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  1. Relational Autonomy in Spinoza. Freedom and Joint Action.Claudia Aguilar - 2023 - Comparative and Continental Philosophy 15 (1):36-44.
    Over the last years, some of Spinoza studies have shifted to a consideration of the relational character of his ethics by focusing on the notion of autonomy. This concept is foreign to Spinoza's vocabulary. Therefore, I will attempt to explain what Spinozan relational autonomy is and its connection with the most important ethical concept in his philosophy: freedom. Following considerations about Spinozan freedom, I claim that it entails a relational character and that, for this reason, it is equal to relational (...)
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  2. External Conditions, Internal Rationality: Spinoza on the Rationality of Suicide.Ian MacLean-Evans - 2023 - Journal of Spinoza Studies 2 (1):40-63.
    I argue alongside some other scholars that there is a plausible reading of Spinoza’s philosophy of suicide which holds both of the following tenets: first, that suicides occur because of external conditions, and second, that there are at least some suicides which are rational. These two tenets require special attention because they seem to be the source of significant tension. For Spinoza, if one’s cognitions are to be the most adequate, they must be “disposed internally” (E2p29s/G II 114), or determined (...)
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  3. Spinoza on Learning to Live Together by Susan James.Hadley Marie Cooney - 2022 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 60 (2):347-348.
    For too long, Spinoza's ethics was misread as an ethics of ideals, in which the most virtuous life possible was said to consist of the life of pure reasoning. The "free man," Spinoza's paragon of virtue, was understood to be the individual who is neither helped nor harmed by anything external. The goal, on this view, was to transcend the life of the body, of the material, and of the political, in order to focus solely on becoming like God by (...)
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  4. The Ethics of Joy: Spinoza on the Empowered Life by Andrew Youpa.Julie R. Klein - 2022 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 60 (1):162-163.
    The Ethics of Joy offers reconstructive argument, careful engagement with select literature, and a big-picture presentation of Spinoza’s view of the well-lived human life. Not “convinced that Kantians in ethics are Kantians because of an argument that Kant or Korsgaard makes,” Andrew Youpa urges us to consider Spinoza’s view as “an alternative way of thinking about our lives—an alternative that is illuminating and insightful”. Since “the presentation of an illuminating alternative is arguably the best a philosopher can do”, this is (...)
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  5. Guided by Joy: Becoming-Active in Deleuze’s Spinoza.Eric Aldieri - 2021 - Deleuze and Guattari Studies 16 (2):214-232.
    Spinoza’s Ethics makes reference to three kinds of knowledge that humans are capable of winning: imagination, reason and intuitive knowledge of God. Of these, imagination is necessarily inadequate while the latter two are necessarily adequate. In other words, we remain passive in the first type of knowledge, but come into our power of acting in the latter two. The passage from the first to the second and third types of knowledge, however, remains, in Spinoza’s text, rather obscure. This paper seeks (...)
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  6. “Wise Passiveness”: Wordsworth, Spinoza, and the Ethics of Passivity.Jérémie LeClerc - 2021 - Lumen: Selected Proceedings From the Canadian Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies 40:75-97.
    This article frames the poetry of William Wordsworth and the philosophical writings of Spinoza as mutually illuminating works exploring the ethical and ontological questions raised by bodies in states of passivity and immobility. Both writers, it argues, revise our idea of what a “powerful” body might be by developing the concept of “dynamic passivity”—a passivity that does not stand in simple opposition to states of activity, and that ought to be cultivated rather than overcome in the process of empowering the (...)
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  7. The Politics of Being Part of Nature.Sandra Leonie Field - 2020 - Australasian Philosophical Review 4 (3):225-235.
    ABSTRACT Genevieve Lloyd argues that when we follow Spinoza in understanding reason as a part of nature, we gain new insights into the human condition. Specifically, we gain a new political insight: we should respond to cultural difference with a pluralist ethos. This is because there is no pure universal reason; human minds find their reason shaped differently by their various embodied social contexts. Furthermore, we can use the resources of the imagination to bring this ethos about. In my response, (...)
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  8. Interrogating Understanding in Conatus: A Commentary on Genevieve Lloyd’s ‘Reconsidering Spinoza’s “Rationalism”’.Steph Marston - 2020 - Australasian Philosophical Review 4 (3):266-270.
