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  1. added 2020-04-14
    When Code Words Aren't Coded. O.' & Patrick Donnell - forthcoming - Social Theory and Practice.
    According to the standard framing of racial appeals in political speech, politicians generally rely on coded language to communicate racial messages. Yet recent years have demonstrated that politicians often express quite explicit forms of racism in mainstream political discourse. The standard framing can explain neither why these appeals work politically nor how they work semantically. This paper moves beyond the standard framing, focusing on the politics and semantics of one type of explicit appeal, candid racial communication (CRC). The linguistic vehicles (...)
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  2. added 2020-01-17
    H. Paul Grice.Stephen Lester Thompson - 2003 - In Phillip Dematteis & Leemon McHenry (eds.), American Philosophers, 1950-2000. Detroit, MI, USA: pp. 71-80.
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  3. added 2020-01-07
    Hyperbolic Figures.Mihaela Popa-Wyatt - unknown
    It’s natural for hyperbole to mix with metaphor and irony, and other figures of speech. How do they mix together and what kind of compound, if any, arises out of the mixing? In tackling this question, I shall argue that thinking of hyperbolic figures along the lines familiar from ironic metaphor compounds is a temptation we should resist. Looking in particular at hyperbolic metaphor and hyperbolic irony, I argue, they don’t yield a new encompassing compound figure with one figure building (...)
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  4. added 2019-10-09
    Українське усне мовлення сучасної молоді України та зарубіжжя: нестійкі норми вимови.Maria Druzhynets - 2017 - Language: Classic – Modern – Postmodern 3:219-227.
    Статтю присвячено українському усному мовленню на синхронному рівні, зокрема ви-мовним особливостям української мови. На основі соцопитування зроблено спробу виявлення, аналізу та опису девіацій, що виникають у результаті порушення нестійких норм орфоепії, зокрема вимови шиплячих перед свистячим і навпаки, а також передньоязикового [д] перед ними залежно від сфери діяльності респондентів, країни проживання (Україна, Канада, Молдова, Придністровська Молдавська Республіка). Виокремлено стійкі та слабкі норми вимови, вказано важливі вимовні проблеми та їх органічність, що засвідчена історією.
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  5. added 2019-10-09
    Нобелівська лекція як віддзеркалення світогляду лауреата.Larysa Pavlenko - 2017 - Language: Classic – Modern – Postmodern 3:104-111.
    Статтю присвячено дослідженню змістової складової такого специфічного мовленнєвого жанру як Нобелівська лекція. Увагу зосереджено на проблемно-тематичних характеристиках англомовних лекцій, які були прочитані лауреатами в галузі літератури. Проаналізовано чинники, що впливають на зміст лекції. Встановлено взаємозв’язок між темою доповіді та офіційним обґрунтуванням нагороди членами Шведської академії.
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  6. added 2019-10-09
    The Grammatical Category of Time as a Means of the Expression of Temporal Deixis in Belarusian and English in the Comparative Aspect.Volha Artsiomava - 2017 - Language: Classic – Modern – Postmodern 3:259-266.
    The article analyzes the grammatical category of time as a means of actualizing temporal deixis in Belarusian and English in the typological aspect. Traditionally, the reference point of temporal deixis is the moment of speech. Nevertheless, it is important to take into account both the speaker and the observer. The purpose of the research is to carry out the comparative analysis of the grammatical category of time in Belarusian and English in terms of the speaker and the observer, as well (...)
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  7. added 2019-10-09
    Конструкції з предикативними формами на -но, -то в сучасному адміністративно-канцелярському підстилі.Olena Lavrinets - 2017 - Language: Classic – Modern – Postmodern 3:191-201.
    У статті з’ясовано статус конструкцій із предикативними формами на но, то в парадигмі пасиву, їхні структурні особливості, специфіку функціонування та співвідношення з іншими типами пасивних конструкцій в адміністративно-канцелярському підстилі сучасної української мови.
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  8. added 2019-09-27
    What Determines the Reference of Names? What Determines the Objects of Thought.Jessica Pepp - 2019 - Erkenntnis 84 (4):741-759.
