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Summary This section is concerned mainly with the physics and metaphysics of spacetime, space, and time. Metaphysics of spacetime and special relativity has further respective leaf sections. These leaf sections, as you can tell, are oriented towards current topics and sub-topics - for instance, Special Relativity has Simultaneity and Twin Paradox. Further, there are sub-sections for other categories as well. General Relativity, physics of time, etc. Please note that each category and sub-category has a miscellaneous (misc) sub-category as well. 
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  1. What Is the Spatiotemporal Extension of the Universe? Underdetermination According to Kant’s First Antinomy and in Present-Day Cosmology.Claus Beisbart - 2022 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 12 (1):286-307.
  2. Chapter 8 On the ‘Spiritual Automaton’, Space and Time in Modern Cinema According to Gilles Deleuze.Réda Bensmaïa - 2005 - In Ian Buchanan & Gregg Lambert (eds.), Deleuze and Space. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 144-158.
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  3. Physics and Metaphysics: Theories of Space and Time.Jennifer Trusted - 1991 - Routledge.
    He emergence of modern science is a history of disentanglement, as science detached itself first from religion and then from philosophy. Jennifer Trusted in Physics and Metaphysics argues that science -- in its haste to tear itself from its historical links -- has neglected the various roles religious and philosophical ideas have actually played and continue to play in scientific thinking. This book seeks to redress the balance by exploring how metaphysical beliefs have functioned in the history of scientific inquiry (...)
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  4. Kant’s Original Space and Time as Mere Grounds for Possibilities.Thomas Raysmith - 2022 - Kantian Review 27 (1):23-42.
    In the Critique of Pure Reason Kant appears to make incompatible claims regarding the unitary natures of what he takes to be our a priori representations of space and time. I argue that these representations are unitary independently of all synthesis and explain how this avoids problems encountered by other positions regarding the Transcendental Deduction and its relation to the Transcendental Aesthetic in that work. Central is the claim that these representations contain, when characterized as intuitions and considered as prior (...)
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  5. The Epistemology of Spacetime.Neil Dewar, Niels Linnemann & James Read - 2022 - Philosophy Compass 17 (4).
    Philosophy Compass, Volume 17, Issue 4, April 2022.
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  6. Complexity in the Interdefinability of Timelike, Lightlike and Spacelike Relatedness of Minkowski Spacetime.Hajnal Andréka, Judit X. Madarász, István Németi & Gergely Székely - 2022 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 173 (5):103100.
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  7. Spacetime as a Causal Set: Universe as a Growing Block?Aristidis Arageorgis - 2016 - Belgrade Philosophical Annual 29:33-55.
    The causal set programme towards a quantum theory of gravity is situated vis-à-vis the long-standing debate between eternalism (block theory) and past-presentism or possibilism (growing block theory) in the philosophy of time. It is argued that despite 'appearances' and declarations to the contrary, the programme does not side with growing block theorists when it comes to harboring a robust notion of Becoming - at least, not more than familiar relativistic theories on continuous spacetime manifolds. The problem stems mainly from the (...)
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  8. Temporal Logic of Minkowski Spacetime.Robin Hirsch & Brett McLean - 2022 - In Ivo Düntsch & Edwin Mares (eds.), Alasdair Urquhart on Nonclassical and Algebraic Logic and Complexity of Proofs. Springer Verlag. pp. 389-409.
    We present the proof that the temporal logic of two-dimensional Minkowski spacetime is decidable, PSPACE-complete. The proof is based on a type of two-dimensional mosaic. Then, we present the modification of the proof so as to work for slower-than-light signals. Finally, a subframe of the slower-than-light Minkowski frame is used to prove the new result that the temporal logic of real intervals with during as the accessibility relation is also PSPACE-complete.
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  9. Time Travelling in Emergent Spacetime.Christian Wüthrich - 2021 - In Elena Aladova, Pablo Barceló, Johan van Benthem, Gerald Berger, Katrin M. Dannert, Neil Dewar, Răzvan Diaconescu, Ivo Düntsch, Wojciech Dzik, M. Eyad Kurd-Misto, Giambattista Formica, Michèle Friend, Robert Goldblatt, Georg Gottlob, Erich Grädel, Robin Hirsch, Ian Hodkinson, Marcel Jackson, Peter Jipsen, Roger D. Maddux, J. B. Manchak, Ewa Orłowska, Andreas Pieris, Boris Plotkin, Tatjana Plotkin, Vaughan R. Pratt, Ian Pratt-Hartmann, Tarek Sayed Ahmed, James Owen Weatherall, Dag Westerståhl, James Wimberley, Krzysztof Wójtowicz & Christian Wüthrich (eds.), Hajnal Andréka and István Németi on Unity of Science: From Computing to Relativity Theory Through Algebraic Logic. Springer Verlag. pp. 453-474.
