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  1. The Connection Of Freedom and Necessity İn Spinoza.Çetin Türkyılmaz - unknown - Yeditepe'de Felsefe (Philosophy at Yeditepe) 7.
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  2. Spinoza’s Metaphysics of Freedom and Its Essential Paradox.Emanuele Costa - forthcoming - Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica.
    One of the most peculiar features of Spinoza’s philosophy is his radical interpretation of the notion of freedom. Even though it plays a significant role in his metaethics and political philosophy, freedom is, for Spinoza, a deeply metaphysical notion, rooted in the most fundamental features of his ontology. In this paper, I analyze the internal structure that identifies a being as “free” within Spinoza’s metaphysics. I argue that this structure leads to an internal paradox, entailing that the very component that (...)
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  3. A psychological concept of freedom: Footnotes to Spinoza.Mary Henle - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  4. Relational Autonomy in Spinoza. Freedom and Joint Action.Claudia Aguilar - 2023 - Comparative and Continental Philosophy 15 (1):36-44.
    Over the last years, some of Spinoza studies have shifted to a consideration of the relational character of his ethics by focusing on the notion of autonomy. This concept is foreign to Spinoza's vocabulary. Therefore, I will attempt to explain what Spinozan relational autonomy is and its connection with the most important ethical concept in his philosophy: freedom. Following considerations about Spinozan freedom, I claim that it entails a relational character and that, for this reason, it is equal to relational (...)
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  5. Una apreciación de la Ética de Spinoza en torno a la libertad como libertad humana.María Fernanda Limo Durand - 2023 - Estudios de Filosofía (Universidad de Antioquia) 21:81-99.
    El presente artículo busca mostrar la relevancia de la filosofía de Spinoza con respecto a la realización de la libertad. Su idea de libertad no rechaza las emociones, y las vincula con nuestra capacidad de ser seres racionales. Spinoza es de los primeros filósofos que aprecia una dimensión interna de las emociones y la considera como parte de nuestra propia naturaleza, pues afirma que la esencia humana es el deseo mismo. El ser humano es consciente de este deseo, el cual (...)
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  6. Spinoza on Free Will and Freedom.Christopher Kluz - 2023 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    This article provides an overview of Spinoza's positions on determinism, free will, and freedom framed by an attempt to make sense of a Spinozistic ethical project that simultaneously denies free will as an illusion while advocating the significance of human freedom for the good life. Within this context, other key doctrines in Spinoza's moral psychology are explored including his view of the will, passions, rational activity, and responsibility.
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  7. Spinoza on Freedom, Feeling Free, and Acting for the Good.Leonardo Moauro - 2023 - Argumenta 1:1-16.
    In the Ethics, Spinoza famously rejects freedom of the will. He also offers an error theory for why many believe, falsely, that the will is free. Standard accounts of his arguments for these claims focus on their efficacy against incompatibilist views of free will. For Spinoza, the will cannot be free since it is determined by an infinite chain of external causes. And the pervasive belief in free will arises from a structural limitation of our self-knowledge: because we are aware (...)
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  8. Reply to Nadler: Spinoza’s Free Person and Wise Person Reconsidered.Sanem Soyarslan - 2023 - Journal of Spinoza Studies 2 (2):60-76.
    This article addresses Steven Nadler’s response to my objections to his reading of Spinoza’s free person (homo liber). Nadler argues that there are no clear and significant differences between the free person and the wise person (vir sapiens) in their character or in the role theyplay in Spinoza’s moral philosophy; in fact, they are one and the same. I begin by critically examining three inferences which Nadler’s reading in part relies on. I then address the differences between the contexts in (...)
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  9. Spinoza on Learning to Live Together by Susan James.Hadley Marie Cooney - 2022 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 60 (2):347-348.
    For too long, Spinoza's ethics was misread as an ethics of ideals, in which the most virtuous life possible was said to consist of the life of pure reasoning. The "free man," Spinoza's paragon of virtue, was understood to be the individual who is neither helped nor harmed by anything external. The goal, on this view, was to transcend the life of the body, of the material, and of the political, in order to focus solely on becoming like God by (...)
