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  1. added 2019-06-18
    From Bondage to Freedom: Spinoza on Human Excellence.Michael Lebuffe - 2010 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Spinoza rejects fundamental tenets of received morality, including the notions of Providence and free will. Yet he retains rich theories of good and evil, virtue, perfection, and freedom. Building interconnected readings of Spinoza's accounts of imagination, error, and desire, Michael LeBuffe defends a comprehensive interpretation of Spinoza's enlightened vision of human excellence. Spinoza holds that what is fundamental to human morality is the fact that we find things to be good or evil, not what we take those designations to mean. (...)
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  2. added 2019-06-06
    Habitude, Connaissance Et Vertu Chez Spinoza.Syliane Malinowski-Charles - 2004 - Dialogue 43 (1):99-124.
    La notion d’habitude est-elle amenée à jouer un rôle dans l’éthique spinoziste? Une première réponse à cette question doit être négative, si l’on considère que le concept et les formules servant à l’exprimer ne sont pas théorisées directement dans les textes et servent généralement à désigner les coutumes ou les traits constants entre les hommes, ce qui est un sens différent de celui qui nous intéresse spécifiquement ici. Pourtant, la question mérite assurément d’être posée, et ce dans l’optique d’une interrogation (...)
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  3. added 2019-06-06
    Dreaming with Open Eyes: Cartesian Dreams, Spinozan Analyses.Julie R. Klein - 2003 - Idealistic Studies 33 (2/3):141-159.
    "Dreaming with open eyes" is a tagline for Spinoza's critique of Descartes; the dreams in question are principally those of volition and the active imagination. In this article, I compare the Cartesian theory of imagination as an active, but not fully rational, power of the mind and the Cartesian account of the volitional self to Spinoza's views. Descartes's own dreams and theories of dreaming are the focus of the first part of the article. Thereafter I examine Spinoza's critique of Descartes (...)
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  4. added 2019-06-05
    Spinoza on Emotion and Akrasia.Christiaan Remmelzwaal - 2016 - Dissertation, Université de Neuchatel
    The objective of this doctoral dissertation is to interpret the explanation of akrasia that the Dutch philosopher Benedictus Spinoza (1632-1677) gives in his work The Ethics. One is said to act acratically when one intentionally performs an action that one judges to be worse than another action which one believes one might perform instead. In order to interpret Spinoza’s explanation of akrasia, a large part of this dissertation investigates Spinoza’s theory of emotion. The first chapter is introductory and outlines Spinoza’s (...)
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  5. added 2018-02-27
    Raison, passions et conatus chez Spinoza.Juan-Vicente Cortés-Cuadra - 2017 - Revue des Sciences Philosophiques Et Théologiques 101 (3):405.
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  6. added 2018-02-18
    Error.Nicholas Rescher - 2006 - University of Pittsburgh Press.
    In _Error,_ Nicholas Rescher presents a fresh analysis of the occurrence, causality, and consequences of error in human thought, action, and evaluation. Rescher maintains that error-avoidance and truth-achievement are distinct but equally important factors for rational inquiry, and that error is inherent in the human cognitive process. He defines three main categories of error: cognitive ; practical ; and axiological, and articulates the factors that contribute to each. His discussion also provides a historical perspective on the treatment of error in (...)
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  7. added 2017-11-08
    Desire and Affect: Spinoza as Psychologist. [REVIEW]G. H. R. Parkinson - 2004 - International Studies in Philosophy 36 (1):371-373.
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  8. added 2017-11-08
    Spinoza’s Materialist Ethics: The Education of Desire.Heidi M. Ravven - 1990 - International Studies in Philosophy 22 (3):59-78.
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  9. added 2017-11-08
    Russell, Spinoza and Desire [Review of Kenneth Blackwell, The Spinozistic Ethics of Bertrand Russell].Ibrahim Najjar - 1987 - Russell: The Journal of Bertrand Russell Studies 7 (2):183.
  10. added 2016-12-12
    Enlightenment and Action From Descartes to Kant: Passionate Thought.Michael Losonsky - 2001 - Cambridge University Press.