    ABSTRACT According to Genevieve Lloyd, conatus is manifested in body as a fixed ratio of motion and rest and in mind as increasing adequate understanding. The commentary provides textual analysis to resolve the apparent paradox that bodily stability corresponds to intellectual growth. The activity of adequate ideas and passivity of inadequate ideas are identified as analogues of motion and rest in Spinoza’s philosophy of mind and these are put to work in exploring what is required for increasing one’s adequate understanding: (...)
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  9. Think Least of Death: Spinoza on How to Live and How to Die.Steven M. Nadler - 2020 - Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    From Pulitzer Prize-finalist Steven Nadler, an engaging guide to what Spinoza can teach us about life’s big questions In 1656, after being excommunicated from Amsterdam’s Portuguese-Jewish community for “abominable heresies” and “monstrous deeds,” the young Baruch Spinoza abandoned his family’s import business to dedicate his life to philosophy. He quickly became notorious across Europe for his views on God, the Bible, and miracles, as well as for his uncompromising defense of free thought. Yet the radicalism of Spinoza’s views has long (...)
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  10. Spinozistic Selves.Samuel Newlands - 2020 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 6 (1):16-35.
    Spinoza'sEthicspromises a path for sweeping personal transformations, but his accounts face two sets of overarching problems. The first concerns his peculiar metaphysics of action and agents; the second his apparent neglect of the very category of persons. Although these are somewhat distinct concerns, they have a common, unified solution in Spinoza's system that is philosophically rich and interesting, both in its own right and in relation to contemporary work in moral philosophy. After presenting the core of the problem facing Spinoza's (...)
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  11. Descartes and Spinoza on the Primitive Passions.Lisa Shapiro - 2020 - In Noa Naaman-Zauderer (ed.), Freedom, Action, and Motivation in Spinoza's Ethics. Routledge Press. pp. 62-81.
    Motivating my discussion is a puzzle in Spinoza’s account of the primary affects – his shift away from adopting Descartes’s list of six primitive passions in the Short Treatise to the three primary affects in the Ethics. I lay out this puzzle in Section 1. In Section 2, I approach this puzzle by considering the taxonomy offered by Descartes of the basic or primitive passions. In considering Descartes, I will also briefly consider Aquinas’s view since Descartes positions himself as rejecting (...)
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  12. Spinoza on Action and Immanent Causation.Stephen Zylstra - 2020 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 102 (1):29-55.
    I address an apparent conflict between Spinoza’s concepts of immanent causation and acting/doing [agere]. Spinoza apparently holds that an immanent cause undergoes [patitur] whatever it does. Yet according to his stated definition of acting and undergoing in the Ethics, this is impossible; to act is to be an adequate cause, while to undergo is to be merely a partial cause. Spinoza also seems committed to God’s being the adequate cause of all things, and, in a well-known passage, appears to deny (...)
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  13. Freedom Action and Motivation in Spinoza's Ethics.Noa Naaman Zauderer (ed.) - 2019 - New York, NY: Routledge Press.
    The present volume posits the themes of freedom, action, and motivation as the central principles that drive Spinoza's Ethics from its first part to its last. It assembles essays by internationally leading scholars who provide different, sometimes opposing interpretations of these fundamental themes as they operate across the five parts of the Ethics and within its manifold domains. The diversity of issues, approaches, and perspectives within this volume, along with the chapters' common focus, open up new ways of understanding not (...)
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  14. Affects, Actions and Passions in Spinoza: The Unity of Body and Mind.Chantal Jaquet & Tatiana Reznichenko - 2018 - Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Edited by Tatiana Reznichenko.
    Revisiting the generally accepted notion of psycho-physical parallelism in Spinoza, Chantal Jaquet offers a new analysis of the relation between body and mind. Looking at a range of Spinoza's texts, and using an original methodology, she analyses their unity in action through affects, actions and passions.
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  15. Spinoza's Political Psychology: The Taming of Fortune and Fear.Justin Steinberg - 2018 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Spinoza's Political Psychology advances a novel, comprehensive interpretation of Spinoza's political writings, exploring how his analysis of psychology informs his arguments for democracy and toleration. Justin Steinberg shows how Spinoza's political method resembles the Renaissance civic humanism in its view of governance as an adaptive craft that requires psychological attunement. He examines the ways that Spinoza deploys this realist method in the service of empowerment, suggesting that the state can affectively reorient and thereby liberate its citizens, but only if it (...)