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  10. Freedom in a Deterministic Universe.James H. Cumming - 2022 - Dogma: Revue de Philosophie Et de Sciences Humaines 21:126-150.
    This article is the FOURTH of several excerpts from my book The Nondual Mind: Vedānta, Kashmiri Pratyabhijñā Shaivism, and Spinoza (the full book is posted on this site). “I liked James H. Cumming’s The Nondual Mind a lot. It is beautifully written, thoughtful, and very clear.” (Prof. Yitzhak Y. Melamed, Charlotte Bloomberg Professor of Philosophy, Johns Hopkins University) “James H. Cumming’s scholarly interpretation of Spinoza’s works, persuasively showing how 17th century European ideas that ushered in the Enlightenment find a precursor (...)
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  11. The Ethics of Joy: Spinoza on the Empowered Life by Andrew Youpa.Julie R. Klein - 2022 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 60 (1):162-163.
    The Ethics of Joy offers reconstructive argument, careful engagement with select literature, and a big-picture presentation of Spinoza’s view of the well-lived human life. Not “convinced that Kantians in ethics are Kantians because of an argument that Kant or Korsgaard makes,” Andrew Youpa urges us to consider Spinoza’s view as “an alternative way of thinking about our lives—an alternative that is illuminating and insightful”. Since “the presentation of an illuminating alternative is arguably the best a philosopher can do”, this is (...)
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  12. Mind-Body Parallelism and Spinoza's Philosophy of Mind.Ruben Noorloos - 2022 - Dissertation, Central European University
    Mind-body parallelism is the view that mind and body stand in the same “order and connection,” as Spinoza put it, or that corresponding mental and physical states have corresponding causal explanations in terms of other mental and physical states. This dissertation investigates the nature and role of mind-body parallelism, as well as other forms of parallelism, in Spinoza’s philosophy of mind. In doing so, it also considers how Spinoza’s views relate to current discussions. In present-day philosophy of mind, mind-body parallelism (...)
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  13. Spinoza, ou, La béatitude fataliste.Bertrand Dejardin - 2021 - Paris: L'Harmattan.
  14. The Development of Kant's Conception of Divine Freedom.Patrick Kain - 2021 - In Brandon Look (ed.), Leibniz and Kant. Oxford University Press. pp. 293-317.
    In his lectures, Kant suggested to his students that the freedom of a divine holy will is “easier to comprehend than that of the human will,”(28:609) but this suggestion has remained neglected. After a review of some of Kant’s familiar claims about the will (in general), and about the divine holy will in particular, I consider how these claims give rise to some initial objections to that conception. Then I defend an interpretation of Kant’s conception of the divine will, and (...)
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  15. Materializing Spinoza's Account of Human Freedom.Julie R. Klein - 2021 - In Noa Naaman-Zauderer (ed.), Freedom, Action, and Motivation in Spinoza's Ethics. New York: Routledge. pp. 152-71.
    Spinoza is often conceived as a highly intellectualist philosopher, and it is tempting to read human freedom without attention to its material basis. In this paper, I study Spinoza's claim that the more the body can undergo, the more the mind can know in order to establish Spinoza's view of freedom under the attribute of extension.
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  16. Spinoza and the Freedom of Philosophizing.Mogens Lærke - 2021 - Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
    This study considers freedom of speech and the rules of engagement in the public sphere; good government, civic responsibility, and public education; and the foundations of religion and society, as seen through the eyes of seventeenth-century Dutch philosopher, Spinoza.
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  17. Power Freedom and Relational Autonomy.Ericka Tucker - 2021 - In Aurelia Armstrong, Keith Green & Andrea Sangiacomo (eds.), Spinoza and Relational Autonomy. Edinburgh, UK: pp. 149-163.
    In recent years, the notion of relational autonomy has transformed the old debate about the freedom of the individual in society. For Spinoza, individual humans are embedded in natural, social and political circumstances from which they derive their power and freedom. I take this to mean that Spinoza’s is best described as a constitutive theory of relational autonomy. I will show how by defining freedom in terms of power, Spinoza understands individual freedom as irreducibly relational. I propose that Spinoza develops (...)