    Kant believed that true enlightenment is the use of reason freely in public. This book systematicaaly traces the philosophical origins and development of the idea that the improvement of human understanding requires public activity. Michael Losonsky focuses on seventeenth-century discussions of the problem of irresolution and the closely connected theme of the role of volition in human belief formation. This involves a discussion of the work of Descartes, Hobbes, Locke, Spinoza and Leibniz. Challenging the traditional views of seventeenth-century philosophy and (...)
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  11. added 2016-12-05
    Inleiding tot de affectleer van Spinoza.De H. Dijn - 1977 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 39:399-408.
    After a sketch of the metaphysical and anthropological foundations of Spinoza's theory of affects, the basic notions of this theory and their relations are investigated. A short discussion on the difference between Descartes and Spinoza as to how to control our passive affects ends this paper.
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  12. added 2016-08-18
    Choreographing Problems: Expressive Concepts in European Contemporary Dance.Bojana Cvejic - unknown
    This dissertation explores how a recent set of practices in contemporary choreography in Europe give rise to distinctive concepts of its own, concepts that account for processes of making, performing, and attending choreographic performances. The concepts express problems that distinguish the creation of seven works examined here. The problems posed by these choreographers critically address the prevailing regime of representation in theatrical dance, a regime characterized by an emphasis on bodily movement, identification of the human body, and the theater's act (...)
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  13. added 2016-08-18
    Renaturalizing the Individual with Borderline Personality Disorder.Amanda Plain - unknown
    Borderline Personality Disorder is among the most troubling Personality Disorders. Individuals with the disorder have exaggerated fears of abandonment, distorted self-identity and problems in interpersonal relationships, and are prone to self-abuse, suicide ideation and attempts, rage and aggression. Furthermore, these individuals have an exceptional aversion to admitting that these problematic behaviours are symptomatic of an underlying disorder, and therefore in accepting responsibility for their behaviour. Using a Spinozist approach, I analyze that we the public share in the responsibility for having (...)
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  14. added 2016-08-17
    Educating for Immortality: Spinoza and the Pedagogy of Gradual Existence.Johan Dahlbeck - 2015 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 49 (3):347-365.
    This article begins with the question: What is it to live? It is argued that, from a Spinozistic perspective, to live is not an either/or kind of matter. Rather, it is something that inevitably comes in degrees. The idea is that through good education and proper training a person can learn to increase his or her degree of existence by acquiring more adequate ideas. This gradual qualitative enhancement of existence is an operationalization of Spinoza's quest for immortality of the mind. (...)
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  15. added 2016-08-17
    On Habit.Clare Carlisle - 2014 - Routledge.
    For Aristotle, excellence is not an act but a habit, and Hume regards habit as ‘the great guide of life’. However, for Proust habit is problematic: ‘if habit is a second nature, it prevents us from knowing our first.’ What is habit? Do habits turn us into machines or free us to do more creative things? Should religious faith be habitual? Does habit help or hinder the practice of philosophy? Why do Luther, Spinoza, Kant, Kierkegaard and Bergson all criticise habit? (...)
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  16. added 2016-08-17
    Substantial Powers, Active Affects: The Intentionality of Objects.Levi R. Bryant - 2012 - Deleuze and Guatarri Studies 6 (4):529-543.
    What can Dungeons & Dragons teach us about the being of beings? This article argues that Dungeons & Dragons introduces us to a world composed of objects or entities, where the being of objects is defined not by their qualities, but rather by their powers, capacities or affects. Drawing on the thought of Spinoza, Deleuze and Molnar, objects are seen to be defined by what they can do or their capacities to act, such that qualities are effects of these acts. (...)
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  17. added 2016-02-19
    Spinoza's Geometry of Power.Valtteri Viljanen - 2011 - Cambridge University Press.
    This work examines the unique way in which Benedict de Spinoza combines two significant philosophical principles: that real existence requires causal power and that geometrical objects display exceptionally clearly how things have properties in virtue of their essences. Valtteri Viljanen argues that underlying Spinoza's psychology and ethics is a compelling metaphysical theory according to which each and every genuine thing is an entity of power endowed with an internal structure akin to that of geometrical objects. This allows Spinoza to offer (...)