    Most approaches to quantum gravity suggest that relativistic spacetime is not fundamental, but instead emerges from some non-spatiotemporal structure. This paper investigates the implications of this suggestion for the possibility of time travel in the sense of the existence of closed timelike curves in some relativistic spacetimes. In short, will quantum gravity reverse or strengthen general relativity’s verdict that time travel is possible?
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  10. Implication Via Spacetime.Amirhossein Akbar Tabatabai - 2021 - In Mojtaba Mojtahedi, Shahid Rahman & MohammadSaleh Zarepour (eds.), Mathematics, Logic, and Their Philosophies: Essays in Honour of Mohammad Ardeshir. Springer. pp. 161-216.
    In this paper we intend to study implications in their most general form, generalizing different classes of implications including the HeytingHeyting, A. implication, sub-structural implications and weak strict implicationsStrict implication. Following the topological interpretation of the intuitionistic logicIntuitionistic logic, we will introduce non-commutative spacetimes to provide a more dynamicDynamics and subjective interpretation of an intuitionistic proposition. These combinations of space and time are natural sources for well-behaved implications and we will show that their spatio-temporal implications represent any other reasonable abstract (...)
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  11. Smooth Infinitesimals in the Metaphysical Foundation of Spacetime Theories.Lu Chen - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-21.
    I propose a theory of space with infinitesimal regions called smooth infinitesimal geometry based on certain algebraic objects, which regiments a mode of reasoning heuristically used by geometricists and physicists. I argue that SIG has the following utilities. It provides a simple metaphysics of vector fields and tangent space that are otherwise perplexing. A tangent space can be considered an infinitesimal region of space. It generalizes a standard implementation of spacetime algebraicism called Einstein algebras. It solves the long-standing problem of (...)
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  12. 9 Temporal Knowledge Arguments and a Note on Presentism 2 17 2022.Paul Merriam - manuscript
  13. The Foundations of Spacetime Physics: Philosophical Perspectives.Antonio Vassallo (ed.) - forthcoming - Routledge.
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  14. Emergence of the Fused Spacetime From a Continuum Computing Construct of Reality.Heather A. Muir - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (2):1-28.
    Since the emergence of computing as a mode of investigation in the sciences, computational approaches have revolutionised many fields of inquiry. Recently in philosophy, the question has begun rendering bit by bit—could computation be considered a deeper fundamental building block to all of reality? This paper proposes a continuum computing construct, predicated on a set of core computational principles: computability, discretisation, stability and optimisation. The construct is applied to the set of most fundamental physical laws, in the form of non-relativistic (...)
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  15. Correction to: A Numbers‑Based Approach to a Free Particle’s Proper Spacetime.R. Ferber - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-2.
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  16. CONSCIOUS EXPERIENCE, THE NEURAL MECHANISM.Richard A. Sieb - manuscript
    The physical basis of conscious experience is revealed by direct observation and analysis of any conscious experience. Human conscious experience has an invariant structural mode of organization based on the three types of space-time intervals (light-like, time-like, space-like). Sensory input activates the autonomic nervous system, endocrine system, and ascending reticular activating system to produce the awake conscious state. The dorsal and ventral frontoparietal attention networks are activated. Dorsal and ventral cortical functional streams carry “what”, “where”, and “when” information to the (...)
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  17. Émilie Du Châtelet on Space and Time.Andrea Reichenberger - 2021 - Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 2021 (2): 331-355.
    Émilie Du Châtelet’s Foundations of Physics (Institutions de physique, 1740/42) has recently been attracting increasing interest from analytical philosophy in the anglophone world. Du Châtelet’s conception of space and time constitutes a controversial issue. I argue that the current debate underestimates the modal approach and epistemological turn in Du Châtelet’s view on space and time. A historical perspective on Abraham Gotthelf Kästner’s criticism and Jean Henry Samuel Formey’s plagiarism of Du Châtelet underlines the significance of this turning point. Against this (...)
