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  1. Art Forms Emerging: An Approach to Evaluative Diversity in Art.Mohan Matthen - 2020 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 78 (3):303-318.
    An artwork in one culture and form, say European classical music, cannot be evaluated in the context of another, say Hindustani music. While a person educated in the traditions of European music can rationally evaluate and discuss her response to a string quartet by Beethoven, her response to music in a foreign culture is merely subjective. She might "like" the latter, but her response is merely subjective. In this paper, I discuss the role of artforms: why response can be "objectively" (...)
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  2. Evolutionary Causation: Biological and Philosophical Reflections. Vienna Series in Theoretical Biology Edited by Tobias Uller and Kevin N. Laland. [REVIEW]Charles H. Pence - 2020 - The Quarterly Review of Biology 95 (2):150-151.
  3. How Microbes "Jeopardize" the Modern Synthesis.Aaron Novick & W. Ford Doolittle - 2019 - PLOS Genetics 5 (15):e1008166.
    This editorial introduces a series of review articles concerning the ways in which recent work on microbial evolution has both deepened and challenged the modern synthesis. The authors develop a framework for thinking about theory change in biology.
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  4. That is Life: Communicating RNA Networks From Viruses and Cells in Continuous Interaction.Guenther Witzany - 2019 - Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences:1-16.
    All the conserved detailed results of evolution stored in DNA must be read, transcribed, and translated via an RNAmediated process. This is required for the development and growth of each individual cell. Thus, all known living organisms fundamentally depend on these RNA-mediated processes. In most cases, they are interconnected with other RNAs and their associated protein complexes and function in a strictly coordinated hierarchy of temporal and spatial steps (i.e., an RNA network). Clearly, all cellular life as we know it (...)
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  5. From Aristotle’s Teleology to Darwin’s Genealogy: The Stamp of Inutility, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015 (Pdf: Contents, Introduction).Marco Solinas - 2015 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Starting with Aristotle and moving on to Darwin, Marco Solinas outlines the basic steps from the birth, establishment and later rebirth of the traditional view of living beings, and its overturning by evolutionary revolution. The classic framework devised by Aristotle was still dominant in the 17th Century world of Galileo, Harvey and Ray, and remained hegemonic until the time of Lamarck and Cuvier in the 19th Century. Darwin's breakthrough thus takes on the dimensions of an abandonment of the traditional finalistic (...)
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  6. The Logic of Metabolism and its Fuzzy Consequences.A. Danchin - 2014 - Environmental Microbiology 16 (1):19-28.
    Intermediary metabolism molecules are orchestrated into logical pathways stemming from history (L-amino acids, D-sugars) and dynamic constraints (hydrolysis of pyrophosphate or amide groups is the driving force of anabolism). Beside essential metabolites, numerous variants derive from programmed or accidental changes. Broken down, variants enter standard pathways, producing further variants. Macromolecule modification alters enzyme reactions specificity. Metabolism conform thermodynamic laws, precluding strict accuracy. Hence, for each regular pathway, a wealth of variants inputs and produces metabolites that are similar to but not (...)
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  7. Do Sex Chromosomes Affect Speciation Rate?Jeffery Demuth - 2014 - Bioessays 36 (7):632-632.
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  8. Dissecting Post-Mating Prezygotic Speciation Phenotypes.Kerry L. Shaw & Jonathan M. Lambert - 2014 - Bioessays 36 (11):1050-1053.
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  9. Does the Speciation Clock Tick More Slowly in the Absence of Heteromorphic Sex Chromosomes?Barret C. Phillips & Suzanne Edmands - 2012 - Bioessays 34 (3):166-169.
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  10. L'impronta dell'inutilità. Dalla teleologia di Aristotele alle genealogie di Darwin (pdf: Introduzione).Marco Solinas - 2012 - ETS.
    The book aims to offer a contribution to the historiographical and conceptual reconfiguration of the evolutionary revolution in the light of the centuries-old tenets of the Aristotelian biological tradition. Darwin’s breakthrough constitutes a thorough overturning of the fixist, essentialist and teleological framework created by Aristotle, a framework still dominant in the 17th Century world of Harvey and Ray, as well as Galileo, and then hegemonic until Linnaeus and Cuvier. This change is exemplified in the morphological analysis of useless parts, such (...)
