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  1. Moral Realism in Spinoza's Ethics.Colin Marshall - 2017 - In Yitzhak Melamed (ed.), The Cambridge Critical Guide to Spinoza's Ethics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 248-65.
    I argue that Spinoza is more of a moral realist than an anti-realist. More specifically, I argue that Spinoza is more of a realist than Kant, and that his view has deep similarities with Plato's metaethics. Along the way, I identify three approaches to the moral realism/anti-realism distinction. Classifying Spinoza as a moral realist brings out a number of important complexities that have been overlooked by many of Spinoza's readers and by many contemporary metaethicists.
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  2. Five Types of Ethical Theory.C. D. Broad - 1930 - New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company.
  3. Spinoza’s Law: The Epicurean Definition of the Law in the Theological Political Treatise.Dimitris Vardoulakis - 2019 - Radical Philosophy 5 (2):23-33.
    In the first few pages of chapter 4 of his Theological Political Treatise (1670), Spinoza defines his conception of the law. In fact, he defines the law twice, first in terms of compulsion or necessity and then in terms of use. I would like to investigate here these definitions, in particular the second one, as it is Spinoza’s preferred one. The difficulty with understanding this definition is that it contains an expression, ratio vivendi, that is repeated several times in the (...)
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  4. Freedom as Overcoming the Fear of Death: Epicureanism in the Subtitle of Spinoza’s Theological Political Treatise.Dimitris Vardoulakis - 2020 - Parrhesia 32:33-60.
    It is often put forward that the entire political project of epicureanism consists in the overcoming of fear, whereby its scope is deemed to be very narrow. I argue that the overcoming of the fear of death should actually be linked to a conception of freedom in epicureanism. This idea is further developed by Spinoza, who defines the free man as one who thinks of death least of all in the Ethics, and who develops this idea more in the Theological (...)
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  5. Why Is Spinoza an Epicurean?Dimitris Vardoulakis - 2020 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 24 (2):389-409.
    The article argues that Spinoza’s political philosophy is best understood by tracing the influence of epicureanism in his thought.
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  6. Spinoza on Reason.Michael LeBuffe - 2017 - Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.
    Michael LeBuffe explains claims about reason in Spinoza's metaphysics, theory of mind, ethics, and politics. He emphasizes the extent to which different claims build upon one another so contribute to the systematic coherence of Spinoza's philosophy.
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  7. Five Types of Ethical Theory.C. D. Broad - 1959 - Routledge.
  8. Myślenie, pojęcie i słowo w Etyce Spinozy.Jolanta Żelazna - 1997 - Idea Studia nad strukturą i rozwojem pojęć filozoficznych 9 (9):53-64.
Spinoza: Commands of Reason
  1. The Politics of Being Part of Nature.Sandra Leonie Field - forthcoming - Australasian Philosophical Review 2021.
    Genevieve Lloyd argues that when we follow Spinoza in understanding reason as a part of nature, we gain new insights into the human condition. Specifically, we gain a new political insight: we should respond to cultural difference with a pluralist ethos. This is because there is no pure universal reason; human minds find their reason shaped differently by their various embodied social contexts. Furthermore, we can use the resources of the imagination to bring this ethos about. In my response, I (...)
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  2. Spinoza and the Dictates of Reason.Donald Rutherford - 2008 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 51 (5):485 – 511.
    Spinoza presents the “dictates of reason” as the foundation of “the right way of living”. An influential reading of his position assimilates it to that of Hobbes. The dictates of reason are normative principles that prescribe necessary means to a necessary end: self-preservation. Against this reading I argue that, for Spinoza, the term “dictates of reason” does not refer to a set of prescriptive principles but simply the necessary consequences, or effects, of the mind's determination by adequate ideas. I draw (...)
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  3. Spinoza’s Normative Ethics.Michael Lebuffe - 2007 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 37 (3):371-391.
    Spinoza presents his ethics using a variety of terminologies. Propositions that are, or at least might be taken for, normative include only very few explicit guidelines for action. I will take this claim from Vp10s to be one such guideline:Vp10s: So that we may always have this rule of reason ready when it is needed, we should think and meditate often about common human wrongs and how and in what way they may best be driven away by nobility.
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Spinoza: Control of Passion
  1. Affective Therapy: Spinoza's Approach to Self-Cultivation.Aurelia Armstrong - 2018 - In Ethics and Self-Cultivation: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. New York: Routledge. pp. 30-46.