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  18. Cleisthenes the Athenian: An Essay on the Representation of Space and Time in Greek Political Thought From the End of the Sixth Century to the Death of Plato.Vidal Naquet - 1996 - Humanities Press.
    Two thousand five hundred years ago, in 507–506 B.C.E., the institutions of Athen were rocked by the reforms of Cleisthenes. Although the word did not yet exist, here was the foundation of democracy. First published in French in 1964, Cleisthenes the Athenian has become the classic study of the philosophical, political, and aesthetic background and significance of these reforms. The book has influenced a generation of scholars in anthropology, sociology, urban planning, political science, philosophy, and classical studies. This English translation (...)
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  19. No Time for Time From No-Time.Eugene Y. S. Chua & Craig Callender - 2021 - Philosophy of Science 88 (5):1172-1184.
    Programs in quantum gravity often claim that time emerges from fundamentally timeless physics. In the semiclassical time program time arises only after approximations are taken. Here we ask what justifies taking these approximations and show that time seems to sneak in when answering this question. This raises the worry that the approach is either unjustified or circular in deriving time from no–time.
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  20. Spacetime Functionalism From a Realist Perspective.Vincent Lam & Christian Wüthrich - 2020 - Synthese 199 (S2):335-353.
    In prior work, we have argued that spacetime functionalism provides tools for clarifying the conceptual difficulties specifically linked to the emergence of spacetime in certain approaches to quantum gravity. We argue in this article that spacetime functionalism in quantum gravity is radically different from other functionalist approaches that have been suggested in quantum mechanics and general relativity: in contrast to these latter cases, it does not compete with purely interpretative alternatives, but is rather intertwined with the physical theorizing itself at (...)
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  21. Knox’s Inertial Spacetime Functionalism.David John Baker - 2020 - Synthese 199 (S2):277-298.
    Eleanor Knox has argued that our concept of spacetime applies to whichever structure plays a certain functional role in the laws. I raise two objections to this inertial functionalism. First, it depends on a prior assumption about which coordinate systems defined in a theory are reference frames, and hence on assumptions about which geometric structures are spatiotemporal. This makes Knox’s account circular. Second, her account is vulnerable to several counterexamples, giving the wrong result when applied to topological quantum field theories (...)
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  22. The Limitations of Inertial Frame Spacetime Functionalism.James Read & Tushar Menon - 2019 - Synthese 199 (S2):229-251.
    For Knox, ‘spacetime’ is to be defined functionally, as that which picks out a structure of local inertial frames. Assuming that Knox is motivated to construct this functional definition of spacetime on the grounds that it appears to identify that structure which plays the operational role of spacetime—i.e., that structure which is actually surveyed by physical rods and clocks built from matter fields—we identify in this paper important limitations of her approach: these limitations are based upon the fact that there (...)
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  23. Discrete Space and Measuring Absolute Motion (2.0).Sydney Ernest Grimm - manuscript
    The ancient Greek philosopher Parmenides reasoned that observable reality is created by an underlying reality. However, an invisible underlying creating reality suggests that we cannot determine its existence with the help of experimental physics. This paper describes an experiment to measure absolute motion that will show that Parmenides concept about an underlying reality is correct. This in spite of Albert Einstein’s theory of special relativity that is founded on the assumption that it is impossible to detect the absolute motion of (...)
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  24. The Moment of Change: A Systematic History in the Philosophy of Space and Time.Nico Strobach - 1998 - Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer.
    This book is a systematic history of one of the oldest problems in the philosophy of space and time: How is the change from one state to its opposite to be described? To my knowledge it is the first comprehensive book providing information about and analysis of texts on this topic throughout the ages. The target audience I envisaged are advanced students and scholars of analytic philosophy and the history of philosophy who are interested in the philosophy of space and (...)
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  25. Laws Beyond Spacetime.Vincent Lam & Christian Wuthrich - unknown
    Quantum gravity's suggestion that spacetime may be emergent and so only exist contingently would force a radical reconception of extant analyses of laws of nature. Humeanism presupposes a spatiotemporal mosaic of particular matters of fact on which laws supervene; primitivism and dispositionalism conceive of the action of primitive laws or of dispositions as a process of 'nomic production' unfolding over time. We show how the Humean supervenience basis of non-modal facts and primitivist or dispositionalist accounts of nomic production can be (...)
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  26. Spacetime: Function and Approximation.Sam Baron - 2022 - Synthese 200 (2).