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  18. Nietzsche, Spinoza, and Etiology (On the Example of Free Will).Jason Maurice Yonover - 2021 - European Journal of Philosophy 29 (2):459-474.
    In this paper I clarify a major affinity between Nietzsche and Spinoza that has been neglected in the literature—but that Nietzsche was aware of—namely a tendency to what I call etiology. Etiologies provide second- order explanations of some opponents’ first-order views, but not in order to decide first-order matters. The example I take up here is Nietzsche’s and Spinoza’s rejections of free will—and especially their etiologies concerning how we wrongly come to think that we may boast of such a capacity. (...)
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  19. Rational devotion and human perfection.Christina Chuang - 2020 - Synthese 197 (6):2333-2355.
    In the Bhagavad-Gita, Krishna lays out three paths of yoga as the means to achieve human perfection: the path of self-less action, the path of knowledge, and the path of devotion. In this paper I will argue for an interpretation of the Gita in which the path of devotion is the last step that leads to moksha. This is not to claim that bhakti yoga is more important than karma and jnana yoga, but rather that the latter two are more (...)
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  20. Freedom as Overcoming the Fear of Death: Epicureanism in the Subtitle of Spinoza’s Theological Political Treatise.Dimitris Vardoulakis - 2020 - Parrhesia 32:33-60.
    It is often put forward that the entire political project of epicureanism consists in the overcoming of fear, whereby its scope is deemed to be very narrow. I argue that the overcoming of the fear of death should actually be linked to a conception of freedom in epicureanism. This idea is further developed by Spinoza, who defines the free man as one who thinks of death least of all in the Ethics, and who develops this idea more in the Theological (...)
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  21. Freud e Spinoza a razão, a necessidade e a liberdade.Rogério Miranda de Almeida & Allan Martins Mohr - 2019 - Trans/Form/Ação 42 (1):79-100.
    Resumo Tencionamos, nestas reflexões, analisar os conceitos spinozianos de Deus, do homem e da razão, para, a partir do caráter necessário que os permeia, interrogarmos se existiria também a possibilidade de uma liberdade humana no pensamento do autor da Ética. Se tal liberdade existe, ela estaria situada no próprio plano racional, o que, por sua vez, levantaria ingentes problemas. A mesma questão - a da possibilidade de uma liberdade, em Freud - estaria colocada na margem de ação que, até certo (...)
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  22. Le cœur de Spinoza: vivre sans haine.Pierre Ansay - 2019 - Mons: Couleur livres.
  23. Spinoza on affirmation, Anima and autonomy : 'shattered spirits'.Keith Green - 2019 - In Aurelia Armstrong, Keith Green & Andrea Sangiacomo (eds.), Spinoza and Relational Autonomy: Being with Others. Eup. pp. 164-193.
  24. A Contextualized Self: Re-placing Ourselves Through Dōgen and Spinoza.Gerard Kuperus - 2019 - Comparative and Continental Philosophy 11 (3):222-234.
    ABSTRACTFor Dōgen, the Buddhist doctrine of “no self” ultimately presents the self as contextualized. The self is for him not an independent entity, but is intricately related to its environment, determined through the many beings around it. In a quite different philosophical setting, Spinoza developed similar ideas. While Dōgen challenged the specifics of a tradition that explicitly argues against the idea of an absolute self, Spinoza faced a more radical challenge: questioning an absolute, unchanging, and free self that the Western (...)
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  25. Freedom Action and Motivation in Spinoza's Ethics.Noa Naaman Zauderer (ed.) - 2019 - New York, NY: Routledge Press.
    The present volume posits the themes of freedom, action, and motivation as the central principles that drive Spinoza's Ethics from its first part to its last. It assembles essays by internationally leading scholars who provide different, sometimes opposing interpretations of these fundamental themes as they operate across the five parts of the Ethics and within its manifold domains. The diversity of issues, approaches, and perspectives within this volume, along with the chapters' common focus, open up new ways of understanding not (...)
