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1 — 50 / 55
  1. added 2017-01-18
    Extinction.G. M. Aitken - 1998 - Biology and Philosophy 13 (3):393-411.
    A significant proportion of conservationists' work is directed towards efforts to save disappearing species. This relies upon the belief that species extinction is undesirable. When justifications are offered for this belief, they very often rest upon the assumption that extinction brought about by humans is different in kind from other forms of extinction. This paper examines this assumption and reveals that there is indeed good reason to suppose current anthropogenic extinctions to be different in kind from extinctions brought about at (...)
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  2. added 2017-01-15
    Adaptive Speciation: The Role of Natural Selection in Mechanisms of Geographic and Non-Geographic Speciation.Jason M. Baker - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 36 (2):303-326.
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  3. added 2016-12-12
    Two Models of Models in Biomedical Research.Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks - 1995 - Philosophical Quarterly 45 (179):141-160.
    Biomedical researchers claim there is significant biomedical information about humans which can be discovered only through experiments on intact animal systems (AMA p. 2). Although epidemiological studies, computer simulations, clinical investigation, and cell and tissue cultures have become important weapons in the biomedical scientists' arsenal, these are primarily "adjuncts to the use of animals in research" (Sigma Xi p. 76). Controlled laboratory experiments are the core of the scientific enterprise. Biomedical researchers claim these should be conducted on intact biological systems, (...)
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  4. added 2016-09-11
    The Theoretical Costs of DNA Barcoding.Monika Piotrowska - 2009 - Biological Theory 4 (3):235-239.
    I begin with a description of the benefits and limits of DNA barcoding as presented by its advocates not its critics. Next, I argue that due to the mutually dependent relationship between defining and delimiting species, all systems of classification are grounded in theory, even if only implicitly. I then proceed to evaluate DNA barcoding in that context. In particular, I focus on the barcoders’ use of a sharp boundary by which to delimit species, arguing that this boundary brings along (...)
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  5. added 2015-06-11
    Consilience and a Hierarchy of Species Concepts: Advances Toward Closure on the Species Puzzle.Richard L. Mayden - 1999 - Journal of Nematology 31 (2):95–116.
    Numerous concepts exist for biological species. This diversity of ideas derives from a number of sources ranging from investigative study of particular taxa and character sets to philosophical aptitude and world view to operationalism and nomenclatorial rules. While usually viewed as counterproductive, in reality these varied concepts can greatly enhance our efforts to discover and understand biological diversity. Moreover, this continued "turf war" and dilemma over species can be resolved if the various concepts are viewed in a hierarchical system and (...)
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  6. added 2015-06-09
    Speciation Phenomena in Birds.Ernst Mayr - 1940 - American Naturalist 74 (752):249-278.
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  7. added 2015-04-12
    From Aristotle’s Teleology to Darwin’s Genealogy: The Stamp of Inutility, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015 (Pdf: Contents, Introduction).Marco Solinas - 2015 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Starting with Aristotle and moving on to Darwin, Marco Solinas outlines the basic steps from the birth, establishment and later rebirth of the traditional view of living beings, and its overturning by evolutionary revolution. The classic framework devised by Aristotle was still dominant in the 17th Century world of Galileo, Harvey and Ray, and remained hegemonic until the time of Lamarck and Cuvier in the 19th Century. Darwin's breakthrough thus takes on the dimensions of an abandonment of the traditional finalistic (...)
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  8. added 2015-03-26
    Towards a ‘Greater Degree of Integration’: The Society for the Study of Speciation, 1939–41.Joe Cain - 2000 - British Journal for the History of Science 33 (1):85-108.
    Intellectual and professional reforms in evolutionary studies between 1935 and 1950 included substantial expansion, diversification, and realignment of community infrastructure. Theodosius Dobzhansky, Julian Huxley and Alfred Emerson organized the Society for the Study of Speciation at the 1939 AAAS Columbus meeting as one response to concerns about ‘isolation’ and ‘lack of contact’ among speciation workers worried about ‘dispersed’ and ‘scattered’ resources in this newly robust ‘borderline’ domain. Simply constructed, the SSS sought neither the radical reorganization of specialities nor the creation (...)