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  2. La influencia de Séneca en la filosofía de Spinoza: una aproximación / An approach to the influence of Seneca in Spinoza’s philosophy.Alberto Luis López - 2020 - Signos Filosóficos 43 (22):34-57.
    En filosofía es importante conocer las influencias entre los filósofos porque de ello depende tener un conocimiento más completo y preciso de sus propuestas. Ejemplo de esto son las investigaciones sobre los orígenes estoicos de la filosofía spinoziana, que se han incrementado notablemente en las últimas décadas, pero aún hace falta indagar con mayor detalle, autor por autor e idea por idea, qué tipo de estoicismo y qué parte del mismo influyó en el pensador neerlandés. En este artículo examino, a (...)
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  3. Generosity as Freedom in Spinoza's Ethics.Hasana Sharp - 2019 - In Jack Stetter & Charles Ramond (eds.), Spinoza in Twenty-First-Century American and French Philosophy: Metaphysics, Philosophy of Mind, Moral and Political Philosophy. Bloomsbury. pp. 277-288.
    Generosity is not best understood as an alliance of forces, necessary for mortal beings with limited time and skills. Sociability as generosity exceeds the realm of need and follows directly from our strength of character [fortitudo] because it expresses a positive power to overcome anti-social passions, such as hatred, envy, and the desire for revenge. Spinoza asserts that generous souls resist and overwhelm hostile forces and debilitating affects with wisdom, foresight, and love. The sociability yielded by generosity, then, is not (...)
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  4. The Politics of Being Part of Nature.Sandra Leonie Field - forthcoming - Australasian Philosophical Review 2021.
    Genevieve Lloyd argues that when we follow Spinoza in understanding reason as a part of nature, we gain new insights into the human condition. Specifically, we gain a new political insight: we should respond to cultural difference with a pluralist ethos. This is because there is no pure universal reason; human minds find their reason shaped differently by their various embodied social contexts. Furthermore, we can use the resources of the imagination to bring this ethos about. In my response, I (...)
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  5. The Bright Lights on Self Identity and Positive Reciprocity: Spinoza’s Ethics of the Other Focusing on Competency, Sustainability and the Divine Love.Ignace Haaz - 2018 - Journal of Dharma 43 (3):261-284.
    The claim of this paper is to present Spinoza’s view on self-esteem and positive reciprocity, which replaces the human being in a monistic psycho-dynamical affective framework, instead of a dualistic pedestal above nature. Without naturalising the human being in an eliminative materialistic view as many recent neuro-scientific conceptions of the mind do, Spinoza finds an important entry point in a panpsychist and holistic perspective, presenting the complexity of the human being, which is not reducible to the psycho-physiological conditions of life. (...)
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  6. Depression and the Emotions: An Argument for Cultivating Cheerfulness.Derek McAllister - 2018 - Philosophia 46 (3):771-784.
    In this paper, I offer an argument for cultivating cheerfulness as a remedy to sadness and other emotions, which, in turn, can provide some relief to certain cases of depression. My thesis has two tasks: first, to establish the link between cheerfulness and sadness, and second, to establish the link between sadness and depression. In the course of accomplishing the first task, I show that a remedy of cultivating cheerfulness to counter sadness is supported by philosophers as diverse as Thomas (...)
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  7. Ethics After the Genealogy of the Subject.Christopher Davidson - 2014 - Dissertation, Villanova University
    This work examines Michel Foucault’s critique of the present, through his analysis of our hidden but still active historical legacies. His works from the Eighties are the beginning of what he called a “genealogy of the desiring subject,” in which he shows that practices such as confession—in its juridical, psychological, and religious forms—have largely dictated how we think about our ethical selves. This constrains our notions of ethics to legalistic forbidden/required dichotomies, and requires that we engage in a hermeneutics of (...)
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  8. Inleiding tot de affectleer van Spinoza.De H. Dijn - 1977 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 39:399-408.
    After a sketch of the metaphysical and anthropological foundations of Spinoza's theory of affects, the basic notions of this theory and their relations are investigated. A short discussion on the difference between Descartes and Spinoza as to how to control our passive affects ends this paper.
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  9. Human Affects as Properties of Cognitions in Spinoza's Philosophical Psychotherapy.Amihud Gilead - 1999 - In Yirmiyahu Yovel (ed.). Little Room Press. pp. 169--181.
    The Spinozistic essence is the factor of individuation of a particular or individual thing. Affects or emotions are properties of an essence, which, under the attribute of thought, is an idea, i.e., cognition. Such essence is the human mind, which is the idea of a particular actual body. Since our emotions are properties of our cognitions, whether adequate or not, concerning the state of our body, which reflects nature as a whole in a particular way, I entitle Spinoza’s theory of (...)