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  11. Darwin’s Pluralism, Then and Now: David N. Reznick: The Origin Then and Now: An Interpretative Guide to the Origin of Species. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010, 448pp, $29.95 HB. [REVIEW]Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2012 - Metascience 21 (1):157-161.
    Tom Stoppard’s 1966 play (and 1990 movie) /Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead/ is a metatext – as a text, it interprets, builds upon, and refers to another text, Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Similarly, David N. Reznick’s /The Origin then and now: An interpretative guide to the Origin of Species/ (Princeton UP, 2010) is also a metatext. In this review, I turn to the history of science to evaluate whether Reznick’s book shares three families of virtues with Stoppard’s play: (i) brevity and precision, (...)
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  12. Speciation Through Cytonuclear Incompatibility: Insights From Yeast and Implications for Higher Eukaryotes.Jui-Yu Chou & Jun-Yi Leu - 2010 - Bioessays 32 (5):401-411.
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  13. Inhumanitas : Political Speciation, Animality, Natality, Defacement.Allen Feldman - 2010 - In Ilana Feldman & Miriam Iris Ticktin (eds.), In the Name of Humanity: The Government of Threat and Care. Duke University Press.
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  14. The Myth of Bacterial Species and Speciation.Jeffrey G. Lawrence & Adam C. Retchless - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (4):569-588.
    The Tree of Life hypothesis frames the evolutionary process as a series of events whereby lineages diverge from one another, thus creating the diversity of life as descendent lineages modify properties from their ancestors. This hypothesis is under scrutiny due to the strong evidence for lateral gene transfer between distantly related bacterial taxa, thereby providing extant taxa with more than one parent. As a result, one argues, the Tree of Life becomes confounded as the original branching structure is gradually superseded (...)
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  15. The Origins of Species: The Debate Between August Weismann and Moritz Wagner. [REVIEW]Charlotte Weissman - 2010 - Journal of the History of Biology 43 (4):727 - 766.
    Weismann's ideas on species transmutation were first expressed in his famous debate with Moritz Wagner on the mechanism of speciation. Wagner suggested that the isolation of a colony from its original source is a preliminary and necessary factor for speciation. Weismann accepted a secondary, facilitating role for isolation, but argued that natural and sexual selection are the primary driving forces of species transmutation, and are always necessary and often sufficient causes for its occurrence. The debate with Wagner, which occurred between (...)
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  16. Mitochondrial Bioenergetics as a Major Motive Force of Speciation.Moran Gershoni, Alan R. Templeton & Dan Mishmar - 2009 - Bioessays 31 (6):642-650.
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  17. Chicken, Eggs, and Speciation.Mohan Matthen - 2009 - Noûs 43 (1):94-115.
    Standard biological and philosophical treatments assume that dramatic genotypic or phenotypic change constitutes instantaneous speciation, and that barring such saltation, speciation is gradual evolutionary change in individual properties. Both propositions appear to be incongruent with standard theoretical perspectives on species themselves, since these perspectives are (a) non-pheneticist, and (b) tend to disregard intermediate cases. After reviewing certain key elements of such perspectives, it is proposed that species-membership is mediated by membership in a population. Species-membership depends, therefore, not on intrinsic characteristics (...)
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  18. The Theoretical Costs of DNA Barcoding.Monika Piotrowska - 2009 - Biological Theory 4 (3):235-239.
    I begin with a description of the benefits and limits of DNA barcoding as presented by its advocates not its critics. Next, I argue that due to the mutually dependent relationship between defining and delimiting species, all systems of classification are grounded in theory, even if only implicitly. I then proceed to evaluate DNA barcoding in that context. In particular, I focus on the barcoders’ use of a sharp boundary by which to delimit species, arguing that this boundary brings along (...)
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  19. Prediction in Selectionist Evolutionary Theory.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (5):889-901.
    Selectionist evolutionary theory has often been faulted for not making novel predictions that are surprising, risky, and correct. I argue that it in fact exhibits the theoretical virtue of predictive capacity in addition to two other virtues: explanatory unification and model fitting. Two case studies show the predictive capacity of selectionist evolutionary theory: parallel evolutionary change in E. coli, and the origin of eukaryotic cells through endosymbiosis.