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  9. added 2015-03-24
    Dissecting Post-Mating Prezygotic Speciation Phenotypes.Kerry L. Shaw & Jonathan M. Lambert - 2014 - Bioessays 36 (11):1050-1053.
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  10. added 2015-03-24
    Speciation and its Consequences.Daniel Otte & John A. Endler (eds.) - 1989 - Sinauer Associates.
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  11. added 2015-03-22
    Speciation Through Cytonuclear Incompatibility: Insights From Yeast and Implications for Higher Eukaryotes.Jui-Yu Chou & Jun-Yi Leu - 2010 - Bioessays 32 (5):401-411.
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  12. added 2015-03-20
    The Origins of Species: The Debate Between August Weismann and Moritz Wagner. [REVIEW]Charlotte Weissman - 2010 - Journal of the History of Biology 43 (4):727 - 766.
    Weismann's ideas on species transmutation were first expressed in his famous debate with Moritz Wagner on the mechanism of speciation. Wagner suggested that the isolation of a colony from its original source is a preliminary and necessary factor for speciation. Weismann accepted a secondary, facilitating role for isolation, but argued that natural and sexual selection are the primary driving forces of species transmutation, and are always necessary and often sufficient causes for its occurrence. The debate with Wagner, which occurred between (...)
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  13. added 2015-01-12
    The Logic of Metabolism and its Fuzzy Consequences.A. Danchin - 2014 - Environmental Microbiology 16 (1):19-28.
    Intermediary metabolism molecules are orchestrated into logical pathways stemming from history (L-amino acids, D-sugars) and dynamic constraints (hydrolysis of pyrophosphate or amide groups is the driving force of anabolism). Beside essential metabolites, numerous variants derive from programmed or accidental changes. Broken down, variants enter standard pathways, producing further variants. Macromolecule modification alters enzyme reactions specificity. Metabolism conform thermodynamic laws, precluding strict accuracy. Hence, for each regular pathway, a wealth of variants inputs and produces metabolites that are similar to but not (...)
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  14. added 2014-12-02
    The Meaning of Species and Speciation: A Genetic Perspective.Alan R. Templeton - 1989 - In Daniel Otte & John A. Endler (eds.), Speciation and its Consequences. Sinauer Associates. pp. 3-27.
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  15. added 2014-04-28
    Do Sex Chromosomes Affect Speciation Rate?Jeffery Demuth - 2014 - Bioessays 36 (7):632-632.
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  16. added 2014-04-03
    Animal Experimentation: The Legacy of Claude Bernard.Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks - 1994 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8 (3):195 – 210.
    Claude Bernard, the father of scientific physiology, believed that if medicine was to become truly scientiifc, it would have to be based on rigorous and controlled animal experiments. Bernard instituted a paradigm which has shaped physiological practice for most of the twentieth century. ln this paper we examine how Bernards commitment to hypothetico-deductivism and determinism led to (a) his rejection of the theory of evolution; (b) his minima/ization of the role of clinical medicine and epidemiological studies; and (c) his conclusion (...)
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  17. added 2014-03-29
    Inhumanitas : Political Speciation, Animality, Natality, Defacement.Allen Feldman - 2010 - In Ilana Feldman & Miriam Iris Ticktin (eds.), In the Name of Humanity: The Government of Threat and Care. Duke University Press.
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  18. added 2014-03-29
    Metaphysics and the Origin of Species. [REVIEW]Joseph E. Earley - 1998 - Process Studies 27 (3-4):352-354.
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  19. added 2014-03-21
    Seeing the Forst for the Trees. [REVIEW]Anya Plutynski - 2004 - Biology and Philosophy 19 (2):299-303.