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  16. Spinoza’s Authority in the Treatises: An Introduction.Dimitris Vardoulakis - 2018 - In Dimitris Vardoulakis & Kiarina Kordela (eds.), Spinoza’s Authority: The Political Treatises. London, UK: pp. 1-6.
  17. Raison, passions et conatus chez Spinoza.Juan-Vicente Cortés-Cuadra - 2017 - Revue des Sciences Philosophiques Et Théologiques 101 (3):405.
  18. Percorsi della schiavitù in Spinoza. Un confronto con Aristotele e La Boétie.Annunziata Di Nadro - 2017 - Esercizi Filosofici 12 (1).
    This paper presents Spinozaʼs reflection on the relationship between the concepts of slavery, conatus and desire. According to Spinoza, the man is not available at the command of others. This requires an investigation into the mode of subjection and slavery condition, defined as inability to achieve its useful and to act freely from the negative emotional constraints. In the description of slavery, and the use of historical examples that exemplify it, it is found a classical aristotelian source. The french debate (...)
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  19. Aktive Passivität? : Spinoza in Pasolinis Schweinestall.Manuele Gragnolati und Christoph F. E. Holzhey - 2017 - In Astrid Deuber-Mankowsky & Anna Tuschling (eds.), Conatus und Lebensnot: Schlüsselbegriffe der Medienanthropologie. Verlag Turia + Kant.
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  20. Spinoza and the Power of Reason.Michael LeBuffe - 2017 - In Yitzhak Melamed (ed.), Cambridge Critical Guide to Spinoza’s Ethics. Cambridge: pp. 304 - 319.
  21. Law as Adequate Emotion: Spinoza’s Legacy.Jean-Baptiste Pointel - 2016 - Archiv für Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie 102 (2):261-277.
    Spinoza might solve the Body-Mind problem with parallelism: physical events are correlated instantly by mental events, which are ideas. Everyone has a force needing a direction to create a motion. With adequate knowledge, we can reallocate the Emotion adequately to empower us. Modern Spinozism can be summed up as: full naturalism, radical determinism, theoretical antihumanism, denunciation of methodological individualism, and pure relational approach of human realities. Bringing Spinoza in nowadays analysis of law unfolds two paths of study: law is institutions (...)
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  22. Spinoza on Emotion and Akrasia.Christiaan Remmelzwaal - 2016 - Dissertation, Université de Neuchatel
    The objective of this doctoral dissertation is to interpret the explanation of akrasia that the Dutch philosopher Benedictus Spinoza (1632-1677) gives in his work The Ethics. One is said to act acratically when one intentionally performs an action that one judges to be worse than another action which one believes one might perform instead. In order to interpret Spinoza’s explanation of akrasia, a large part of this dissertation investigates Spinoza’s theory of emotion. The first chapter is introductory and outlines Spinoza’s (...)
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  23. Educating for Immortality: Spinoza and the Pedagogy of Gradual Existence.Johan Dahlbeck - 2015 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 49 (3):347-365.
    This article begins with the question: What is it to live? It is argued that, from a Spinozistic perspective, to live is not an either/or kind of matter. Rather, it is something that inevitably comes in degrees. The idea is that through good education and proper training a person can learn to increase his or her degree of existence by acquiring more adequate ideas. This gradual qualitative enhancement of existence is an operationalization of Spinoza's quest for immortality of the mind. (...)
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  24. Restricting Spinoza's Causal Axiom.John Morrison - 2015 - Philosophical Quarterly 65 (258):40-63.
    Spinoza's causal axiom is at the foundation of the Ethics. I motivate, develop and defend a new interpretation that I call the ‘causally restricted interpretation’. This interpretation solves several longstanding puzzles and helps us better understand Spinoza's arguments for some of his most famous doctrines, including his parallelism doctrine and his theory of sense perception. It also undermines a widespread view about the relationship between the three fundamental, undefined notions in Spinoza's metaphysics: causation, conception and inherence.
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  25. The Ontology of Determination: From Descartes to Spinoza.Andrea Sangiacomo - 2015 - Science in Context 28 (4):515-543.
    This paper argues that Spinoza's notions of “conatus” and “power of acting” are derived by means of generalization from the notions of “force of motion” and “force of determination” that Spinoza discussed in his Principles of Cartesian Philosophy to account for interactions among bodies on the basis of their degrees of contrariety. I argue that in the Ethics, Spinoza's ontology entails that interactions must always be accounted for in terms of degrees of “agreement or disagreement in nature” among interacting things. (...)