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  20. Genetic Engineering and the Speciation of Superions From Humans.Lucas Alexander Haley Commons-Miller, Michael Lamport Commons & Geoffrey David Commons - 2008 - World Futures 64 (5-7):436 – 443.
    Using ideas from evolution and postformal stages of hierarchical complexity, a hypothetical scenario, premised on genetic engineering advances, portrays the development of a new humanoid species, Superions. How would Superions impact and treat current humans? If the Superion scenario came to pass, it would be the ultimate genocidal terrorism of eliminating an entire species, Homo Sapiens. We speculate about defenses Homo Sapiens might mount. The tasks to relate two species (systems) constitutes a postformal, Metasystematic task. Developing a system of discourse (...)
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  21. The Origin of Avian Diversity. Speciation in Birds. (2007). By Trevor Price. Roberts and Company, Greenwood Village, Colorado. Paperback. Price $59.95. 470 Pp. ISBN: 0‐9747077‐8‐3. [REVIEW]Peter R. Grant - 2008 - Bioessays 30 (2):191-192.
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  22. Genetic Engineering and the Speciation of Superions From Humans.Lucas Alexander Haley Commons-Miller, Michael Lamport Commons & Geoffrey David Commons - 2008 - World Futures 64 (5):436-443.
    (2008). Genetic Engineering and the Speciation of Superions from Humans. World Futures: Vol. 64, Postformal Thought and Hierarchical Complexity, pp. 436-443.
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  23. Hopeful Heretic – Richard Goldschmidt’s Genetic Metaphors.Ehud Lamm - 2008 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 30 (3-4):387-406.
    Richard Goldschmidt famously rejected the notion of atomic and corpuscular genes, arranged on the chromosome like beads-on-a-string. I provide an exegesis of Goldschmidt’s intuition by analyzing his repeated and extensive use of metaphorical language and analogies in his attempts to convey his notion of the nature of the genetic material and specifically the significance of chromosomal pattern. The paper concentrates on Goldschmidt’s use of metaphors in publications spanning 1940-1955. -/- .
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  24. Do Clades Cladogenerate?Olivier Rieppel - 2008 - Biological Theory 3 (4):375-379.
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  25. Evolution of Xmrk: An Oncogene, but Also a Speciation Gene?Manfred Schartl - 2008 - Bioessays 30 (9):822-832.
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  26. The Reality and Importance of Founder Speciation in Evolution.Alan R. Templeton - 2008 - Bioessays 30 (5):470-479.
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  27. Trémaux on Species: A Theory of Allopatric Speciation (and Punctuated Equilibrium) Before Wagner.John S. Wilkins & Gareth J. Nelson - 2008 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 30 (1):179-206.
    Pierre Trémaux’s 1865 ideas on speciation have been unjustly derided following his acceptance by Marx and rejection by Engels, and almost nobody has read his ideas in a charitable light. Here we offer an interpretation based on translating the term sol as “habitat”, in order to show that Trémaux proposed a theory of allopatric speciation before Wagner and a punctuated equilibrium theory before Gould and Eldredge, and translate the relevant discussion from the French. We believe he may have influenced Darwin’s (...)
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  28. Systemic Darwinism.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2008 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 (33):11833-11838.
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  29. Mayr’s Centenary Festschrift. [REVIEW]John S. Wilkins - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (4):603-610.
  30. The Dimensions, Modes and Definitions of Species and Speciation.John S. Wilkins - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (2):247-266.
    Speciation is an aspect of evolutionary biology that has received little philosophical attention apart from articles mainly by biologists such as Mayr (1988). The role of speciation as a terminus a quo for the individuality of species or in the context of punctuated equilibrium theory has been discussed, but not the nature of speciation events themselves. It is the task of this paper to attempt to bring speciation events into some kind of general scheme, based primarily upon the work of (...)
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  31. Speciation (Review).John C. Avise - 2005 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48 (2):315-316.
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  32. Adaptive Speciation: The Role of Natural Selection in Mechanisms of Geographic and Non-Geographic Speciation.Jason M. Baker - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 36 (2):303-326.