    Roderic Page’s new book, Tangled Trees: Phylogeny, Cospeciation and Coevolution (2003), is a worthwhile read for anyone interested in either methodological issues in systematics, or how organisms shape one another’s selective environments. “Cospeciation,” for the uninitiated, is the concurrent speciation of two or more lineages that are ecologically associated (e.g. host-parasite associations, as well as mutualistic or symbiotic associations). “Coevolution,” in contrast, is the reciprocal adaptation of hosts and parasite taxa. The main focus of Page’s book is thus when, how (...)
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  20. added 2014-03-20
    Adaptive Speciation: The Role of Natural Selection in Mechanisms of Geographic and Non-Geographic Speciation.Jason M. Baker - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 36 (2):303-326.
    Recent discussion of mechanism has suggested new approaches to several issues in the philosophy of science, including theory structure, causal explanation, and reductionism. Here, I apply what I take to be the fruits of the Ônew mechanical philosophyÕ to an analysis of a contemporary debate in evolutionary biology about the role of natural selection in speciation. Traditional accounts of that debate focus on the geographic context of genetic divergence— namely, whether divergence in the absence of geographic isolation is possible (or (...)
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  21. added 2014-03-19
    Speciation By Jerry A. Coyne and H. Allen Orr.M. Schilthuizen - 2005 - Bioessays 27 (6):669.
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  22. added 2014-03-15
    The Dimensions, Modes and Definitions of Species and Speciation.John S. Wilkins - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (2):247-266.
    Speciation is an aspect of evolutionary biology that has received little philosophical attention apart from articles mainly by biologists such as Mayr (1988). The role of speciation as a terminus a quo for the individuality of species or in the context of punctuated equilibrium theory has been discussed, but not the nature of speciation events themselves. It is the task of this paper to attempt to bring speciation events into some kind of general scheme, based primarily upon the work of (...)
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  23. added 2014-03-15
    Mayr's Centenary Festschrift.John S. Wilkins - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (4):603-610.
  24. added 2014-03-14
    Genetic Engineering and the Speciation of Superions From Humans.Lucas Alexander Haley Commons-Miller, Michael Lamport Commons & Geoffrey David Commons - 2008 - World Futures 64 (5):436-443.
    (2008). Genetic Engineering and the Speciation of Superions from Humans. World Futures: Vol. 64, Postformal Thought and Hierarchical Complexity, pp. 436-443.
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  25. added 2014-03-09
    Speciation (Review).John C. Avise - 2005 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48 (2):315-316.
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  26. added 2014-03-07
    The Myth of Bacterial Species and Speciation.Jeffrey G. Lawrence & Adam C. Retchless - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (4):569-588.
    The Tree of Life hypothesis frames the evolutionary process as a series of events whereby lineages diverge from one another, thus creating the diversity of life as descendent lineages modify properties from their ancestors. This hypothesis is under scrutiny due to the strong evidence for lateral gene transfer between distantly related bacterial taxa, thereby providing extant taxa with more than one parent. As a result, one argues, the Tree of Life becomes confounded as the original branching structure is gradually superseded (...)
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  27. added 2014-03-06
    Speciation Patterns and Mechanisms: A Symposium to Honor Ernst Mayr.Adam S. Wilkins - 2005 - Bioessays 27 (6):661-663.
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  28. added 2014-02-12
    L'impronta dell'inutilità. Dalla teleologia di Aristotele alle genealogie di Darwin (pdf: Introduzione).Marco Solinas - 2012 - ETS.
    The book aims to offer a contribution to the historiographical and conceptual reconfiguration of the evolutionary revolution in the light of the centuries-old tenets of the Aristotelian biological tradition. Darwin’s breakthrough constitutes a thorough overturning of the fixist, essentialist and teleological framework created by Aristotle, a framework still dominant in the 17th Century world of Harvey and Ray, as well as Galileo, and then hegemonic until Linnaeus and Cuvier. This change is exemplified in the morphological analysis of useless parts, such (...)
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  29. added 2014-01-01
    Evolution of Xmrk: An Oncogene, but Also a Speciation Gene?Manfred Schartl - 2008 - Bioessays 30 (9):822-832.