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  26. Spinoza's Dream Argument: A Response to Introspective Arguments for Freedom.J. Petrik & D. Rose - 2019 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 26 (11-12):157-181.
    This paper critically evaluates an objection to introspective arguments for human freedom found within Spinoza's Ethics. The objection-- which we call Spinoza's dream argument -- challenges the evidentiary value of a person's experience of her own freedom by pointing out that some choices made within dreams are experienced as no less free than choices made while awake despite the fact that choices made within dreams are not free. After reconstructing Spinoza's dream argument, we critically evaluate it, concluding ultimately that it (...)
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  27. Epistemic autonomy in Descartes, Spinoza and Kant : the value of thinking for oneself.Ursula Renz - 2019 - In Aurelia Armstrong, Keith Green & Andrea Sangiacomo (eds.), Spinoza and Relational Autonomy: Being with Others. Eup. pp. 33-49.
  28. Generosity as Freedom in Spinoza's Ethics.Hasana Sharp - 2019 - In Jack Stetter & Charles Ramond (eds.), Spinoza in Twenty-First-Century American and French Philosophy: Metaphysics, Philosophy of Mind, Moral and Political Philosophy. Bloomsbury. pp. 277-288.
    Generosity is not best understood as an alliance of forces, necessary for mortal beings with limited time and skills. Sociability as generosity exceeds the realm of need and follows directly from our strength of character [fortitudo] because it expresses a positive power to overcome anti-social passions, such as hatred, envy, and the desire for revenge. Spinoza asserts that generous souls resist and overwhelm hostile forces and debilitating affects with wisdom, foresight, and love. The sociability yielded by generosity, then, is not (...)
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  29. Spinoza in Twenty-First-Century American and French Philosophy: Metaphysics, Philosophy of Mind, Moral and Political Philosophy.Jack Stetter & Charles Ramond (eds.) - 2019 - London: Bloomsbury Academic.
    Contributors: Steven Barbone, Laurent Bove, Edwin Curley, Valérie Debuiche, Michael Della Rocca, Simon B. Duffy, Daniel Garber, Pascale Gillot, Céline Hervet, Jonathan Israel, Chantal Jaquet, Mogens Lærke, Jacqueline Lagrée, Martin Lin, Yitzhak Y. Melamed, Pierre-François Moreau, Steven Nadler, Knox Peden, Alison Peterman, Charles Ramond, Michael A. Rosenthal, Pascal Sévérac, Hasana Sharp, Jack Stetter, Ariel Suhamy, Lorenzo Vinciguerra.
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  30. Revisiting Spinoza's concept of Conatus : degrees of autonomy.C̜aroline Williams - 2019 - In Aurelia Armstrong, Keith Green & Andrea Sangiacomo (eds.), Spinoza and Relational Autonomy: Being with Others. Eup. pp. 115-131.
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  31. A Critical Assessment of Spinoza’s Theory of Affect: Affects, Beliefs, and Human Freedom.Ahmet Aktaş - 2018 - Beytulhikme An International Journal of Philosophy 8 (1):251-272.
    Affects are intentional structures of beliefs and desires. Many philosophers have plausibly argued that Spinoza’s theory of ideas is a kind of theory of belief by this time yet this claim has rarely been taken into account when it comes to Spinoza’s theory of affects, which is actually a part of his theory of ideas. This paper shows that if this point is taken seriously when regarding Spinoza’s theory of affects we reach significant results about the fifth part of Ethics. (...)
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  32. Freedom in nature, freedom of the mind in Spinoza.Gabor Boros - 2018 - In Christian Krijnen (ed.), Metaphysics of Freedom? Kant’s Concept of Cosmological Freedom in Historical and Systematic Perspective. Brill.
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  33. A Neo-Confucian approach to a puzzle concerning Spinoza's doctrine of the intellectual love of God.Xiaosheng Chen - 2018 - Dissertation, University of Birmingham
    In the last part of Ethics Spinoza introduces the doctrine of the intellectual love of God: God loves himself with an infinite intellectual love. This doctrine has raised one of the most discussed puzzles in Spinoza scholarship: How can God have intellectual love if, as Spinoza says, God is Nature itself? After examining existing.approaches to the puzzle and revealing their failures, I will propose a Neo- Confucian approach to the puzzle. I will compare Spinoza's philosophy with Neo-Confucian philosophy and argue (...)