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  26. Theory of Conatus.Valtteri Viljanen - 2015 - In André Santos Campos (ed.), Spinoza: Basic Concepts. Exeter: Imprint Academic. pp. 95–105.
    In this essay, I will begin by delineating the context of the conatus principle, after which I will provide a reading of the two propositions (EIIIP6 and P7) that contain the very core of the theory. This in turn will enable me to explain how Spinoza’s theory of conatus is connected to his views on desire, activity, and teleology.
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  27. On Habit.Clare Carlisle - 2014 - New York: Routledge.
    For Aristotle, excellence is not an act but a habit, and Hume regards habit as ‘the great guide of life’. However, for Proust habit is problematic: ‘if habit is a second nature, it prevents us from knowing our first.’ What is habit? Do habits turn us into machines or free us to do more creative things? Should religious faith be habitual? Does habit help or hinder the practice of philosophy? Why do Luther, Spinoza, Kant, Kierkegaard and Bergson all criticise habit? (...)
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  28. Spinoza on Activity in Sense Perception.Valtteri Viljanen - 2014 - In José Filipe Silva & Mikko Yrjönsuuri (eds.), Active Perception in the History of Philosophy: From Plato to Modern Philosophy. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 241-254.
    There can be little disagreement about whether ideas of sense perception are, for Spinoza, to be classed as passions or actions—the former is obviously the correct answer. All this, however, does not mean that sense perception would be, for Spinoza, completely passive. In this essay I argue argues that there is in the Ethics an elaborate—and to my knowledge previously unacknowledged—line of reasoning according to which sense perception of finite things never fails to contain a definite active component. This argument (...)
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  29. Spinoza’s Hobbesian Naturalism and Its Promise for a Feminist Theory of Power.Ericka Tucker - 2013 - Revista Conatus - Filosofia de Spinoza 7 (13):11-23.
    This paper examines recent feminist work on Spinoza and identifies the elements of Spinoza’s philosophy that have been seen as promising for feminist naturalism. I argue that the elements of Spinoza’s work that feminist theorists have found so promising are precisely those concepts he derives from Hobbes. I argue that the misunderstanding of Hobbes as architect of the egoist model of human nature has effaced his contribution to Spinoza’s more praised conception of the human individual. Despite misconceptions, I argue that (...)
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  30. Spinoza and the Theory of Active Tolerance.Lars Tønder - 2013 - Political Theory 41 (5):687-709.
    This paper considers the politics of tolerance through the lens of Spinoza’s philosophy of immanence. The contention is that Spinoza’s philosophy of immanence provides us with a better conceptualization of the relationship between tolerance and power, and that it in so doing reinvigorates a theory of active tolerance that, for the most part, has been lost in contemporary democratic theory. Spinoza’s philosophy of immanence does so because it animates a sensorial orientation to politics, one that heightens our attention to the (...)
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  31. Identitas discernibilium. Spinoza und Fichte über Streben, Trieb und Affekt.Günter Zöller - 2013 - In Stefan Lang & Lars Thade Ulrichs (eds.), Subjektivität und Autonomie: Praktische Selbstverhältnisse in der klassischen deutschen Philosophie. De Gruyter. pp. 259-274.
  32. Substantial Powers, Active Affects: The Intentionality of Objects.Levi R. Bryant - 2012 - Deleuze and Guatarri Studies 6 (4):529-543.
    What can Dungeons & Dragons teach us about the being of beings? This article argues that Dungeons & Dragons introduces us to a world composed of objects or entities, where the being of objects is defined not by their qualities, but rather by their powers, capacities or affects. Drawing on the thought of Spinoza, Deleuze and Molnar, objects are seen to be defined by what they can do or their capacities to act, such that qualities are effects of these acts. (...)
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  33. Spinoza on Destroying Passions with Reason.Colin Marshall - 2012 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 85 (1):139-160.
    Spinoza claims we can control any passion by forming a more clear and distinct idea of it. The interpretive consensus is that Spinoza is either wrong or over-stating his view. I argue that Spinoza’s view is plausible and insightful. After breaking down Spinoza’s characterization of the relevant act, I consider four existing interpretations and conclude that each is unsatisfactory. I then consider a further problem for Spinoza: how his definitions of ‘action’ and ‘passion’ make room for passions becoming action. I (...)