    It is fairly widely accepted that Saul Kripke, Keith Donnellan, and others showed in the 1960s–1980s that proper names, in particular uses by speakers, can refer to things free of anything like the epistemic requirements posited by Gottlob Frege and Bertrand Russell. This paper separates two aspects of the Frege–Russell view of name reference: the metaphysical thesis that names in particular uses refer to things in virtue of speakers thinking of those things and the epistemic thesis that thinking of things (...)
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  9. added 2019-09-25
    Стратегії, тактики та прийоми мовленнєвої діяльності як компонент моделювання дискурс-портрета мовної особистості.Svitlana Kuranova - 2018 - Language: Classic – Modern – Postmodern 4:33-47.
    У статті розглянуто стратегії, тактики та прийоми, які використовує мовна особистість. Дослідження їх є одним з етапів моделювання дискурс-портрета мовної особистості, що узагальнює дані стосовно прагматичної, семантичної, сигматичної та синтактичної координат розгортання дискурсу. На прикладі аналізу есе О. Забужко «Ціна ВінніПуха» продемонстровано процедуру дослідження стратегій, тактик та прийомів мовленнєвої діяльності. Визначено лінійні та ієрархічні стратегії, тактики та прийоми на рівні кожної з координат.
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  10. added 2019-08-07
    Reference As Action - Space and Time in Later Wittgenstein.Enakshi Mitra - 2019 - Shimla, India: Indian Institute of Advanced Studies.
    This work projects the later Wittgenstein as dissolving the unwanted cleavage between reference and description through a uniquely original route that also outgrows the traditional dichotomy between the descriptive and non-descriptive theories of reference. Following a nuanced track of arguments, the author argues that the supposed primacy of reference vis-à-vis the optional and indeterminate character of description (or meaning) virtually feeds on a containment model of space and time. Objects or referents lie smugly encased in neat space-time boundaries that serve (...)
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  11. added 2019-06-09
    Aristotle Against (Unqualified) Self-Motion: Physics VII 1 Α241b35-242a49 / Β241b25-242a15.Daniel Coren - forthcoming - Ancient Philosophy.
    It is well known that Aristotle tries to make room for self-motion – an idea he inherits to some extent from Plato – within his other commitments to causal determinism while at the same time modifying the idea. However, one argument in Physics VII 1 seems to pose a problem for the bare possibility of self-motion; in it he seems to argue that everything that moves must be moved by something else. The text in which this argument appears is itself (...)
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  12. added 2019-06-05
    Embedding Irony and the Semantics/Pragmatics Distinction.Mihaela Popa-Wyatt - 2019 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 62 (6):674-699.
    This paper argues that we need to re-think the semantics/pragmatics distinction in the light of new evidence from embedding of irony. This raises a new version of the old problem of ‘embedded implicatures’. I argue that embedded irony isn’t fully explained by solutions proposed for other embedded implicatures. I first consider two strategies: weak pragmatics and strong pragmatics. These explain embedded irony as truth-conditional content. However, by trying to shoehorn irony into said-content, they raise problems of their own. I conclude (...)
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  13. added 2019-05-05
    Gorsuch and Originalism: Some Lessons From Logic, Scripture, and Art.Harold Anthony Lloyd - manuscript
    Neil Gorsuch lauds judges who purport to “apply the law as it is, focusing backward, not forward, and looking to text, structure, and history to decide what a reasonable reader at the time of the events in question would have understood the law to be . . . .” It’s hard to see how such a form of Originalism withstands scrutiny. -/- First, using “reasonable reader” understandings rather than speaker meaning turns language and law on their heads. Audiences effectively become (...)
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  14. added 2019-05-05
    Speaker Meaning and the Interpretation and Construction of Executive Orders.Harold Anthony Lloyd - 2018 - Wake Forest Journal of Law and Policy 8 (2):319-361.
    This Article explores the interpretation and construction of executive orders using as examples President Trump’s two executive orders captioned “Protecting the Nation From Foreign Terrorist Entry Into the United States” (the “Two Executive Orders”). -/- President Trump issued the Two Executive Orders in the context of (among other things) Candidate Trump’s statements such as: “Islam hates us,” and “[W]e can’t allow people coming into this country who have this hatred.” President Trump subsequently provided further context including his tweet about the (...)
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  15. added 2019-04-12
    Meaning, Expression and Extremely Strong Evidence: A Reinforced Critique of Davis' Account of Speaker Meaning.Dan Zeman - 2014 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 3 (3):218-224.
