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  1. ‘Spinoza’s ‘Atheism’, the Ethics and the TTP.Yitzhak Melamed - forthcoming - In Spinoza: Reason, Religion, Politics: The Relation Between the Ethics and the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus.
    The impermanence of human affairs is a major theme in Spinoza’s discussions of political histories, and from our present-day perspective it is both intriguing and ironic to see how this very theme has played out in the evolving fate of Spinoza’s association with atheism. While Spinoza’s contemporaries charged him with atheism in order to impugn his philosophy (and sometimes his character), in our times many lay readers and some scholars portray Spinoza as an atheist in order to commemorate his role (...)
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  2. Monism and Number: A Case Study in the Development of Spinoza's Philosophy.Alex Silverman - forthcoming - History of Philosophy Quarterly.
    In Ep. 50, Spinoza argues at length that “someone who calls God one or unique does not have a true idea of God, or is speaking improperly about him.” This text is striking, given the declarations in many writings, including the Ethics, that God is the one, unique substance. While recent commentators have attempted to render Ep. 50 consistent with the rest of Spinoza’s corpus, I instead argue that Spinoza’s stance on God’s oneness evolved over the course of his career. (...)
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  3. “Spinoza’s Metaphysics of Substance”.Y. Melamed Yitzhak - forthcoming - In Don Garrett (ed.), Don Garrett (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Spinoza. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, forthcoming. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.
    ‘Substance’ (substantia, zelfstandigheid) is a key term of Spinoza’s philosophy. Like almost all of Spinoza’s philosophical vocabulary, Spinoza did not invent this term, which has a long history that can be traced back at least to Aristotle. Yet, Spinoza radicalized the traditional notion of substance and made a very powerful use of it by demonstrating – or at least attempting to demonstrate -- that there is only one, unique substance -- God (or Nature) -- and that all other things are (...)
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  4. Spinoza on Causa Sui.Yitzhak Melamed - 2021 - In Blackwell Companion to Spinoza. Blackwell. pp. 116-125.
    The very first line of Spinoza’s magnum opus, the Ethics, states the following surprising definition: By cause of itself I understand that whose essence involves existence, or that whose nature cannot be conceived except as existing [Per causam sui intelligo id, cujus essentia involvit existentiam, sive id, cujus natura non potest concipi, nisi existens]. As we shall shortly see, for many of Spinoza’s contemporaries and predecessors the very notion of causa sui was utterly absurd, akin to a Baron Munchausen attempting (...)
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  5. Spinoza, le Grand profanateur de la ‘tradition sacrée’ humaniste.” Interview with N. Weill.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2020 - le Monde.
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  6. God-Intoxicated Man: The Philosopher Who Denied the World.Yitzhak Melamed & Clare Carlisle - 2020 - TLS: The Times Literary Supplement.
  7. Spinoza's Theory of Intellect – an Averroistic Theory?Oliver Istvan Toth - 2020 - In Averroism between the 15th and 17th century. pp. 281-309.
  8. Spinoza on Action and Immanent Causation.Stephen Zylstra - 2020 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 102 (1):29-55.
    I address an apparent conflict between Spinoza’s concepts of immanent causation and acting/doing [agere]. Spinoza apparently holds that an immanent cause undergoes [patitur] whatever it does. Yet according to his stated definition of acting and undergoing in the Ethics, this is impossible; to act is to be an adequate cause, while to undergo is to be merely a partial cause. Spinoza also seems committed to God’s being the adequate cause of all things, and, in a well-known passage, appears to deny (...)
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  9. The Enigma of Spinoza's Amor Dei Intellectualis.Yitzhak Melamed - 2019 - In Noa Naaman-Zaudrer & Noa Naaman (eds.), Freedom, Action and Motivation in Spinoza’s Ethics. Routledge. pp. 222-238.
    The notion of divine love was essential to medieval Christian conceptions of God. Jewish thinkers, though, had a much more ambivalent attitude about this issue. While Maimonides was reluctant to ascribe love, or any other affect, to God, Gersonides and Crescas celebrated God’s love. Though Spinoza is clearly sympathetic to Maimonides’ rejection of divine love as anthropomorphism, he attributes love to God nevertheless, unfolding his notion of amor Dei intellectualis at the conclusion of his Ethics. But is this a legitimate (...)
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  10. Spinoza’s ‘Infinite Modes’ Reconsidered.Kristin Primus - 2019 - Journal of Modern Philosophy 1 (1):1-29.
    My two principal aims in this essay are interconnected. One aim is to provide a new interpretation of the ‘infinite modes’ in Spinoza’s Ethics. I argue that for Spinoza, God, conceived as the one infinite and eternal substance, is not to be understood as causing two kinds of modes, some infinite and eternal and the rest finite and non-eternal. That there cannot be such a bifurcation of divine effects is what I take the ‘infinite mode’ propositions, E1p21–23, to establish; E1p21–23 (...)