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  10. Spinoza Et le Probleme de L'Akrasia: Un Aspect Neglige de l'Ordo Geometricus.Jacques Henri Gagnon - 2002 - Philosophiques 29 (1):57--71.
    The question of the weakness of the will, traditionally named akrasia after Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics (Book III), is tackled in part 4 of Spinoza’s Ethics. After a brief presentation of this problematic in the Ethics, the author shows how the geometrical order chosen by Spinoza to write his book constitutes a great part of the strategy put in place to concretely resolve this question.
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  11. Psychotherapy and Moral Perfection: Spinoza and the Stoics on the Prospect of Happiness.Firmin DeBrabander - 2004 - In Steven K. Strange & Jack Zupko (eds.), Stoicism: Traditions and Transformations. Cambridge University Press. pp. 198--213.
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  12. Aproximación a una razón afectiva desde la Ética de Spinoza.Inmaculada Hoyos Sánchez - 2011 - Daimon: Revista Internacional de Filosofía:277-283.
    El objetivo de este trabajo es mostrar que, a partir de la filosofía de Spinoza, se puede elaborar otro concepto de razón, esto es, el de una razón afectiva, que, encontrando su envés en las pasiones alegres, nos pone en el camino de conquistar cierta dosis de libertad, virtud y felicidad. El trabajo se estructura en dos partes. En la primera, se trata de determinar cuáles son las causas del estado de servidumbre en el que se encuentra el hombre. En (...)
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  13. Spinoza contra la extirpación estoica de las pasiones.Inmaculada Hoyos - 2011 - Daimon: Revista Internacional de Filosofía:59-66.
    El propósito de este trabajo es entablar un diálogo entre Spinoza y el estoicismo a propósito de su teoría de las pasiones. En este sentido, la tesis principal que se sostiene es que Spinoza mantiene una concepción de la virtud y de la felicidad similar a la aristotélica, y que, por esa razón, su terapia de las pasiones no insta a extirpar las pasiones, como sí hace el estoicismo, sino que propone seleccionarlas y encauzarlas racionalmente para aprovechar su fuerza en (...)
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  14. Spinoza in Love?Steven Barbone - 2011 - In Adrianne Leigh McEvoy (ed.), Sex, Love, and Friendship: Studies of the Society for the Philosophy of Sex and Love: 1993-2003. New York, USA: Rodopi. pp. 99-108.
    This short work asks how Baruch Spinoza might have valued the phenomenon of falling in love: is it a passion to be avoided or an action to seek? The question is illustrated by Somerset Maugham's On Human Bondage.
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  15. Spinoza and the Stoics: Power, Politics and the Passions.Firmin DeBrabander - 2007 - Continuum.
    This important book examines Spinoza's moral and political philosophy. Specifically it considers Spinoza's engagement with the themes of Stoicism and his significant contribution to the origins of the European Enlightenment. Firmin DeBrabander explores the problematic view of the relationship between ethics and politics that Spinoza apparently inherited from the Stoics and in so doing asks some important questions that contribute to a crucial contemporary debate. Does ethics provide any foundation for political theory and if so in what way? Likewise, does (...)
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  16. Stoic Psychotherapy in Descartes and Spinoza.Derk Pereboom - 1994 - Faith and Philosophy 11 (4):592-625.
    The psychotherapeutic theories of Descartes and Spinoza are heavily influenced by Stoicism. Stoic psychotherapy has two central features. First, we have a remarkable degree of voluntary control over our passions, and we can and should exercise this control to keep ourselves from having any irrational passions at all. Second, the universe is determined by the providential divine will, and in any situation we can and should align ourselves with this divine will in order to achieve equanimity. Whereas Descartes largely endorses (...)
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  17. Change and the Eternal Part of the Mind in Spinoza.Michael Lebuffe - 2010 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 91 (3):369-384.
    Spinoza insists that we can during the course of our lives increase that part of the mind that is constituted by knowledge, but he also calls that part of the mind its eternal part. How can what is eternal increase? I defend an interpretation on which there is a sense in which the eternal part of the mind can become greater without changing intrinsically at all.
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  18. The Power of Reason in Spinoza.Martin Lin - 2009 - In Olli Koistinen (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Spinoza's Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
  19. Perfection, Power and the Passions in Spinoza and Leibniz.Brandon C. Look - 2007 - Revue Roumaine de la Philosophie 51 (1-2):21-38.