    Recent discussion of mechanism has suggested new approaches to several issues in the philosophy of science, including theory structure, causal explanation, and reductionism. Here, I apply what I take to be the fruits of the Ônew mechanical philosophyÕ to an analysis of a contemporary debate in evolutionary biology about the role of natural selection in speciation. Traditional accounts of that debate focus on the geographic context of genetic divergence— namely, whether divergence in the absence of geographic isolation is possible (or (...)
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  33. Adaptive Speciation: The Role of Natural Selection in Mechanisms of Geographic and Non-Geographic Speciation.Jason M. Byron - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 36 (2):303-326.
    Recent discussion of mechanism has suggested new approaches to several issues in the philosophy of science, including theory structure, causal explanation, and reductionism. Here, I apply what I take to be the fruits of the 'new mechanical philosophy' to an analysis of a contemporary debate in evolutionary biology about the role of natural selection in speciation. Traditional accounts of that debate focus on the geographic context of genetic divergence--namely, whether divergence in the absence of geographic isolation is possible (or significant). (...)
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  34. Speciation By Jerry A. Coyne and H. Allen Orr.M. Schilthuizen - 2005 - Bioessays 27 (6):669.
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  35. Book Review: Speciation. [REVIEW]Menno Schilthuizen - 2005 - Bioessays 27 (6):669-670.
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  36. Speciation Patterns and Mechanisms: A Symposium to Honor Ernst Mayr.Adam S. Wilkins - 2005 - Bioessays 27 (6):661-663.
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  37. Seeing the Forest for the Trees. [REVIEW]Anya Plutynski - 2004 - Biology and Philosophy 19 (2):299-303.
    Roderic Page’s new book, Tangled Trees: Phylogeny, Cospeciation and Coevolution (2003), is a worthwhile read for anyone interested in either methodological issues in systematics, or how organisms shape one another’s selective environments. “Cospeciation,” for the uninitiated, is the concurrent speciation of two or more lineages that are ecologically associated (e.g. host-parasite associations, as well as mutualistic or symbiotic associations). “Coevolution,” in contrast, is the reciprocal adaptation of hosts and parasite taxa. The main focus of Page’s book is thus when, how (...)
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  38. Towards a ‘Greater Degree of Integration’: The Society for the Study of Speciation, 1939–41.Joe Cain - 2000 - British Journal for the History of Science 33 (1):85-108.
    Intellectual and professional reforms in evolutionary studies between 1935 and 1950 included substantial expansion, diversification, and realignment of community infrastructure. Theodosius Dobzhansky, Julian Huxley and Alfred Emerson organized the Society for the Study of Speciation at the 1939 AAAS Columbus meeting as one response to concerns about ‘isolation’ and ‘lack of contact’ among speciation workers worried about ‘dispersed’ and ‘scattered’ resources in this newly robust ‘borderline’ domain. Simply constructed, the SSS sought neither the radical reorganization of specialities nor the creation (...)
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  39. Consilience and a Hierarchy of Species Concepts: Advances Toward Closure on the Species Puzzle.Richard L. Mayden - 1999 - Journal of Nematology 31 (2):95–116.
    Numerous concepts exist for biological species. This diversity of ideas derives from a number of sources ranging from investigative study of particular taxa and character sets to philosophical aptitude and world view to operationalism and nomenclatorial rules. While usually viewed as counterproductive, in reality these varied concepts can greatly enhance our efforts to discover and understand biological diversity. Moreover, this continued "turf war" and dilemma over species can be resolved if the various concepts are viewed in a hierarchical system and (...)
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  40. Extinction.G. M. Aitken - 1998 - Biology and Philosophy 13 (3):393-411.
    A significant proportion of conservationists' work is directed towards efforts to save disappearing species. This relies upon the belief that species extinction is undesirable. When justifications are offered for this belief, they very often rest upon the assumption that extinction brought about by humans is different in kind from other forms of extinction. This paper examines this assumption and reveals that there is indeed good reason to suppose current anthropogenic extinctions to be different in kind from extinctions brought about at (...)
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  41. Metaphysics and the Origin of Species. [REVIEW]Joseph E. Earley - 1998 - Process Studies 27 (3-4):352-354.