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  30. added 2013-11-30
    The Reality and Importance of Founder Speciation in Evolution.Alan R. Templeton - 2008 - Bioessays 30 (5):470-479.
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  31. added 2013-11-29
    Book Review: Speciation. [REVIEW]Menno Schilthuizen - 2005 - Bioessays 27 (6):669-670.
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  32. added 2013-11-28
    Mitochondrial Bioenergetics as a Major Motive Force of Speciation.Moran Gershoni, Alan R. Templeton & Dan Mishmar - 2009 - Bioessays 31 (6):642-650.
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  33. added 2013-11-28
    The Origin of Avian Diversity. Speciation in Birds. (2007). By Trevor Price. Roberts and Company, Greenwood Village, Colorado. Paperback. Price $59.95. 470 Pp. ISBN: 0‐9747077‐8‐3. [REVIEW]Peter R. Grant - 2008 - Bioessays 30 (2):191-192.
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  34. added 2013-11-18
    Beyond Darwinism? The Challenge of Macroevolution to the Synthetic Theory of Evolution.Francisco J. Ayala - 1982 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:275 - 291.
    The theory of punctuated equilibrium has been proposed as a challenge to the modern synthesis of evolutionary theory. Two important issues are raised. The first is scientific: whether morphological change as observed in the paleontological record is essentially always associated with speciation events. This paper argues that there is at present no empirical support for this claim: the alleged evidence is based on a definitional fallacy. The second issue is epistemological: whether macroevolution is an autonomous field of study, independent from (...)
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  35. added 2013-11-17
    Transmutation of Species. Notebook B, 1837-1838. Notebook C, 1838. Notebook D, 1838. Notebook E, 1838-1839 / [All] Transcribed and Edited by David Kohn. Torn Apart Notebook, 1839-1841 / Transcribed and Edited by Sydney Smith & David Kohn. Summer 1842 / Transcribed and Edited by David Kohn. Zoology Notes, Edinburgh Notebook, 1837-1839. Questions & Experiments, 1839-1844. [REVIEW][Both] Transcribed & edited by Paul H. Barrett - 1987 - In Charles Darwin (ed.), Charles Darwin's Notebooks, 1836-1844: Geology, Transmutation of Species, Metaphysical Enquiries. Cornell University Press.
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  36. added 2013-11-14
    On Species-Formation, or the Segregation of the Chain of Living Organisms Into Species.Theodor Eimer - 1897 - The Monist 8 (1):97-122.
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  37. added 2013-11-11
    Do Clades Cladogenerate?Olivier Rieppel - 2008 - Biological Theory 3 (4):375-379.
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  38. added 2013-11-10
    Varieties as Incipient Species: Darwin's Numerical Analysis. [REVIEW]Karen Hunger Parshall - 1982 - Journal of the History of Biology 15 (2):191 - 214.
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  39. added 2013-11-03
    Does the Speciation Clock Tick More Slowly in the Absence of Heteromorphic Sex Chromosomes?Barret C. Phillips & Suzanne Edmands - 2012 - Bioessays 34 (3):166-169.
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  40. added 2011-08-29
    Darwin's Pluralism, Then and Now. [REVIEW]Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2012 - Metascience 21 (1):157-161.
    Tom Stoppard’s 1966 play (and 1990 movie) /Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead/ is a metatext – as a text, it interprets, builds upon, and refers to another text, Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Similarly, David N. Reznick’s /The Origin then and now: An interpretative guide to the Origin of Species/ (Princeton UP, 2010) is also a metatext. In this review, I turn to the history of science to evaluate whether Reznick’s book shares three families of virtues with Stoppard’s play: (i) brevity and precision, (...)
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  41. added 2011-08-29
    Prediction in Selectionist Evolutionary Theory.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (5):889-901.