    In a short piece written most likely in the 1690s and given the title by Loemker of “On Wisdom,” Leibniz says the following: “...we see that happiness, pleasure, love, perfection, being, power, freedom, harmony, order, and beauty are all tied to each other, a truth which is rightly perceived by few.”1 Why is this? That is, why or how are these concepts tied to each other? And, why have so few understood this relation? Historians of philosophy are familiar with the (...)
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  20. Adequate Understanding of Inadequate Ideas: Power and Paradox in Spinoza's Cognitive Therapy.Thomas Cook - manuscript
    Spinoza shared with his contemporaries the conviction that the passions are, on the whole, unruly and destructive. A life of virtue requires that the passions be controlled, if not entirely vanquished, and the preferred means of imposing this control over the passions is via the power of reason. But there was little agreement in the seventeenth century about just what gives reason its strength and how its power can be brought to bear upon the wayward passions.
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  21. Spinoza's Account of Akrasia.Martin Lin - 2006 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 44 (3):395-414.
    : Perhaps the central problem which preoccupies Spinoza as a moral philosopher is the conflict between reason and passion. He belongs to a long tradition that sees the key to happiness and virtue as mastery and control by reason over the passions. This mastery, however, is hard won, as the passions often overwhelm its power and subvert its rule. When reason succumbs to passion, we act against our better judgment. Such action is often termed 'akratic'. Many commentators have complained that (...)
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  22. Spinoza on the Problem of Akrasia.Eugene Marshall - 2010 - European Journal of Philosophy 18 (1):41-59.
    : Two common ways of explaining akrasia will be presented, one which focuses on strength of desire and the other which focuses on action issuing from practical judgment. Though each is intuitive in a certain way, they both fail as explanations of the most interesting cases of akrasia. Spinoza 's own thoughts on bondage and the affects follow, from which a Spinozist explanation of akrasia is constructed. This account is based in Spinoza 's mechanistic psychology of cognitive affects. Because Spinoza (...)
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Spinoza: Free Man
  1. The Ethics of Joy: Spinoza on the Empowered Life, by Andrew Youpa. New York: Oxford University Press, 2020. Pp. 208.Sandra Leonie Field - forthcoming - Mind.
    The central argument of Youpa's book is that Spinoza's moral philosophy offers a distinctive variety of moral realism, grounded in a standard of human nature. In this review essay, I provide an overview of Youpa's remarkably lucid interpretation of Spinoza. However, I also critique Youpa's conception of the 'free man' as an objective standard of perfection which (a) applies equally to all humans, and (b) which has objective moral force in the sense that it ought to be approached. I sketch (...)
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  2. A Contextualized Self: Re-Placing Ourselves Through Dōgen and Spinoza.Gerard Kuperus - 2019 - Comparative and Continental Philosophy 11 (3):222-234.
    ABSTRACTFor Dōgen, the Buddhist doctrine of “no self” ultimately presents the self as contextualized. The self is for him not an independent entity, but is intricately related to its environment, determined through the many beings around it. In a quite different philosophical setting, Spinoza developed similar ideas. While Dōgen challenged the specifics of a tradition that explicitly argues against the idea of an absolute self, Spinoza faced a more radical challenge: questioning an absolute, unchanging, and free self that the Western (...)
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  3. Two Ethical Ideals in Spinoza’s "Ethics": The Free Man and The Wise Man.Sanem Soyarslan - forthcoming - Journal of American Philosophical Association.
    According to Steven Nadler’s novel interpretation of Spinoza’s much discussed ‘free man’, the free man is not an unattainable ideal. On this reading, the free man represents an ideal condition not because he is passionless as has often been claimed, but because even though he experiences passions, he “never lets those passions determine his actions.” In this paper, I argue that Nadler’s interpretation is incorrect in taking the model of the free man to be an attainable ideal within our reach. (...)
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  4. “Spinoza on the Value of Humanity”.Yitzhak Melamed - forthcoming - In Re-Evaluating the Value of Humanity.
    Spinoza is a hardcore realist about the nature of human beings and their desires, ambitions, and delusions. But he is neither a misanthrope nor in the business of glorifying the notion of a primal and innocent non-human nature. As he writes: Let the Satirists laugh as much as they like at human affairs, let the Theologians curse them, let Melancholics praise as much as they can a life that is uncultivated and wild, let them disdain men and admire the lower (...)