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  18. added 2015-12-05
    Spinoza and the Theory of Active Tolerance.Lars Tønder - 2013 - Political Theory 41 (5):687-709.
    This paper considers the politics of tolerance through the lens of Spinoza’s philosophy of immanence. The contention is that Spinoza’s philosophy of immanence provides us with a better conceptualization of the relationship between tolerance and power, and that it in so doing reinvigorates a theory of active tolerance that, for the most part, has been lost in contemporary democratic theory. Spinoza’s philosophy of immanence does so because it animates a sensorial orientation to politics, one that heightens our attention to the (...)
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  19. added 2015-12-05
    Why Spinoza is Not an Eleatic Monist (Or Why Diversity Exists).Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2011 - In Philip Goff (ed.), Spinoza on Monism. Palgrave.
    “Why did God create the World?” is one of the traditional questions of theology. In the twentieth century this question was rephrased in a secularized manner as “Why is there something rather than nothing?” While creation - at least in its traditional, temporal, sense - has little place in Spinoza’s system, a variant of the same questions puts Spinoza’s system under significant pressure. According to Spinoza, God, or the substance, has infinitely many modes. This infinity of modes follow from the (...)
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  20. added 2015-12-05
    The Politics of Spinoza’s Vanishing Dichotomies.Amélie Oksenberg Rorty - 2010 - Political Theory 38 (1):131 - 141.
    Spinoza's project of showing how the mind can be freed from its passive affects and the State from its divisive factions (E IV.Appendix and V.Preface) ultimately coincides with the aims announced in the subtitle of the Tractatus-Theologico-Politicus (TTP) "to demonstrate that [the] freedom to philosophize does not endanger the piety and obedience required for civic peace." Both projects rest on a set of provisional isomorphic distinctions—between adequate and inadequate ideas, between reason and the imagination, between active and passive affects—that Spinoza (...)
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  21. added 2015-12-05
    The Politics of Spinoza’s Vanishing Dichotomies.Amélie Oksenberg Rorty - 2010 - Political Theory 38 (1):131-141.
    Spinoza’s project of showing how the mind can be freed from its passive affects and the State from its divisive factions ultimately coincides with the aims announced in the subtitle of the Tractatus-Theologico-Politicus “to demonstrate that [the] freedom to philosophize does not endanger the piety and obedience required for civic peace.” 1 Both projects rest on a set of provisional isomorphic distinctions—between adequate and inadequate ideas, between reason and the imagination, between active and passive affects—that Spinoza proceeds to blur, and (...)
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  22. added 2015-12-05
    The Ontological Foundations of Knowledge in Spinoza.Yiu Hung Tsap - 2003 - Dissertation, New School University
    This dissertation deals with Spinoza's notion of adequate ideas. From Spinoza's perspective, the adequate idea as God's essence entails absolute certainty. To know an idea adequately, one must reach the infinite and eternal aspects of God's essence. Only by doing so can one fulfill the criteria of truth, namely truth as coherence and truth as correspondence. A true idea is one which satisfies all the internal marks, and its ideatum as the physical image corresponds to every aspect of the thing. (...)
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  23. added 2015-12-05
    Self-Preservation and Love in Spinoza's "Ethics".Anneliese Hoos - 2000 - Dissertation, Columbia University
    In my dissertation I explore the relationship between Spinoza's conception of self-preservation and the various forms of love discussed in the Ethics. After considering his early conception of love in the first of four chapters, I show how love, in all its forms, is related to Spinoza's conception of conatus or striving to persist in existence. In contrast to other interpretations of the Ethics, I emphasize the non-teleological component of Spinoza's mature philosophy and argue that love, in particular intellectual love, (...)
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  24. added 2015-12-05
    Spinoza's Theory on the Active and Passive Nature of Knowledge - Bibliography.Filippo Mignini - 1986 - Studia Spinozana: An International and Interdisciplinary Series 2:56.
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  25. added 2015-12-05
    Spinoza's Theory on the Active and Passive Nature of Knowledge - Résumé.Filippo Mignini - 1986 - Studia Spinozana: An International and Interdisciplinary Series 2:58.