    Selectionist evolutionary theory has often been faulted for not making novel predictions that are surprising, risky, and correct. I argue that it in fact exhibits the theoretical virtue of predictive capacity in addition to two other virtues: explanatory unification and model fitting. Two case studies show the predictive capacity of selectionist evolutionary theory: parallel evolutionary change in E. coli, and the origin of eukaryotic cells through endosymbiosis.
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  42. added 2011-08-29
    Systemic Darwinism.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2008 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 (33):11833-11838.
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  43. added 2011-05-31
    Recent Speciation Between the Baltimore Oriole and the Black-Backed Oriole.Jason M. Baker - unknown
    A recent phylogenetic survey of the New World orioles (genus Icterus; Omland et al. 1999) suggested that the Baltimore Oriole (I. galbula) and the Black-backed Oriole (I. abeillei) are sister taxa. That survey examined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a single representative of each species in the genus. Here, we examine mtDNA sequences from 15 Blackbacked and 20 Baltimore Orioles. The two species appear to be very recently diverged, with average sequence divergences for both cytochrome b (cyt b) and the control (...)
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  44. added 2011-05-31
    Sociocultural Speciation and Human Aggression.Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi - 1973 - Zygon 8 (2):96-112.
  45. added 2010-09-11
    The Biological Species as a Gene-Flow Community. Species Essentialism Does Not Imply Species Universalism.Werner Kunz & Markus Werning - unknown
    We defend a realistic attitude towards biological species. We argue that two species are not different species because they differ in intrinsic features, be they phenotypic or genomic, but because they are separated with regard to gene flow. There are no intrinsic species essences. However, there are relational ones. We argue that bearing a gene flow relation to conspecifics may serve as the essence of a species. Our view of the species as a Gene-Flow Community differs from Mayr’s definition of (...)
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  46. added 2010-06-22
    Current Ornithology.R. F. Johnston (ed.) - 1983 - Plenum Press.
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  47. added 2009-08-21
    Species Concepts and Speciation Analysis.Joel Cracraft - 1983 - In R. F. Johnston (ed.), Current Ornithology. Plenum Press. pp. 159-87.
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  48. added 2009-06-26
    Hopeful Heretic – Richard Goldschmidt’s Genetic Metaphors.Ehud Lamm - 2008 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 30 (3-4):387-406.
    Richard Goldschmidt famously rejected the notion of atomic and corpuscular genes, arranged on the chromosome like beads-on-a-string. I provide an exegesis of Goldschmidt’s intuition by analyzing his repeated and extensive use of metaphorical language and analogies in his attempts to convey his notion of the nature of the genetic material and specifically the significance of chromosomal pattern. The paper concentrates on Goldschmidt’s use of metaphors in publications spanning 1940-1955. -/- .
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  49. added 2008-12-31
    Chicken, Eggs, and Speciation.Mohan Matthen - 2009 - Noûs 43 (1):94-115.
    Standard biological and philosophical treatments assume that dramatic genotypic or phenotypic change constitutes instantaneous speciation, and that barring such saltation, speciation is gradual evolutionary change in individual properties. Both propositions appear to be incongruent with standard theoretical perspectives on species themselves, since these perspectives are (a) non-pheneticist, and (b) tend to disregard intermediate cases. After reviewing certain key elements of such perspectives, it is proposed that species-membership is mediated by membership in a population. Species-membership depends, therefore, not on intrinsic characteristics (...)
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  50. added 2008-12-31
    Trémaux on Species: A Theory of Allopatric Speciation (and Punctuated Equilibrium) Before Wagner.John S. Wilkins & Gareth J. Nelson - 2008 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 30 (1):179-206.
    Pierre Trémaux’s 1865 ideas on speciation have been unjustly derided following his acceptance by Marx and rejection by Engels, and almost nobody has read his ideas in a charitable light. Here we offer an interpretation based on translating the term sol as “habitat”, in order to show that Trémaux proposed a theory of allopatric speciation before Wagner and a punctuated equilibrium theory before Gould and Eldredge, and translate the relevant discussion from the French. We believe he may have influenced Darwin’s (...)
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