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  11. François Lamy’s Cartesian Refutation of Spinoza’s Ethics.Jack Stetter - 2019 - Journal of Modern Philosophy 1 (1):7.
    François Lamy, a Benedictine monk and Cartesian philosopher whose extensive relations with Arnauld, Bossuet, Fénélon, and Malebranche put him into contact with the intellectual elite of late-seventeenth-century France, authored the very first detailed and explicit refutation of Spinoza’s Ethics in French, Le nouvel athéisme renversé. Regrettably overlooked in the secondary literature on Spinoza, Lamy is an interesting figure in his own right, and his anti-Spinozist work sheds important light on Cartesian assumptions that inform the earliest phase of Spinoza’s critical reception (...)
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  12. Leibniz and Spinozist Necessitarianism.Ari Maunu - 2018 - Studia Leibnitiana 48 (2):261-267.
    It is sometimes argued that Leibniz’s metaphysical commitments lead to Spinozist Necessitarianism, i.e., the view, in Spinoza’s words, that “Things could not have been produced by God in any way or in any order other than that in which they have been produced”. Leibniz comments on this passage as follows: “This proposition may be true or false, depending on how it is explained”. I suggest in this paper that what Leibniz means by this comment can be fleshed out by making (...)
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  13. “ ‘A Substance Consisting of an Infinity of Attributes’: Spinoza on the Infinity of Attributes” in Ohad Nachtomy and Reed Wieneger (Eds.), Infinity in Early Modern Philosophy (Springer, Forthcoming).Yitzhak Melamed - 2018 - In Reed Winegar & Ohad Nachtomy (eds.), Infinity in Early Modern Philosophy. Springer.
    Though Spinoza's definition of God at the beginning of the Ethics unequivocally asserts that God has infinitely many attributes, the reader of the Ethics will find only two of these attributes discussed in any detail in Parts Two through Five of the book. Addressing this intriguing gap between the infinity of attributes asserted in E1d6 and the discussion merely of the two attributes of Extension and Thought in the rest of the book, Jonathan Bennett writes: Spinoza seems to imply that (...)
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  14. Cohen, Spinoza, and the Nature of Pantheism.Yitzhak Melamed - 2018 - Jewish Studies Quarterly:171-180.
    The German text of Cohen’s Spinoza on State & Religion, Judaism & Christianity (Spinoza über Staat und Religion, Judentum und Christentum) first appeared in 1915 in the Jahrbuch für jüdische Geschichte und Literatur. Two years before, in the winter of 1913, Cohen taught a class and a seminar on Spinoza’s Theological-Political Treatise at the Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des Judentums. This was Cohen’s first semester at the Hochschule, after retiring from more than thirty years of teaching at the University of (...)
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  15. Reply to Yenter: Spinoza, Number, and Diversity.Galen Barry - 2016 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 24 (2):365-374.
    Clarke attacks Spinoza's monism on the grounds that it cannot explain how a multiplicity of things follows from one substance, God. This article argues that Clarke assumes that Spinoza's God is countable. It then sketches a way in which multiplicity can follow from God's uncountable nature.
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  16. Spinoza, La Forge und das Problem der Modi.Andreas Hüttemann - 2016 - Methodus 8:33-55.
    The paper argues that it is essential for modes in Spinoza's metaphyics to both, to inhere in and to be caused by the substance.
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  17. The Dog That is a Heavenly Constellation and the Dog That is a Barking Animal by Alexandre Koyré.Oberto Marrama - 2014 - The Leibniz Review 24:95-108.
    The article includes the French to English translation of a seminal article by Alexandre Koyré (“Le chien, constellation céleste, et le chien animal aboyant”, in Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale, 55e Année, N° 1, Jan-Mar 1950, pp. 50-59), accompanied by an explanatory introduction. Koyré's French text provides an illuminating commentary of E1p17s, where Spinoza exposes at length his account of the relationship existing between God's intellect and the human intellect. The lack of an English translation of this article has (...)
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  18. Clarke Against Spinoza on the Manifest Diversity of the World.Timothy Yenter - 2014 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 22 (2):260-280.
    Samuel Clarke was one of Spinoza's earliest and fiercest opponents in England. I uncover three related Clarkean arguments against Spinoza's metaphysic that deserve more attention from readers today. Collectively, these arguments draw out a tension at the very heart of Spinoza's rationalist system. From the conjunction of a necessary being who acts necessarily and the principle of sufficient reason, Clarke reasons that there could be none of the diversity we find in the universe. In doing so, Clarke potentially reveals an (...)