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  26. added 2015-12-05
    What Spinoza’s View of Freedom Should Have Been.Frank Lucash - 1984 - Philosophy Research Archives 10:491-499.
    I argue that Spinoza’s view of freedom in Part 5 of the Ethics is not incompatible with his view of determinism in Part 1, as Kolakowski claims, nor is it compatible for the reasons Parkinson, Hampshire, and Naess offer. Spinoza did not work out a clear view of how freedom differs from determinism. Using various resources in Spinoza, I present a view of freedom which is different from both internal or atemporal determinism and external or temporal determinism. Freedom, in the (...)
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  27. added 2015-12-05
    The Knower and the Known.Guttorm Fløistad - 1970 - Man and World 3 (2):3-25.
    This paper is a presentation and discussion of Spinoza's view on the knower, or the mind, as an agent. The knower is on his view to be regarded as an active or generative complex cognitive experience. Imagination, reason and intuition are the cognitive principles. On account of their intrinsic relation to “the first law of nature”, that of selfpreservation, together with the thesis of the mind as constituted by ideas or knowledge, these principles function at the same time as moral (...)
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  28. added 2015-12-04
    Spinoza’s Hobbesian Naturalism and Its Promise for a Feminist Theory of Power.Ericka Tucker - 2013 - Revista Conatus - Filosofia de Spinoza 7 (13):11-23.
    This paper examines recent feminist work on Spinoza and identifies the elements of Spinoza’s philosophy that have been seen as promising for feminist naturalism. I argue that the elements of Spinoza’s work that feminist theorists have found so promising are precisely those concepts he derives from Hobbes. I argue that the misunderstanding of Hobbes as architect of the egoist model of human nature has effaced his contribution to Spinoza’s more praised conception of the human individual. Despite misconceptions, I argue that (...)
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  29. added 2015-12-04
    La ontología naturalista de Spinoza como ontología de la pasión.Inmaculada Hoyos Sánchez - 2012 - Logos. Anales Del Seminario de Metafísica [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, España] 45:95-122.
    The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, it deals with showing that Spinoza´s ontology is naturalistic because it conceives of reality as nature, and, in this way, it combats all form of mystification that presents us the reality as something supernatural and transcendent nature itself. Secondly, it deals with showing, according to characteristic features of Spinoza ´s naturalism, that is, its dynamism and its materialistic elements, that Spinoza´s ontology is an ontology of the passions. The passions are, according to (...)
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  30. added 2015-12-04
    Spinoza and the Politics of Renaturalization.Hasana Sharp - 2011 - University of Chicago Press.
    Reconfiguring the human -- Lines, planes, and bodies: redefining human action -- Action as affect -- The transindividuality of affect -- The tongue -- Renaturalizing ideology: Spinoza's ecosystem of ideas -- The matrix -- Ideology critique today? -- The fly in the coach -- "I am in ideology," or the attribute of thought -- What is to be done? -- Man's utility to man: reason and its place in nature -- The politics of human nature -- Reason and the human (...)
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  31. added 2015-12-04
    Natural Passions, Reason and Religious Emotion in Hobbes & Spinoza.Amy M. Schmitter - 2011 - In Ingolf U. Dalferth & Michael Rodgers (eds.), Passions and Passivity: Claremont Studies in Religion 2009. Mohr Siebeck. pp. 49-68.
  32. added 2015-12-04
    Spinoza on the Problem of Akrasia.Eugene Marshall - 2010 - European Journal of Philosophy 18 (1):41-59.
    : Two common ways of explaining akrasia will be presented, one which focuses on strength of desire and the other which focuses on action issuing from practical judgment. Though each is intuitive in a certain way, they both fail as explanations of the most interesting cases of akrasia. Spinoza 's own thoughts on bondage and the affects follow, from which a Spinozist explanation of akrasia is constructed. This account is based in Spinoza 's mechanistic psychology of cognitive affects. Because Spinoza (...)
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  33. added 2015-12-04
    Immanence et extériorité absolue.Mogens Lærke - 2009 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 134 (2):169-190.