    This short paper follows up on the exchange between Ray Buchanan and Wayne Davis concerning the theory of speaker meaning put forward by Davis in previous work. I briefly present Davis' main tenets, Buchanan's objections, Davis' replies, and then offer a new case that enforces the problem raised by Buchanan to Davis' theory for speaker meaning.
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  16. added 2019-03-22
    Speaker’s Reference, Semantic Reference, and Intuition.Richard Heck - 2018 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 9 (2):251-269.
    Some years ago, Machery, Mallon, Nichols, and Stich reported the results of experiments that reveal, they claim, cross-cultural differences in speaker’s ‘intuitions’ about Kripke’s famous Gödel–Schmidt case. Several authors have suggested, however, that the question they asked their subjects is ambiguous between speaker’s reference and semantic reference. Machery and colleagues have since made a number of replies. It is argued here that these are ineffective. The larger lesson, however, concerns the role that first-order philosophy should, and more importantly should not, (...)
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  17. added 2019-02-06
    Semantic Verbs Are Intensional Transitives.Justin D’Ambrosio - 2019 - Mind 128 (509):213-248.
    In this paper I show that we have strong empirical and theoretical reasons to treat the verbs we use in our semantic theorizing—particularly ‘refers to ’, ‘applies to ’, and ‘is true of ’—as intensional transitive verbs. Stating our semantic theories with intensional vocabulary allows us to partially reconcile two competing approaches to the nature and subject-matter of semantics: the Chomskian approach, on which semantics is non-relational, internalistic, and concerns the psychology of language users, and the Lewisian approach, on which (...)
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  18. added 2018-09-25
    Representation Without Thought: Confusion, Reference, and Communication.Elmar Unnsteinsson - 2015 - Dissertation, CUNY Graduate Center
    I develop and argue for a novel theory of the mental state of identity confusion. I also argue that this mental state can corrupt the proper function of singular terms in linguistic communication. Finally, I propose a theory according to which identity confusion should be treated as a the source of a new sort of linguistic performance error, similar to malapropism, slips of the tongue, and so-called intentional obfuscation (inducing false belief by manipulating language in specific ways). -/- Going into (...)
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  19. added 2018-08-17
    Silencing Without Convention.Elmar Unnsteinsson - 2019 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 100 (2):573-598.
    Silencing is usually explained in terms of conventionalism about the nature of speech acts. More recently, theorists have tried to develop intentionalist theories of the phenomenon. I argue, however, that if intentionalists are to accommodate the conventionalists' main insight, namely that silencing can be so extreme as to render certain types of speech act completely unavailable to victims, they must take two assumptions on board. First, it must be possible that speakers' communicative intentions are opaque to the speakers themselves. Secondly, (...)
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  20. added 2018-08-14
    Semantics of Indexicals and Indirect (Reported) Speech سيمانطيقا المؤشرات اللفظية والكلام غير المباشر.Salah Osman - 2001 - Menoufia University, Faculty of Arts Journal, Egypt 46:127 - 166.
    يناقش البحث إحدى روافد مشكلة المعنى، أو بالأحرى لإحدى مشكلاتها الفرعية التي ألقت بظلالها على معالجات الفلاسفة، لا لطبيعة المعنى فحسب، ولكن أيضًا لشروط صدق أية جملة في اللغات الطبيعية، وما يتبع ذلك من إشكالات تتعلق باستخدام اللغة في كافة مواقفنا الحياتية تقريبًا. تلك هي مشكلة المؤشرات اللفظية ذات الدلالة المباشرة، وكيف يمكن أن تؤدى إلى تعيينٍ صحيح للمعنى حين تُنقل عن ألسنة الغير لتتحــول إلــى منطوقات غير مباشرة.
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  21. added 2018-07-24
    Moral Twin Earth, Reference and Disagreements.Heimir Geirsson - 2018 - In Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy, Volume 53. pp. 53-57.
    Terence Horgan and Mark Timmons have written a number of articles where they use their Moral Twin Earth thought experiment to attack the new moral realism. The new moral realism is based on advances made in the philosophy of language that allows us to introduce synthetic definitions of moral terms. The Moral Twin Earth thought experiment relies in crucial ways on the use of intuitions. Specifically, it relies on the intuitions that were Earthers and Twin Earthers to meet, they would (...)