    Several approaches to quantum gravity signal the loss of spacetime at some level. According to spacetime functionalism, spacetime is functionally realised by a more fundamental structure. According to one version of spacetime functionalism, the spacetime role is specified by Ramsifying general relativity. In some approaches to QG, however, there does not appear to be anything that exactly realises the functional role defined by a Ramsey sentence for GR. The spacetime role is approximately realised. It is open to the spacetime functionalist (...)
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  27. Essays on the Metaphysics of Quantum Mechanics.Eddy Keming Chen - 2019 - Dissertation, Rutgers University, New Brunswick
    What is the proper metaphysics of quantum mechanics? In this dissertation, I approach the question from three different but related angles. First, I suggest that the quantum state can be understood intrinsically as relations holding among regions in ordinary space-time, from which we can recover the wave function uniquely up to an equivalence class (by representation and uniqueness theorems). The intrinsic account eliminates certain conventional elements (e.g. overall phase) in the representation of the quantum state. It also dispenses with first-order (...)
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  28. The Dirac Large Number Hypothesis and a System of Evolving Fundamental Constants.Andrew Holster - manuscript
    In his [1937, 1938], Paul Dirac proposed his “Large Number Hypothesis” (LNH), as a speculative law, based upon what we will call the “Large Number Coincidences” (LNC’s), which are essentially “coincidences” in the ratios of about six large dimensionless numbers in physics. Dirac’s LNH postulates that these numerical coincidences reflect a deeper set of law-like relations, pointing to a revolutionary theory of cosmology. This led to substantial work, including the development of Dirac’s later [1969/74] cosmology, and other alternative cosmologies, such (...)
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  29. A Numbers-Based Approach to a Free Particle’s Proper Spacetime.R. Ferber - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (5):1-21.
    This paper contains a proposal for a free, nonzero-rest-mass particle’s proper spacetime, determined exclusively by the particle’s rest mass \ and numbers. The approach defines proper time as de Broglie time, which is isomorphic to a sequence of natural numbers \ that count de Broglie time units \\). The approach is based on defining the spatial coordinate as proper following the constructive definition of positive and negative integers as all possible differences of ordered pairs of natural numbers multiplied by the (...)
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  30. Spacetime Path Integrals for Entangled States.Ken Wharton & Narayani Tyagi - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-23.
    Although the path-integral formalism is known to be equivalent to conventional quantum mechanics, it is not generally obvious how to implement path-based calculations for multi-qubit entangled states. Whether one takes the formal view of entangled states as entities in a high-dimensional Hilbert space, or the intuitive view of these states as a connection between distant spatial configurations, it may not even be obvious that a path-based calculation can be achieved using only paths in ordinary space and time. Previous work has (...)
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  31. Infinite Sets: The Appearance of an Infinite Set Depends on the Perspective of the Observer.Roger Granet - manuscript
    Given an infinite set of finite-sized spheres extending in all directions forever, a finite-sized (relative to the spheres inside the set) observer within the set would view the set as a space composed of discrete, finite-sized objects. A hypothetical infinite-sized (relative to the spheres inside the set) observer would view the set as a continuous space and would see no distinct elements within the set. Using this analogy, the mathematics of infinities, such as the assignment of a cardinality to a (...)
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  32. On the Foundation of Space and Time by Quantum-Events.Andreas Schlatter - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-17.
    The true nature of space and time has been a topic of natural philosophy, passed down since the presocratic era. In modern times reflection has particularly been inspired by the physical theories of Newton and Einstein and, more recently, by the quest for a theory of quantum gravity. In this paper we want to specify the idea that material systems and their spatio-temporal distances emerge from quantum-events. We will show a mechanism, by which quantum-events induce a metric field between material (...)
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  33. Missing Entities: Has Panpsychism Lost the Physical World?Damian Aleksiev - 2021 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 28 (9-10):194-211.
    Panpsychists aspire to explain human consciousness, but can they also account for the physical world? In this paper, I argue that proponents of a popular form of panpsychism cannot. I pose a new challenge against this form of panpsychism: it faces an explanatory gap between the fundamental experiences it posits and some physical entities. I call the problem of explaining the existence of these physical entities within the panpsychist framework “the missing entities problem.” Spacetime, the quantum state, and quantum gravitational (...)
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  34. Information Space and Time and its Social Dominants.Rail Robertovich Gazizov - 2021 - Kant 38 (1):94-98.