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  34. La ontología naturalista de Spinoza como ontología de la pasión.Inmaculada Hoyos Sánchez - 2012 - Logos. Anales Del Seminario de Metafísica [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, España] 45:95-122.
    The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, it deals with showing that Spinoza´s ontology is naturalistic because it conceives of reality as nature, and, in this way, it combats all form of mystification that presents us the reality as something supernatural and transcendent nature itself. Secondly, it deals with showing, according to characteristic features of Spinoza ´s naturalism, that is, its dynamism and its materialistic elements, that Spinoza´s ontology is an ontology of the passions. The passions are, according to (...)
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  35. Why Spinoza is Not an Eleatic Monist (Or Why Diversity Exists).Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2011 - In Philip Goff (ed.), Spinoza on Monism. Palgrave.
    “Why did God create the World?” is one of the traditional questions of theology. In the twentieth century this question was rephrased in a secularized manner as “Why is there something rather than nothing?” While creation - at least in its traditional, temporal, sense - has little place in Spinoza’s system, a variant of the same questions puts Spinoza’s system under significant pressure. According to Spinoza, God, or the substance, has infinitely many modes. This infinity of modes follow from the (...)
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  36. Natural Passions, Reason and Religious Emotion in Hobbes & Spinoza.Amy M. Schmitter - 2011 - In Ingolf U. Dalferth & Michael Rodgers (eds.), Passions and Passivity: Claremont Studies in Religion 2009. Mohr Siebeck. pp. 49-68.
  37. Spinoza and the politics of renaturalization.Hasana Sharp - 2011 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Reconfiguring the human -- Lines, planes, and bodies: redefining human action -- Action as affect -- The transindividuality of affect -- The tongue -- Renaturalizing ideology: Spinoza's ecosystem of ideas -- The matrix -- Ideology critique today? -- The fly in the coach -- "I am in ideology," or the attribute of thought -- What is to be done? -- Man's utility to man: reason and its place in nature -- The politics of human nature -- Reason and the human (...)
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  38. Spinoza's Geometry of Power.Valtteri Viljanen - 2011 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    This work examines the unique way in which Benedict de Spinoza combines two significant philosophical principles: that real existence requires causal power and that geometrical objects display exceptionally clearly how things have properties in virtue of their essences. Valtteri Viljanen argues that underlying Spinoza's psychology and ethics is a compelling metaphysical theory according to which each and every genuine thing is an entity of power endowed with an internal structure akin to that of geometrical objects. This allows Spinoza to offer (...)
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  39. Perfection and desire: Spinoza on the good.Matthew J. Kisner - 2010 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 91 (1):97-117.
    While Spinoza claims that our good is both what increases our essential power and what helps us to satisfy our desires, he admits that people desire things that do not increase their power. This paper addresses this problem by arguing that Spinoza conceives of desires as expressions of our conatus , so that satisfying our desires necessarily increases our power and vice versa. This reading holds, in opposition to recent work, that Spinoza upholds a desire-satisfaction theory of the good, though (...)
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  40. The Politics of Spinoza’s Vanishing Dichotomies.Amélie Oksenberg Rorty - 2010 - Political Theory 38 (1):131-141.
    Spinoza’s project of showing how the mind can be freed from its passive affects and the State from its divisive factions ultimately coincides with the aims announced in the subtitle of the Tractatus-Theologico-Politicus “to demonstrate that [the] freedom to philosophize does not endanger the piety and obedience required for civic peace.”1 Both projects rest on a set of provisional isomorphic distinctions—between adequate and inadequate ideas, between reason and the imagination, between active and passive affects—that Spinoza proceeds to blur, and indeed (...)
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  41. The Politics of Spinoza’s Vanishing Dichotomies.Amélie Oksenberg Rorty - 2010 - Political Theory 38 (1):131 - 141.
    Spinoza's project of showing how the mind can be freed from its passive affects and the State from its divisive factions (E IV.Appendix and V.Preface) ultimately coincides with the aims announced in the subtitle of the Tractatus-Theologico-Politicus (TTP) "to demonstrate that [the] freedom to philosophize does not endanger the piety and obedience required for civic peace." Both projects rest on a set of provisional isomorphic distinctions—between adequate and inadequate ideas, between reason and the imagination, between active and passive affects—that Spinoza (...)
