affective conditions that often go unnoticed. In this context, I introduce the notion of affective independence to shed light on the affects akin to the spirit of socio-economic and political independence in between aristocratic pretentiousness and vanity on the one hand and servility towards superiors on the other. In the Letters on Sympathy, Sophie de Grouchy dismisses Adam Smith’s key notion of propriety and thoroughly rejects (...)
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  19. Family, Gender, and Progress: Sophie de Grouchy and Her Exclusion in the Publication of Condorcet’s Sketch of Human Progress.Sandrine Bergès - 2018 - Journal of the History of Ideas 79 (2):267-283.
    I examine some of the evidence for collaboration between Condorcet and Sophie de Grouchy on the writing of the Sketch of Human Progress, but also uncover the ways in which the publication and reception of that text worked to exclude a woman who was a philosopher in her own right from a work she clearly contributed to. I show that at least one passage that was added in the 1795 edition makes the work philosophically more interesting.
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  20. What’s it got to do with the price of bread? Condorcet and Grouchy on freedom and unreasonable laws in commerce.Sandrine Bergès - 2018 - European Journal of Political Theory 17 (4):432-448.
    István Hont identified a point in the history of political thought at which republicanism and commercialism became separated. According to Hont, Emmanuel Sieyès proposed that a monarchical republic should be formed. By contrast the Jacobins, in favour of a republic led by the people, rejected not only Sieyès’s political proposal, but also the economic ideology that went with it. Sieyès was in favour of a commercial republic; the Jacobins were not. This was, according to Hont, a defining moment in the (...)
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  21. From Sympathy to Social Reform.Sandrine Bergès - 2018 - Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy 29:19-23.
    Proponents of care ethics tend to reject the ideals of historical republicanism and the enlightenment because they do not take into account the centrality of the roles played by carers or caregivers in society. Furthermore this is irremediable because of enlightenment’s prizing of reason over and above emotions and of independence over relationships. In this paper I argue that such a wholesale rejection is misguided because it is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of the ideals of enlightenment and republicanism which (...)
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  22. Secrétariat, collaboration et auto-publication dans la France révolutionnaire.Sandrine Bergès - 2017 - Philosophiques 44 (2):255-270.
    What can a woman from 18th Century in France do to get published? That is a question which women philosophers who were involved in politics in the revolutionary era were obliged to ask themselves. Contributing to political debates might have a beneficial effect on the status of women in the society of the future. But who would want to invest money to promulgate the work of those who could not defend it in the Assembly, because, as women, they were not (...)
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  23. From One Sympathy to Another: Sophie de Grouchy’s Translation of and Commentary on Adam Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiments.Jean Dellemotte & Laurie Bréban - 2017 - History of Political Economy 49 (4):667-707.
    This essay examines Grouchy’s translation of the Theory of Moral Sentiments along with her critical commentary on Smith’s moral philosophy: The Letters on Sympathy. In this paper, we analyze these two pieces as a whole and build on Grouchy’s commentary in order to highlight some of her choices of translation. Thus we supplement the existing interpretations of Grouchy’s choices of translation. We show that the self-interested basis of her system of sympathy might explain, at least in part, why she missed (...)
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  24. "Sophie de Grouchy, The Tradition(s) of Two Liberties, and the Missing Mother(s) of Liberalism".Eric Schliesser - 2017 - In Jacqueline Broad & Karen Detlefsen (eds.), Women and Liberty, 1600-1800: Philosophical Essays. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 109-122.
    This chapter demonstrates how Sophie de Grouchy (1764–1822) anticipates the famous modern-day distinction between positive and negative liberty in her late eighteenth-century writings. It is argued that, on these grounds, De Grouchy deserves a rightful place in the history of the liberal tradition, a tradition that is typically depicted as the exclusive province of men. To support this claim, this chapter examines De Grouchy’s ideas in comparison with Rousseau’s and Adam Smith’s views on justice and property rights. This sets the (...)
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  25. A feminist perspective on virtue ethics.Sandrine Berges - 2015 - New York: palgrave macmillan.
    The writings of women philosophers have often been neglected in the discipline of virtue ethics. In this historical survey of feminist virtue ethics, Sandrine Berges redresses the balance by focusing on key writings of important women philosophers, including Perictione, Heloise, Christine de Pizan, Mary Wollstonecraft and Sophie de Grouchy. A Feminist Perspective on Virtue Ethics first applies the findings of its historical survey to questions on the ethics of care, gender and the public life, and global justice. In what follows, (...)
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  26. Sophie de Grouchy on the cost of domination in the Letters on Sympathy and two anonymous articles in Le Republicain.Sandrine Bergès - 2015 - The Monist 98 (1):102-112.