    Information space and time in their socio-cultural dimension act as knowledge components of being, and, consequently, the most important regulator of social relations. At the same time, the social and cultural dominants of the information space and time are determined by the creative activity of a person. In principle, a person is always focused on knowledge, where its elements interact in a comprehensive way, and not on information, in which there is a separation of its elements from the spiritually observed (...)
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  35. Governing Without A Fundamental Direction of Time: Minimal Primitivism About Laws of Nature.Eddy Keming Chen & Sheldon Goldstein - forthcoming - In Yemima Ben-Menahem (ed.), Rethinking Laws of Nature. Springer.
    The Great Divide in metaphysical debates about laws of nature is between Humeans, who think that laws merely describe the distribution of matter, and non-Humeans, who think that laws govern it. The metaphysics can place demands on the proper formulations of physical theories. It is sometimes assumed that the governing view requires a fundamental / intrinsic direction of time: to govern, laws must be dynamical, producing later states of the world from earlier ones, in accord with the fundamental direction of (...)
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  36. Everettian Formulation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics.Yu Feng - manuscript
    The second law of thermodynamics is traditionally interpreted as a coarse-grained result of classical mechanics. Recently its relation with quantum mechanical processes such as decoherence and measurement has been revealed in literature. In this paper we will formulate the second law and the associated time irreversibility following Everett’s idea: systems entangled with an object getting to know the branch in which they live. Accounting for this self-locating knowledge, we get two forms of entropy: objective entropy measuring the uncertainty of the (...)
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  37. Explaining Relativity. Summary of TAU. A Unified Theory.Andrew Thomas Holster -
    This is a summary presentation of TAU, a theory proposed to explain relativity and unify physics. It is a radical change, because it proposes six dimensions of space, instead of the usual three (normal physics) or nine (string theory). It starts with an alternative foundation for Special Relativity, and leads to a unified theory of physics. It is a realist theory because it is realist about space and time. The TAU concept is briefly introduced here, and its results explained in (...)
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  38. God and Spacetime.Paul Studtmann - manuscript
    In The Divine Fractal, Studtmann (2021) introduced a novel conception of God, what he calls the symmetry conception, and showed that such a conception not only can be formalized within extensional non-well-founded set theory but also entails the Thomistic view that God is identical to her essence. In this paper, I show that Studtmann’s symmetry conception of God can be integrated into a recent approach to quantum gravity, namely causal set theory. The theory that results has two significant consequences. First, (...)
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  39. SNAPVis and SPANVis: Ontologies for Recognizing Variable Vista Spatial Environments.Tiansi Dong - 2004 - In International Conference on Spatial Cognition. Springer. pp. 344-365.
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  40. The Limitations of Intertial Frame Spacetime Functionalism.Tushar Menon & James Read - 2019 - Synthese 1 (Suppl 2):229-251.
    For Knox, ‘spacetime’ is to be defined functionally, as that which picks out a structure of local inertial frames. Assuming that Knox is motivated to construct this functional definition of spacetime on the grounds that it appears to identify that structure which plays the operational role of spacetime—i.e., that structure which is actually surveyed by physical rods and clocks built from matter fields—we identify in this paper important limitations of her approach: these limitations are based upon the fact that there (...)
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  41. Making the Case for Causal Dynamical Triangulations.Joshua H. Cooperman - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 50 (11):1739-1755.
    The aim of the causal dynamical triangulations approach is to define nonperturbatively a quantum theory of gravity as the continuum limit of a lattice-regularized model of dynamical geometry. My aim in this paper is to give a concise yet comprehensive, impartial yet personal presentation of the causal dynamical triangulations approach.
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  42. A Space Odyssey: The Political Philosophy of De-Spatialization.Britton Watson - manuscript
    I explore the political, economic, and cultural consequences of globalization of the reduction of space in the world. This work compares and contrasts the philosophical implications Jameson (and Marx) and Sloterdijk (with Heidegger) of globalization. The film 2001: A Space Odyssey is discussed as a metaphor for the cultural narratives Jameson and Sloterdijk provide.
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  43. From Quantum Entanglement to Spatiotemporal Distance.Alyssa Ney - forthcoming - In Christian Wüthrich, Baptiste Le Bihan & Nick Huggett (eds.), Philosophy Beyond Spacetime. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Within the field of quantum gravity, there is an influential research program developing the connection between quantum entanglement and spatiotemporal distance. Quantum information theory gives us highly refined tools for quantifying quantum entanglement such as the entanglement entropy. Through a series of well-confirmed results, it has been shown how these facts about the entanglement entropy of component systems may be connected to facts about spatiotemporal distance. Physicists are seeing these results as yielding promising methods for better understanding the emergence of (...)