    Cet article explore la conception spinozienne du rapport entre substance et mode en analysant les notions de cause de soi, de cause immanente et de puissance. Nous soutenons que la théorie spinozienne de la causalité constitue une tentative pour développer une ontologie relationnelle de la puissance dans laquelle toute dénomination intrinsèque est fondée sur une dénomination extrinsèque. Par opposition à une interprétation courante selon laquelle la substance de Spinoza est une sorte de grande monade dans laquelle toutes choses inhèrent comme (...)
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  34. added 2015-12-04
    Spinoza and the problematic acquaintance with passions. [Spanish].Miguel Omar Masci - 2009 - Eidos: Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad Del Norte 9:282-311.
    Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-bidi-font-family:CalistoMT;} Spinoza’s deductive metaphysic system states a problem in regard to the knowledge of the passions. On the one hand, the passions are explained like body’s affections, but the soul has a mutilated and confused knowledge of (...)
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  35. added 2015-12-04
    Perfection, Power and the Passions in Spinoza and Leibniz.Brandon C. Look - 2007 - Revue Roumaine de la Philosophie 51 (1-2):21-38.
    In a short piece written most likely in the 1690s and given the title by Loemker of “On Wisdom,” Leibniz says the following: “...we see that happiness, pleasure, love, perfection, being, power, freedom, harmony, order, and beauty are all tied to each other, a truth which is rightly perceived by few.”1 Why is this? That is, why or how are these concepts tied to each other? And, why have so few understood this relation? Historians of philosophy are familiar with the (...)
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  36. added 2015-12-04
    Teleology and Human Action in Spinoza.Martin Lin - 2006 - Philosophical Review 115 (3):317-354.
    Cover Date: July 2006.Source Info: 115(3), 317-354. Language: English. Journal Announcement: 41-2. Subject: ACTION; CAUSATION; METAPHYSICS; REPRESENTATION; TELEOLOGY. Subject Person: SPINOZA, BENEDICT DE (BARUCH). Update Code: 20130315.
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  37. added 2015-12-04
    Spinoza's Account of Akrasia.Martin Lin - 2006 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 44 (3):395-414.
    : Perhaps the central problem which preoccupies Spinoza as a moral philosopher is the conflict between reason and passion. He belongs to a long tradition that sees the key to happiness and virtue as mastery and control by reason over the passions. This mastery, however, is hard won, as the passions often overwhelm its power and subvert its rule. When reason succumbs to passion, we act against our better judgment. Such action is often termed 'akratic'. Many commentators have complained that (...)
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  38. added 2015-12-04
    L'analyse des passions dans la dissolution du corps politique : Spinoza et Hobbes.Julie Saada-Gendron - 2005 - Astérion 3.
    Les théories contractualistes de l’âge classique se fondent sur la conception d’un état de nature qui devient, à cause de ses contradictions internes, un état de guerre auquel il faut remédier par un artifice rationnel, le pacte. Alors même que ces contradictions sont issues des passions humaines, celles-ci semblent impensables dans le cadre purement juridique de ces théories, où ne sont analysés ni les mécanismes passionnels d’adhésion au politique, ni la menace de dissolution de l’État. Nous nous attachons à comparer (...)
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  39. added 2015-12-04
    Spinoza on Causal Explanation of Action.Juhani Pffitarinen - 2003 - In Matti Sintonen, Petri Ylikoski & Kaarlo Miller (eds.), Realism in Action: Essays in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 137.
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  40. added 2015-12-04
    La Laetitia en Spinoza.Jesús Ezquerra Gómez - 2003 - Revista de Filosofía (Madrid) 28 (1):129-155.
    Laetitia in Spinoza has a twofold meaning: on the one hand is a passion, then is a product of inadecuates ideas and is associated with the first kind of knowledge (Imaginatio); on the other hand is expression of the Conatus and is an active affect (Fortitudo) connected with the third kind of knowledge (Scientia intuitiva). This second meaning confront us to a happines no human, frozen, abyssal which prefigure thinkers as Nietzsche, Bataille or lanchot.
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  41. added 2015-12-04
    Action in Spinoza's Account of Affectivity.Lee Rice - 1999 - In Yirmiyahu Yovel (ed.). Little Room Press. pp. 155--168.