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  34. Education and Free Will: Spinoza, Causal Determinism and Moral Formation.Johan Dahlbeck - 2018 - London, Storbritannien: Routledge.
    Education and Free Will critically assesses and makes use of Spinoza’s insights on human freedom to construe an account of education that is compatible with causal determinism without sacrificing the educational goal of increasing students’ autonomy and self-determination. Offering a thorough investigation into the philosophical position of causal determinism, Dahlbeck discusses Spinoza’s view of self-determination and presents his own suggestions for an education for autonomy from a causal determinist point of view. -/- The book begins by outlining the free will (...)
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  35. La liberté, l'existence et la mort chez Spinoza et Freud.Bertrand Dejardin - 2018 - Paris: L'Harmattan.
    Dans un précédent ouvrage, La liberté, la pensée et la mort chez Platon et Montaigne, il a été montré que, chez Platon comme chez Montaigne, la mort, loin d'être le plus terrible des maux, est en fait une libération, car elle rend possible un détachement d'avec la vie qui leur est apparue soit contaminée par des fictions, soit cruellement angoissante. Les mêmes thèmes sont repris dans cet ouvrage avec Spinoza et Freud, mais dans un contexte déterministe qui les empêche de (...)
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  36. Spinoza and the Theo‐Political Implications of his Freedom to Philosophize.Jeffrey Morrow - 2018 - New Blackfriars 99 (1081):374-387.
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  37. Human action and virtue in Descartes and Spinoza.Noa Naaman-Zauderer - 2018 - Philosophical Explorations 21 (1):25-40.
    In this paper, I argue that despite undeniable fundamental differences between Descartes’ and Spinoza’s accounts of human action, there are some striking similarities between their views on right action, moral motivation, and virtue that are usually overlooked. I will argue, first, that both thinkers define virtue in terms of activity or freedom, mutatis mutandis, and thus in terms of actual power of acting. Second, I will claim that both Descartes and Spinoza hold a non-consequentialist approach to virtue, by which human (...)
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  38. Spinoza's Political Psychology: The Taming of Fortune and Fear.Justin Steinberg - 2018 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Spinoza's Political Psychology advances a novel, comprehensive interpretation of Spinoza's political writings, exploring how his analysis of psychology informs his arguments for democracy and toleration. Justin Steinberg shows how Spinoza's political method resembles the Renaissance civic humanism in its view of governance as an adaptive craft that requires psychological attunement. He examines the ways that Spinoza deploys this realist method in the service of empowerment, suggesting that the state can affectively reorient and thereby liberate its citizens, but only if it (...)
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  39. Spinoza, filosofía de la liberación.Diego Tatián - 2018 - Scienza and Politica. Per Una Storia Delle Dottrine 30 (58).
    Spinoza’s philosophy is a philosophy of liberation rather than a philosophy of freedom. Originally and naturally subjected to adversity and servitude, human beings conquer their freedom through political life and thought. The emancipatory perspective that is put into play is based on an ontology that breaks with the classical opposition between freedom and necessity. Rather, the Spinozist construction of freedom dispenses with the notion of “free will”, and subjects it to philosophical review. The freedom that results from the philosophy of (...)
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  40. Spinoza’s Authority in the Treatises: An Introduction.Dimitris Vardoulakis - 2018 - In Dimitris Vardoulakis & Kiarina Kordela (eds.), Spinoza’s Authority: The Political Treatises. London, UK: pp. 1-6.
  41. Spinoza et Sartre: de la politique des singularités à l'éthique de générosité.Gaye Çankaya Eksen - 2017 - Paris: Classiques Garnier.