    Political writings of eighteenth-century France have been so far mostly overlooked as a source of republican thought. Philosophers such as Condorcet actively promoted the ideal of republicanism in ways that can shed light on current debates. In this paper, I look at one particular source: Le Republicain, published in the summer 1791, focusing on previously unattributed articles by Condorcet’s wife and collaborator, Sophie de Grouchy. Grouchy, a philosopher in her own right, is beginning to be known for her Letters on (...)
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  27. Is Motherhood Compatible with Political Participation? Sophie de Grouchy’s Care-Based Republicanism.Sandrine Berges - 2015 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 18 (1):47-60.
    Motherhood, as it is practiced, constitutes an obstacle to gender equality in political participation. Several options are available as a potential solution to this problem. One is to advice women not to become mothers, or if they do, to devote less time and energy to caring for their children. However this will have negative repercussions for those who need to be cared for, whether children, sick people or the elderly. A second solution is to reject the view that political participation (...)
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  28. From Scotland to France: From Smith's sympathy to Grouchy's sensibilité.Michel Malherbe - 2015 - In Dunyach Jean-François & Thomson Ann (eds.), The Enlightenment in Scotland: national and international perspectives. Voltaire Foundation. pp. 139-151.
    This study of Sophie de Grouchy's translation of Adam Smith's Theory of moral sentiments {Lettres sur la sympathie, 1798) asks whether the Scottish Enlightenment helped to elaborate the Revolutionary notion of fraternité. It analyses the problems Sophie de Grouchy encountered in translating Smith's notion of sympathy in the light of the criticisms she made of Smith's discussion of sympathy in the introduction to her translation, and finally comments on the only occurrence of the word fraternité to be found in the (...)
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  29. Sympathy: A History.Eric Schliesser (ed.) - 2015 - New York, US: Oxford University Press USA.
    Our modern-day word for sympathy is derived from the classical Greek word for fellow-feeling. Both in the vernacular as well as in the various specialist literatures within philosophy, psychology, neuroscience, economics, and history, "sympathy" and "empathy" are routinely conflated. In practice, they are also used to refer to a large variety of complex, all-too-familiar social phenomena: for example, simultaneous yawning or the giggles. Moreover, sympathy is invoked to address problems associated with social dislocation and political conflict. It is, then, turned (...)
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  30. Sympathie morale et tragédie sociale : Sophie de Grouchy lectrice d’Adam Smith.Spiros Tegos - 2013 - Noesis 21:265-292.
    Sophie de Grouchy, marquise de Condorcet, réinterprète la doctrine de la sympathie propre à la tradition moraliste écossaise dans le sens d’une réévaluation de ses origines physiologiques, ce qui affecte profondément ses dimensions morales et sociales. Dans le cadre d’un rousseauisme compassionnel, elle transforme Adam Smith en un républicain sentimentaliste modéré, précurseur des Idéologues. Elle s’emploie pour cela à montrer que la déférence envers le pouvoir établi, surtout la royauté, érigée par Adam Smith en servilité quasi fétichiste envers les puissants (...)
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  31. Inequality and political stability from Ancien Régime to revolution: The reception of Adam Smith's Theory of Moral Sentiments in France.Ruth Scurr - 2009 - History of European Ideas 35 (4):441-449.
    This article examines the excitement that Adam Smith's Theory of Moral Sentiments generated in France during the French Revolution, focusing particularly on the writings of political theorists, participants and commentators such as the abbé Sieyès, Pierre-Louis Rœderer, the Marquis de Condorcet and Sophie de Grouchy Condorcet, who were dismayed at their political opponents’ use of Rousseau, and looked to Smith for an understanding of the passions that was compatible with democratic sovereignty and representative government. In the political context of the (...)
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  32. Cultivating Sympathy: Sophie Condorcet's Letters on Sympathy.Evelyn L. Forget - 2001 - European Journal of the History of Economic Thought 23 (3):319-337.
    In 1798, Sophie de Grouchy, the marquise de Condorcet, published a translation of the seventh edition of Adam Smith's Theory of Moral Sentiments (1792), along with a series of eight “letters” on the subject of sympathy. These letters are, in fact, substantial essays that allow us to discern how she read Smith. Intellectual historians have a tendency to privilege an author's intent, and to read the Theory of Moral Sentiments in order to determine what Smith actually meant, and how meaning (...)
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  33. Sophie Grouchy de Condorcet on Moral Sympathy and Social Progress.Karin Brown - 1997 - Dissertation, City University of New York
    Sophie Grouchy de Condorcet translated Adam Smith's Theory of Moral Sentiments into French and added eight letters on the subject of moral sympathy which she attached to the second volume of her translation. The translation and letters were published in Paris in 1798. The letters contain criticism of Smith as well as Mme Condorcet's own views of moral and political philosophy. ;In order to present Mme Condorcet's originality in comparison to her contemporaries, after a general introduction in Chapter One, I (...)
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