  42. Karl Pearson's Gresham Lectures: W. F. R. Weldon, Speciation and the Origins of Pearsonian Statistics.M. Eileen Magnello - 1996 - British Journal for the History of Science 29 (1):43-63.
    The scientific legacy of Karl Pearson and his role as one of the principal architects of the modern theory of mathematical statistics, has generated enough interest to have created an intellectual enterprise on various aspects of his life and work. Despite this interest, Pearson's earliest and most formative statistical work which he delivered in thirty of his thirty-eight Gresham lectures from 17 November 1891 to 11 May 1894 has, to date, been given very little consideration. Pearson is perhaps, best known (...)
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  43. Two Models of Models in Biomedical Research.Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks - 1995 - Philosophical Quarterly 45 (179):141-160.
    Biomedical researchers claim there is significant biomedical information about humans which can be discovered only through experiments on intact animal systems (AMA p. 2). Although epidemiological studies, computer simulations, clinical investigation, and cell and tissue cultures have become important weapons in the biomedical scientists' arsenal, these are primarily "adjuncts to the use of animals in research" (Sigma Xi p. 76). Controlled laboratory experiments are the core of the scientific enterprise. Biomedical researchers claim these should be conducted on intact biological systems, (...)
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  44. Animal Experimentation: The Legacy of Claude Bernard.Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks - 1994 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8 (3):195 – 210.
    Claude Bernard, the father of scientific physiology, believed that if medicine was to become truly scientiifc, it would have to be based on rigorous and controlled animal experiments. Bernard instituted a paradigm which has shaped physiological practice for most of the twentieth century. ln this paper we examine how Bernards commitment to hypothetico-deductivism and determinism led to (a) his rejection of the theory of evolution; (b) his minima/ization of the role of clinical medicine and epidemiological studies; and (c) his conclusion (...)
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  45. A Single-Locus Model of Speciation.Hans-Rolf Gregorius - 1992 - Acta Biotheoretica 40 (4):313-319.
    The crucial phase of speciation is argued to be the evolution of mating cross-incompatibility (prezygotic incompatibility) between the genotypes distinguishing the prospective species populations. Based on this idea, a single-locus model of speciation is presented, which is shown to be biologically plausible and may help to settle the controversy as to the biological significance of single-locus modes of speciation. The model involves three alleles, two of which characterize in homozygous state the prospective species populations and in heterozygous state their hybrids. (...)
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  46. On the Possible Role of Egg Mimics in Speciation.Tijs Goldschmidt & Jaap Visser - 1990 - Acta Biotheoretica 38 (2).
    Sexually active male haplochromine cichlid fishes possess pronounced yellow ovoid spots on the anal fm, which mimic eggs of the female and have therefore been called egg dummies (Wickler, 1962b).It is thought that divergence in egg dummy characteristics can considerably reduce gene flow and in this way may trigger off reproductive isolation. Two ways in which egg dummy divergence can develop are described. Both mechanisms may have been operating, at the same time and in the same area, in different species, (...)
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  47. Speciation and its Consequences.Daniel Otte & John A. Endler (eds.) - 1989 - Sinauer Associates.
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  48. The Meaning of Species and Speciation: A Genetic Perspective.Alan R. Templeton - 1989 - In Daniel Otte & John A. Endler (eds.), Speciation and its Consequences. Sinauer Associates. pp. 3-27.
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  49. The Problem of Species and Speciation.Nikolay N. Vorontsov - 1989 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 3 (2):173 – 189.
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  50. Transmutation of Species. Notebook B, 1837-1838. Notebook C, 1838. Notebook D, 1838. Notebook E, 1838-1839 / [All] Transcribed and Edited by David Kohn. Torn Apart Notebook, 1839-1841 / Transcribed and Edited by Sydney Smith & David Kohn. Summer 1842 / Transcribed and Edited by David Kohn. Zoology Notes, Edinburgh Notebook, 1837-1839. Questions & Experiments, 1839-1844. [REVIEW][Both] Transcribed & edited by Paul H. Barrett - 1987 - In Charles Darwin (ed.), Charles Darwin's Notebooks, 1836-1844: Geology, Transmutation of Species, Metaphysical Enquiries. Cornell University Press.
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