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  22. added 2018-03-02
    Mind the Gap: Expressing Affect with Hyperbole and Hyperbolic Compounds.Mihaela Popa-Wyatt - forthcoming - John Benjamins.
    Hyperbole is traditionally understood as exaggeration. Instead, in this paper, we shall define it not just in terms of its form, but in terms of its effects and its purpose. Specifically, we characterize its form as a shift of magnitude along a scale of measurement. In terms of its effect, it uses this magnitude shift to make the target property more salient. The purpose of hyperbole is to express with colour and force that the target property is either greater or (...)
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  23. added 2018-02-16
    Pragmatics.Francois Recanati - 1998 - In Manuel García-Carpintero & Max Kölbel (eds.), The Continuum Companion to the Philosophy of Language. Continuum International. pp. 620-633.
    An abridged and slightly updated version of "Pragmatics", in Edward Craig (ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Routledge 620-633 (1998).
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  24. added 2018-02-07
    The Edenic Theory of Reference.Elmar Unnsteinsson - 2019 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 62 (3):276-308.
    I argue for a theory of the optimal function of the speech act of referring, called the edenic theory. First, the act of singular reference is defined directly in terms of Gricean communicative intentions. Second, I propose a doxastic constraint on the optimal performance of such acts, stating, roughly, that the speaker must not have any relevant false beliefs about the identity or distinctness of the intended object. In uttering a singular term on an occasion, on this theory, one represents (...)
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  25. added 2018-02-07
    Referential Intentions: A Response to Buchanan and Peet.Elmar Unnsteinsson - 2018 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 96 (3):610-615.
    Buchanan (2014) argues for a Gricean solution to well-known counterexamples to direct reference theories of content. Peet (2016) develops a way to change the counterexample so that it seems to speak against Buchanan’s own proposal. I argue that both theorists fail to notice a significant distinction between the kinds of cases at issue. Those appearing to count against direct reference theory must be described such that speakers have false beliefs about the identity of the object to which they intend to (...)
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  26. added 2017-07-06
    Fictional Realism and Negative Existentials.Tatjana von Solodkoff - 2014 - In Manuel García-Carpintero & Genoveva Martí (eds.), Empty Representations: Reference and Non-Existence. Oxford University Press. pp. 333-352.
    In this paper I confront what I take to be the crucial challenge for fictional realism, i.e. the view that fictional characters exist. This is the problem of accounting for the intuition that corresponding negative existentials such as ‘Sherlock Holmes does not exist’ are true (when, given fictional realism, taken literally they seem false). I advance a novel and detailed form of the response according to which we take them to mean variants of such claims as: there is no concrete (...)
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  27. added 2017-04-21
    Why Judicial Formalism is Incompatible with the Rule of Law.Matczak Marcin - manuscript
  28. added 2017-02-13
    Coordinating with Language.Jessica Keiser - 2016 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 16 (2):229-245.
    Linguistic meaning is determined by use. But given the fact that any given expression can be used in a variety of ways, this claim marks where metasemantic inquiry begins rather than where it ends. It sets an agenda for the metasemantic project: to distinguish in a principled and explanatory way those uses that determine linguistic meaning from those that do not. The prevailing view (along with its various refi nements), which privileges assertion, suffers from being at once overly liberal and (...)
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  29. added 2017-02-01
    On Telling and Trusting.Paul Faulkner - 2007 - Mind 116 (464):875-902.
    A key debate in the epistemology of testimony concerns when it is reasonable to acquire belief through accepting what a speaker says. This debate has been largely understood as the debate over how much, or little, assessment and monitoring an audience must engage in. When it is understood in this way the debate simply ignores the relationship speaker and audience can have. Interlocutors rarely adopt the detached approach to communication implied by talk of assessment and monitoring. Audiences trust speakers to (...)
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  30. added 2017-02-01
    Speaker Meaning, What is Said, and What is Implicated.Jennifer M. Saul - 2002 - Noûs 36 (2):228–248.
    [First Paragraph] Unlike so many other distinctions in philosophy, H P Grice's distinction between what is said and what is implicated has an immediate appeal: undergraduate students readily grasp that one who says 'someone shot my parents' has merely implicated rather than said that he was not the shooter [2]. It seems to capture things that we all really pay attention to in everyday conversation'this is why there are so many people whose entire sense of humour consists of deliberately ignoring (...)