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  44. Rationality Beyond 'Space-Time'.Samhita K. - manuscript
    This opinion revolves around the discussion of matters that are beyond the realm of space-time. For instance, it discusses parallel universes, wormholes, and extrasensory perception or psi. Rationality is operationally defined. The opinion throws light on the manner in which the lines of rationality become unclear when it takes into consideration extrasensory phenomena. In addition, it contends that psychiatric disorders such as Schizophrenia are the result of contact from different parallel universes. Hence, Schizophrenia according to this paper is not a (...)
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  45. Life, the Universe and Consciousness: An Introduction to the Theory of Universal Life.A. T. Bollands - 2020 - Oxford, UK: Bollands Publishing.
    We live in a world full of mysteries. How do our brains create consciousness? Which animals are conscious, and which are not? How can we have free-will in a deterministic universe? What are the fundamental Laws of Nature? What caused the Big Bang? How can we make sense of Quantum Mechanics? Why is the universe so finely-tuned for Life? And how did Life begin? Despite investigating such mysteries for decades or more, scientists and philosophers are no closer to finding clear (...)
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  46. Raum and ‘Room’: Comments on Anton Marty on Space Perception.Clare Mac Cumhaill - 2019 - In Giuliano Bacigalupo & Hélène Leblanc (eds.), Anton Marty and Contemporary Philosophy. Palgrave. pp. 121-152.
    I consider the first part of Marty’s Raum und Zeit, which treats of both the nature of space and spatial perception. I begin by sketching two charges that Marty raises against Kantian and Brentanian conceptions of space (and spatial perception) respectively, before detailing what I take to be a characteristically Martyan picture of space perception, though set against the backdrop of contemporary philosophy of perception. Marty has it that spatial relations are non-real but existent, causally inert relations that are grounded (...)
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  47. Non-Locality in the AB-Time Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    Non-locality is one of the great mysteries of quantum mechanics (qm). There is a new realist interpretation of qm on the table whose notion of time incorporates both of McTaggart's A-series and B-series. In this philosophically motivated interpretation there is no fact of the matter as to whether the 'now' of one system is the 'now' of another system, until measurement. But this reproduces the idea that the spins of a Bell pair of electrons do not become definite 'until' measurement. (...)
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  48. Where, Not When, Did the Cosmos ‘Begin’?Nathan Eric Dickman - 2020 - Sophia (1):67-81.
    I examine a tension between temporal and spatial conceptualization of the genesis of the cosmos to show how chronological characterization of ‘beginnings’ occludes ontological interpretation of our existential orientations, to help my audience distinguish symbolic expressions of wonder that the cosmos exists from explanations for it. I bring together resources from multiple intellectual and religious traditions to perform a philosophy of religions that goes beyond the narrowness, intellectualism, and insularity of institutionalized philosophy of religion. I turn to Ibn Rushd, Tillich, (...)
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  49. Dimensionality, Symmetry, and the Inverse Square Law (with Rex Ramsier), April 2020 (E-Print).Dimitria Gatzia - 2020 - Notes and Records: Royal Society Journal of the History of Science 75 (3):333-348.
    Kant suggested that Newton’s Inverse Square Law (ISL) determines the dimensions of space to be three. Much has been written in the philosophical literature about Kant’s suggestion, including specific arguments attempting to link the ISL to three-dimensionality. In this paper, we explore one such argument and demonstrate that it fails to support the link Kant purports to make between the ISL and the three-dimensionality of space. At best, the link that can be made is between the ISL and symmetry.
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  50. Space-Time Intervals Underlie Human Conscious Experience, Gravity, and Everything.Richard Sieb - 2019 - Neuroquantology 17 (5):87-89.
    This short commentary discusses the importance of space-time intervals in scientific study. Space-time intervals underlie special relativity, general relativity, and quantum field theory. In doing so, space-time intervals underlie human conscious experience, gravity, and a theory of everything. Space-time intervals also explain many puzzling scientific phenomena: quantum phenomena, dark matter, dark energy, the origin and evolution of the universe, and the life force. The importance of space-time intervals cannot be overestimated. Two articles published in Neuroquantology explain how all this was (...)
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