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  5. The Bright Lights on Self Identity and Positive Reciprocity: Spinoza’s Ethics of the Other Focusing on Competency, Sustainability and the Divine Love.Ignace Haaz - 2018 - Journal of Dharma 43 (3):261-284.
    The claim of this paper is to present Spinoza’s view on self-esteem and positive reciprocity, which replaces the human being in a monistic psycho-dynamical affective framework, instead of a dualistic pedestal above nature. Without naturalising the human being in an eliminative materialistic view as many recent neuro-scientific conceptions of the mind do, Spinoza finds an important entry point in a panpsychist and holistic perspective, presenting the complexity of the human being, which is not reducible to the psycho-physiological conditions of life. (...)
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  6. Is Spinoza’s Theory of Finite Mind Coherent? – Death, Affectivity and Epistemology in the Ethics.Oliver Istvan Toth - 2017 - The Concept of Affectivity in Early Modern Philosophy.
    In this paper I examine the question whether Spinoza can account for the necessity of death. I argue that he cannot because within his ethical intellectualist system the subject cannot understand the cause of her death, since by understanding it renders it harmless. Then, I argue that Spinoza could not solve this difficulties because of deeper commitments of his system. At the end I draw a historical parallel to the problem from medieval philosophy.
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  7. Rational Mastery, the Perfectly Free Man, and Human Freedom.Yakir Levin - 2017 - Philosophia 45 (3):1253-1274.
    This paper examines the coherence of Spinoza’s combined account of freedom, reason, and the affects and its applicability to real humans in the context of the perfectly free man Spinoza discusses towards the end of part 4 of the Ethics. On the standard reading, the perfectly free man forms the model of human nature and thus the goal to which real humans should aspire. A recently proposed non-standard reading, however, posits that the perfectly free man should not be considered the (...)
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  8. On Spinoza's 'Free Man'.Steven Nadler - 2015 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 1 (1):103-120.
    In this paper, I examine Spinoza's 'model of human nature' in the Ethics, and especially his notion of the 'free man'. I argue that, contrary to usual interpretations, the free man is not an individual without passions and inadequate ideas but rather an individual who is able consistently to live according to the guidance of reason. Therefore, it is not an impossible and unattainable ideal or incoherent concept, as has often been claimed, but a very realizable goal for the achievement (...)
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  9. From Bondage to Freedom. [REVIEW]Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2011 - The Leibniz Review 21:153-159.
  10. Ethica Iv : Spinoza on Reason and the "Free Man" : Papers Presented at the Fourth Jerusalem Conference.Yirmiyahu Yovel & Gideon Segal (eds.) - 2004 - Little Room Press.
  11. Reconsidering Spinoza's Free Man: The Model of Human Nature.Matthew Kisner - 2010 - In Daniel Garber & Steven Nadler (eds.), Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy Volume V. Oxford University Press.
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  12. Spinoza's Ethical Man.Luis Javier Agudelo Palacio - 2011 - Escritos 19 (43):351-369.
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  13. Review of From Bondage to Freedom. [REVIEW]Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2011 - The Leibniz Review 21:153-159.
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  14. Spinoza's Ethics.Eugene Garver - 2012 - Philosophy and Theology 24 (2):155-190.
    The Preface to Part 4 of Spinoza’s Ethics claims that we all desire to formulate a model of human nature. I show how that model serves the same function in ethics as the creed or articles of faith do in the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, the function of allowing the imagination to provide a simularcrrum of rationality for finite, practical human beings.
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  15. “Knowledge” and “Free Man” in Spinoza’s Ethics.Mary Ann Ida Gannon - 1956 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 30:191-204.
  16. Spinoza on Friendship.Frank Lucash - 2012 - Philosophia 40 (2):305-317.
    Friendships have always been one of the most valuable assets in the lives of human beings, and friendships were of utmost importance to Spinoza. There are different kinds of friendship but for Spinoza genuine friendship can only occur among those who pursue the truth. In this paper I will (1) point out what Spinoza means by the truth, (2) show how friendships are possible even though there is tension in our lives between our desire to preserve ourselves and our desire (...)
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  17. Spinoza’s Normative Ethics.Michael Lebuffe - 2007 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 37 (3):371-391.
    Spinoza presents his ethics using a variety of terminologies. Propositions that are, or at least might be taken for, normative include only very few explicit guidelines for action. I will take this claim from Vp10s to be one such guideline:Vp10s: So that we may always have this rule of reason ready when it is needed, we should think and meditate often about common human wrongs and how and in what way they may best be driven away by nobility.
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