    Despite the considerable attention given to Spinoza’s account of affectivity, especially in recent years, scant attention has been paid to the distinction between action and passion, or to the problems which it presents internally and externally. This essay offers a clarification and defense of Spinoza’s account of action and passion. A second theme is the behavioristic nature of Spinoza’s account of human affectivity. Despite the bad press which behaviorism is receiving these days, I argue that the behavioristic aspects of Spinoza’s (...)
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  42. added 2015-12-04
    Moreau, Pierre, Francois on Experience and Passion in Spinoza-Concepts Developed in a Recent Book and Seminar.R. Bordoli - 1996 - Rivista di Storia Della Filosofia 51 (1):193-195.
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  43. added 2015-12-04
    Spinoza's Metaphysical Psychology.Michael Della Rocca - 1996 - In Don Garrett (ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 192--266.
    This paper analyzes and evaluates Spinoza way of carrying out his naturalistic program in psychology. I begin by examining Spinoza’s general metaphysical doctrine according to which each thing strives to preserve itself. While this doctrine cannot be true in its unqualified form, it does receive some support from Spinoza’s views on the nature of complex individuals. I then explore the problematic way in which Spinoza applies the doctrine of self -preservation to human psychology. The paper goes on the investigate the (...)
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  44. added 2015-12-04
    Passion, State, and Progress: Spinoza and Mandeville on the Nature of Human Association.Douglas J. Den Uyl - 1987 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 25 (3):369-395.
  45. added 2015-12-04
    Emotion, Thought, and Therapy a Study of Hume, Spinoza, and Freud on Thought and Passion.Jerome Neu - 1974
  46. added 2015-12-04
    Action and Passion: Spinoza's Construction of a Scientific Psychology.Marx Wartofsky - 1973 - In Marjorie Grene (ed.). Anchor Books.
  47. added 2015-12-04
    Freedom, Emotion, and Self-Subsistence.Arne Naess - 1969 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 12 (1-4):66 – 104.
    A set of basic static predicates, ?in itself, ?existing through itself, ?free?, and others are taken to be (at least) extensionally equivalent, and some consequences are drawn in Parts A and ? of the paper. Part C introduces adequate causation and adequate conceiving as extensionally equivalent. The dynamism or activism of Spinoza is reflected in the reconstruction by equating action with causing, passion (passive emotion) with being caused. The relation between conceiving (understanding) and causing is narrowed down by introducing grasping (...)
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  48. added 2015-12-04
    Freedom, Emotion, and Self-Subsistence. Ethics - 1969 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 12 (1-4):66 – 104.
    A set of basic static predicates, 'in itself, 'existing through itself, 'free', and others are taken to be (at least) extensionally equivalent, and some consequences are drawn in Parts A and ? of the paper. Part C introduces adequate causation and adequate conceiving as extensionally equivalent. The dynamism or activism of Spinoza is reflected in the reconstruction by equating action with causing, passion (passive emotion) with being caused. The relation between conceiving (understanding) and causing is narrowed down by introducing grasping (...)
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  49. added 2015-11-25
    Spinoza on Destroying Passions with Reason.Colin Marshall - 2012 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 85 (1):139-160.
    Spinoza claims we can control any passion by forming a more clear and distinct idea of it. The interpretive consensus is that Spinoza is either wrong or over-stating his view. I argue that Spinoza’s view is plausible and insightful. After breaking down Spinoza’s characterization of the relevant act, I consider four existing interpretations and conclude that each is unsatisfactory. I then consider a further problem for Spinoza: how his definitions of ‘action’ and ‘passion’ make room for passions becoming action. I (...)
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  50. added 2015-11-25
    Joy according to Descartes and Spinoza. Żelazna - 2009 - In Halina Święczkowska (ed.), Philosophical and Social Thought of the 17th Century. Polish Contemporary Research Perspective. University of Białystok.
    The following article summarises some of the aspects of joy as a spiritual state (Descartes), and as an affect / stimulation of the modi of nature (Spinoza). The psycho-physiological (Descartes) and ontological (Spinoza) placement of joy creates basic differences in evaluation of the said state by the two philosophers. As a result, the moral instructions provided by them to the reader vary in an approach to the emotions and their effect on human actions. Descartes values the importance of sadness as (...)
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