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  31. added 2017-02-01
    Cogitative and Cognitive Speaker Meaning.Wayne A. Davis - 1992 - Philosophical Studies 67 (1):71 - 88.
  32. added 2017-02-01
    Referential Uses and Speaker Meaning.Rod Bertolet - 1981 - Philosophical Quarterly 31 (124):253-259.
  33. added 2017-02-01
    How Many Things Must a Speaker Intend (Before He is Said to Have Meant)?Andreas Kemmerling - 1980 - Erkenntnis 15 (3):333 - 341.
    Counterexarnples have been presented in which an S fulfils 1——3 in uttering some x but has an additional intention which makes the example a case of not meaning something by x. In the example given by Strawson it is not only true of S that 1——3 but also that 4b—4f: 43 1S{BAUs(BA(Is(7TA}}}}}.
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  34. added 2017-02-01
    Speaker Meaning and Illocutionary Acts.C. R. Carr - 1978 - Philosophical Studies 34 (3):281 - 291.
  35. added 2017-02-01
    On the Creation of a Speaker.Arthur Cody - 1968 - Mind 77 (305):68-76.
  36. added 2017-01-27
    Speaker's Meaning. [REVIEW]M. R. C. - 1968 - Review of Metaphysics 21 (3):548-548.
    Barfield considers the light the studies of history, language, and literature shed upon each other. He focuses his attention on the development of a theory of the emergence of individual consciousness. Barfield disputes some prevalent ramifications of evolutionist theories which hold that in language, literature, and history, a period of "active subjectivity" preceded one of "passive subjectivity." This would mean, according to Barfield, that in language, literal meaning preceded figurative meaning, just as imagination was prior to inspiration in the creation (...)
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  37. added 2017-01-20
    Joint Meaning.Prof Antonella Carassa & Prof Marco Colombetti - 2009 - Cogprints.
    In this paper we want to reconcile two apparently conflicting intuitions: the first is that what a speaker means is just a function of his or her communicative intentions, independently of what the hearer understands, and even of the actual existence of a hearer; the second is that when communication is carried out successfully, the resulting meaning is, in some important sense, jointly construed by the speaker and the hearer. Our strategy is to distinguish between speaker’s meaning, understood as a (...)
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  38. added 2017-01-20
    Speaker Reference, Descriptions, and Anaphoria.Keith S. Donnellan - 1979 - In A. French Peter, E. Uehling Theodore, Howard Jr & K. Wettstein (eds.), Contemporary Perspectives in the Philosophy of Language. University of Minnesota Press.
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  39. added 2017-01-19
    Pragmatics, Modularity and Mind‐Reading.Dan Sperber & Deirdre Wilson - 2002 - Mind and Language 17 (1-2):3–23.
    The central problem for pragmatics is that sentence meaning vastly underdetermines speaker’s meaning. The goal of pragmatics is to explain how the gap between sentence meaning and speaker’s meaning is bridged. This paper defends the broadly Gricean view that pragmatic interpretation is ultimately an exercise in mind-reading, involving the inferential attribution of intentions. We argue, however, that the interpretation process does not simply consist in applying general mind-reading abilities to a particular (communicative) domain. Rather, it involves a dedicated comprehension module, (...)
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  40. added 2017-01-19
    A Neo-Husserlian Theory of Speaker's Reference.Christian Beyer - 2001 - Erkenntnis 54 (3):277-297.
    It is not well known that in his Göttingen period (1900–1916) Edmund Husserl developed a kind of direct reference theory, anticipating,among other things, the distinction between referential and attributive use of adefinite description, which was rediscovered by Keith Donnellan in 1966 and further analysed by Saul Kripke in 1977. This paper defends the claim that Husserl''s idea of the mental act given voice to in an utterance sheds new light on that distinction and particularly on cases where semantic referent and (...)
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  41. added 2016-12-08
    Grades of Meaning.J. Robert Thompson - 2008 - Synthese 161 (2):283-308.
    In this paper, I lend novel support to H. P. Grice’s account of speaker meaning (GASM) by blunting the force of a significant objection. Stephen Schiffer has argued that in order to make GASM sufficient, one must add restrictions that are psychologically impossible to fulfill, thereby making GASM untenable. In what follows, I explain the elements of GASM that require it to invoke these psychologically unrealizable restrictions. I then accept Schiffer’s criticism, but modify its significance to GASM. I argue that (...)