    Au premier abord, les visées et les méthodes philosophiques de Spinoza et de Sartre semblent radicalement différentes. Or, ces différences radicales se trouvent dépassées dès qu'on se penche sur une problématique commune à ces deux philosophes : la production et le maintien de la communauté libre. Une interrogation philosophique sur la question de l'articulation de l'éthique et de la politique nous donnera la possibilité d'évaluer ces philosophes comme les constituants d'une certaine théorie anticontractualiste se fondant spécifiquement sur l'idée de l'émancipation (...)
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  42. La libertà umana nell'Etica di Spinoza.Marco Iannucci - 2017 - Napoli: Orthotes.
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  43. Spinoza and Nietzsche on Freedom Empowerment and Affirmation.Razvan Ioan - 2017 - European Journal of Philosophy 25 (4):1864-1883.
    Against much of the philosophical tradition, Spinoza and Nietzsche defend an understanding of freedom opposed to free will and formulated as an ethical ideal consisting in a transition from a smaller to a greater power of acting. Starting from a shared commitment to necessity and radical immanence, they present freedom as a passage to a greater power of self-determination and self-expression of the body. Nevertheless, the continuities between their power ontologies and their respective commitments to a life of knowledge break (...)
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  44. Spinoza and the Power of Reason.Michael LeBuffe - 2017 - In Yitzhak Melamed (ed.), Cambridge Critical Guide to Spinoza’s Ethics. Cambridge: pp. 304 - 319.
  45. Whose Freedom? The Idea of Appropriation in Spinoza's Compatibilism.Martin Lenz - 2017 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 71 (3):343-357.
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  46. Rational Mastery, the Perfectly Free Man, and Human Freedom.Yakir Levin - 2017 - Philosophia 45 (3):1253-1274.
    This paper examines the coherence of Spinoza’s combined account of freedom, reason, and the affects and its applicability to real humans in the context of the perfectly free man Spinoza discusses towards the end of part 4 of the Ethics. On the standard reading, the perfectly free man forms the model of human nature and thus the goal to which real humans should aspire. A recently proposed non-standard reading, however, posits that the perfectly free man should not be considered the (...)
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  47. Cambridge Critical Guide to Spinoza’s Ethics.Yitzhak Y. Melamed (ed.) - 2017 - United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
    Spinoza's Ethics, published in 1677, is considered his greatest work and one of history's most influential philosophical treatises. This volume brings established scholars together with new voices to engage with the complex system of philosophy proposed by Spinoza in his masterpiece. Topics including identity, thought, free will, metaphysics, and reason are all addressed, as individual chapters investigate the key themes of the Ethics and combine to offer readers a fresh and thought-provoking view of the work as a whole. Written in (...)
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  48. The Causes of Our Belief in Free Will: Spinoza on Necessary, ‘Innate,’ yet False Cognition.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2017 - In Spinoza’s Ethics: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
    This chapter will discuss Spinoza’s critique of free will, though our brief study of this topic in the first part of the chapter will aim primarily at preparing us to address the main topic of the chapter, which is Spinoza’s explanation of the reasons which force us to believe in free will. At times, Spinoza seems to come very close to asserting the paradoxical claim that we are not free to avoid belief in free will. In the second part of (...)
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  49. Spinoza and the Feeling of Freedom.Galen Barry - 2016 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 94 (4):1-15.
    ABSTRACTWe seem to have a direct experience of our freedom when we act. Many philosophers take this feeling of freedom as evidence that we possess libertarian free will. Spinoza denies that we have free will of any sort, although he admits that we nonetheless feel free. Commentators often attribute to him what I call the ‘Negative Account’ of the feeling: it results from the fact that we are conscious of our actions but ignorant of their causes. I argue that the (...)
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  50. Spinoza and Education: Freedom, Understanding and Empowerment.Johan Dahlbeck - 2016 - Abingdon: Routledge.
    Spinoza and Education offers a comprehensive investigation into the educational implications of Spinoza’s moral theory. Taking Spinoza’s naturalism as its point of departure, it constructs a considered account of education, taking special care to investigate the educational implications of Spinoza’s psychological egoism. What emerges is a counterintuitive form of education grounded in the egoistic striving of the teacher to persevere and to flourish in existence while still catering to the ethical demands of the students and the greater community. -/- In (...)
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