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  42. Spinoza on action.Olli Koistinen - 2009 - In The Cambridge Companion to Spinoza's Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
  43. From Bondage to Freedom: Spinoza on Human Excellence.Michael LeBuffe - 2009 - New York, US: Oxford University Press USA.
    Spinoza rejects fundamental tenets of received morality, including the notions of Providence and free will. Yet he retains rich theories of good and evil, virtue, perfection, and freedom. Building interconnected readings of Spinoza's accounts of imagination, error, and desire, Michael LeBuffe defends a comprehensive interpretation of Spinoza's enlightened vision of human excellence. Spinoza holds that what is fundamental to human morality is the fact that we find things to be good or evil, not what we take those designations to mean. (...)
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  44. Immanence et extériorité absolue.Mogens Lærke - 2009 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 134 (2):169-190.
    Cet article explore la conception spinozienne du rapport entre substance et mode en analysant les notions de cause de soi, de cause immanente et de puissance. Nous soutenons que la théorie spinozienne de la causalité constitue une tentative pour développer une ontologie relationnelle de la puissance dans laquelle toute dénomination intrinsèque est fondée sur une dénomination extrinsèque. Par opposition à une interprétation courante selon laquelle la substance de Spinoza est une sorte de grande monade dans laquelle toutes choses inhèrent comme (...)
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  45. Spinoza and the problematic acquaintance with passions. [Spanish].Miguel Omar Masci - 2009 - Eidos: Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad Del Norte 9:282-311.
    Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-bidi-font-family:CalistoMT;} Spinoza’s deductive metaphysic system states a problem in regard to the knowledge of the passions. On the one hand, the passions are explained like body’s affections, but the soul has a mutilated and confused knowledge of (...)
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  46. Partem totius naturae esse: Spinoza’s alternative to the mutual incomprehension of physicalism and mentalism in psychology.William Meehan - 2009 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 29 (1):47-59.
    Spinoza’s account of human agency is presented as a solution to the fundamental dichotomy between physicalism and mentalism in psychology. It is argued that this dichotomy originates in the 17th century with the Cartesian and Hobbesian responses to the collapse of the Scholastic synthesis. Spinoza’s view of nature as equally Mind and Body, and his understanding of efficient causality as grounded in a self-caused natural totality are described. Spinozism’s relative lack of influence on contemporary scientific culture is attributed to his (...)
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  47. Joy according to Descartes and Spinoza. Żelazna - 2009 - In Halina Święczkowska (ed.), Philosophical and Social Thought of the 17th Century. Polish Contemporary Research Perspective. University of Białystok.
    The following article summarises some of the aspects of joy as a spiritual state (Descartes), and as an affect / stimulation of the modi of nature (Spinoza). The psycho-physiological (Descartes) and ontological (Spinoza) placement of joy creates basic differences in evaluation of the said state by the two philosophers. As a result, the moral instructions provided by them to the reader vary in an approach to the emotions and their effect on human actions. Descartes values the importance of sadness as (...)
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  48. Spinoza on the problem of akrasia.Eugene Marshall - 2008 - European Journal of Philosophy 18 (1):41-59.
    : Two common ways of explaining akrasia will be presented, one which focuses on strength of desire and the other which focuses on action issuing from practical judgment. Though each is intuitive in a certain way, they both fail as explanations of the most interesting cases of akrasia. Spinoza 's own thoughts on bondage and the affects follow, from which a Spinozist explanation of akrasia is constructed. This account is based in Spinoza 's mechanistic psychology of cognitive affects. Because Spinoza (...)
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  49. Adequacy and Innateness in Spinoza.Eugene Marshall - 2008 - In Daniel Garber & Steven Nadler (eds.), Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy Volume Iv. Oxford University Press.
  50. Perfection, power and the passions in Spinoza and Leibniz.Brandon C. Look - 2007 - Revue Roumaine de la Philosophie 51 (1-2):21-38.
    In a short piece written most likely in the 1690s and given the title by Loemker of “On Wisdom,” Leibniz says the following: “...we see that happiness, pleasure, love, perfection, being, power, freedom, harmony, order, and beauty are all tied to each other, a truth which is rightly perceived by few.”1 Why is this? That is, why or how are these concepts tied to each other? And, why have so few understood this relation? Historians of philosophy are familiar with the (...)
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