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  42. added 2016-12-01
    An Assessment of the Argument From Convention.Andrei Moldovan - 2016 - Discusiones Filosóficas 17 (28):15 - 34.
    This paper focuses on what is known in the literature on the semantics and pragmatics of definite descriptions as “the argument from convention”. This argument purports to show that referential uses of definite descriptions are a semantic phenomenon. A key premise of the argument is that none of the pragmatic alternatives (any one of a variety of Gricean accounts of referential uses) is successful. I argue that no good reason is offered to support this claim. I conclude that the argument (...)
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  43. added 2016-10-22
    Linguistic Freedom: An Essay on Meaning and Rules.Asa Maria Wikforss - 1996 - Dissertation, Columbia University
    The thesis examines a central and controversial question in the philosophy of mind and language: Is meaning normative? Are there rules we must follow for our words to have meaning? ;Philosophers are sharply divided over this question. One side, often associated with Wittgenstein and more recently Kripke, sees meaning as essentially normative. If a sign is to be meaningful, then surely, it is argued, there must be a distinction between the correct and incorrect use of that sign. The other side (...)
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  44. added 2016-10-16
    Ricoeur’s Transcendental Concern: A Hermeneutics of Discourse.William D. Melaney - 2011 - In Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka (ed.), Analecta Husserliana. Springer. pp. 495-513.
    This paper argues that Paul Ricoeur’s hermeneutical philosophy attempts to reopen the question of human transcendence in contemporary terms. While his conception of language as self-transcending is deeply Husserlian, Ricoeur also responds to the analytical challenge when he deploys a basic distinction in Fregean logic in order to clarify Heidegger’s phenomenology of world. Ricoeur’s commitment to a transcendental view is evident in his conception of narrative, which enables him to emphasize the role of the performative in literary reading. The meaning (...)
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  45. added 2016-09-14
    Conventions’ Revenge: Davidson, Derangement, and Dormativity.Elisabeth Camp - 2016 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 59 (1):113-138.
    Davidson advocates a radical and powerful form of anti-conventionalism, on which the scope of a semantic theory is restricted to the most local of contexts: a particular utterance by a particular speaker. I argue that this hyper-localism undercuts the explanatory grounds for his assumption that semantic meaning is systematic, which is central, among other things, to his holism. More importantly, it threatens to undercut the distinction between word meaning and speaker’s meaning, which he takes to be essential to semantics. I (...)
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  46. added 2016-09-10
    The Lying Test.Eliot Michaelson - 2016 - Mind and Language 31 (4):470-499.
    As an empirical inquiry into the nature of meaning, semantics must rely on data. Unfortunately, the primary data to which philosophers and linguists have traditionally appealed—judgments on the truth and falsity of sentences—have long been known to vary widely between competent speakers in a number of interesting cases. The present article constitutes an experiment in how to obtain some more consistent data for the enterprise of semantics. Specifically, it argues from some widely accepted Gricean premises to the conclusion that judgments (...)
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  47. added 2016-05-20
    Culture, Language and Thought: Field Studies on Colour Concepts.Arnold Groh - 2016 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 16 (1-2):83–106.
    In a series of studies the assumption of a lack of colour concepts in indigenous societies, as proposed by Berlin & Kay (1969) and others, was examined. The research took place in the form of minimally invasive field encounters with indigenous subjects in South East Asia and in India, as well as in West, Central, and South Africa. Subjects were screened for colour blindness with Ishihara- and Pflüger-Trident-Test. Standardised colour tablets had to be designated in the indigenous languages; these terms (...)
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  48. added 2016-05-11
    What is Said.François Recanati - 2001 - Synthese 128 (1-2):75--91.
  49. added 2016-05-11
    Primary Pragmatic Processes.Francois Recanati - 1998 - In Asa Kasher (ed.), Pragmatics: Critical Concepts. Routledge. pp. 512-531.
  50. added 2016-05-11
    Meaning and Force: An Introduction.Francois Recanati - 1998 - In Asa Kasher (ed.), Pragmatics: Critical Concepts. Routledge. pp. 126-143.
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