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  19. Spinoza’s Metaphysics: Substance and Thought by Yitzhak Y. Melamed. [REVIEW]Martin Lin - 2013 - The Leibniz Review 23:195-205.
  20. Spinoza and the Cosmological Argument According to Letter 12.Mogens Lærke - 2013 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 21 (1):57 - 77.
    (2013). Spinoza and the Cosmological Argument According to Letter 12. British Journal for the History of Philosophy: Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 57-77. doi: 10.1080/09608788.2012.696052.
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  21. Spinoza’s Metaphysics: Substance and Thought (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013). Xxii+232 Pp. Paperback: 2014.Yitzhak Melamed - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
  22. Spinoza's Deification of Existence.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2013 - Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy 6:75-104.
    The aim of this paper is to clarify Spinoza’s views on some of the most fundamental issues of his metaphysics: the nature of God’s attributes, the nature of existence and eternity, and the relation between essence and existence in God. While there is an extensive literature on each of these topics, it seems that the following question was hardly raised so far: What is, for Spinoza, the relation between God’s existence and the divine attributes? Given Spinoza’s claims that there are (...)
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  23. Philosophical Religions From Plato to Spinoza: Reason, Religion, and Autonomy.Carlos Fraenkel - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    Many pagan, Jewish, Christian and Muslim philosophers from Antiquity to the Enlightenment made no meaningful distinction between philosophy and religion. Instead they advocated a philosophical religion, arguing that God is Reason and that the historical forms of a religious tradition serve as philosophy's handmaid to promote the life of reason among non-philosophers. Carlos Fraenkel provides the first account of this concept and traces its history back to Plato. He shows how Jews and Christians appropriated it in Antiquity, follows it through (...)
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  24. “’Christus Secundum Spiritum’: Spinoza, Jesus, and the Infinite Intellect”.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2012 - In Neta Stahl (ed.), The Jewish Jesus. Routledge.
  25. Review of Susan James, Spinoza on Philosophy, Religion, and Politics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012). [REVIEW]Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2012 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
  26. The Pale God: Israeli Secularism and Spinoza's Philosopy of Culture.Gideon Katz - 2011 - Academic Studies Press.
    The Pale God examines the relationship between secularism and religious tradition. It begins with a description of the secular options as expressed by Israeli intellectuals, and describes how these options have led to a dead end. A new option must be sought, and one of the key sources for this option is the works of Spinoza. The author explains that unlike Nietzsche, who discussed "the death of God," Spinoza tried to undermine the authority of religious virtuosos and establish the image (...)
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  27. Spinoza's Cosmological Argument in the Ethics.Mogens Laerke - 2011 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 49 (4):439 - 462.
    This paper discusses Baruch de Spinoza’s cosmological argument for the existence of God (CA) as it can be found in ’Ethics’, I, proposition 11, demonstration 3. The aim of the article is to provide a reconstruction of the argument by developing the underlying metaphysical framework governing it. It is partly motivated by Michael Della Rocca’s attempt to account of fundamental principles of Spinoza’s philosophy. According to him, all dependence relations in Spinoza can be reduced to conceptual ones. I argue to (...)
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  28. Spinoza's Cosmological Argument in the Ethics.Mogens Lærke - 2011 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 49 (4):439-462.
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  29. Natural Passions, Reason and Religious Emotion in Hobbes & Spinoza.Amy M. Schmitter - 2011 - In Ingolf U. Dalferth & Michael Rodgers (eds.), Passions and Passivity: Claremont Studies in Religion 2009. Mohr Siebeck. pp. 49-68.
  30. Spinoza's 'Theological-Political Treatise': A Critical Guide.Yitzhak Y. Melamed & Michael A. Rosenthal (eds.) - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    Spinoza's Theological-Political Treatise was published anonymously in 1670 and immediately provoked huge debate. Its main goal was to claim that the freedom of philosophizing can be allowed in a free republic and that it cannot be abolished without also destroying the peace and piety of that republic. Spinoza criticizes the traditional claims of revelation and offers a social contract theory in which he praises democracy as the most natural form of government. This Critical Guide presents essays by well-known scholars in (...)
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  31. Supernatural Will and Organic Unity in Process: From Spinoza’s Naturalistic Pantheism to Arne Naess’ New Age Ecosophy T and Environmental Ethics.Evangelos D. Protopapadakis - 2009 - In George Arabatzis (ed.), Studies on Supernaturalism. pp. 173-193.
  32. Philosophy, Theology, and Politics: A Reading of Benedict Spinoza’s Tractatus Theologico-Politicus.Paul Bagley - 2008 - Brill.
  33. Sinai Since Spinoza : Reflections on Revelation in Modern Jewish Thought.Paul Franks - 2008 - In George J. Brooke, Hindy Najman & Loren T. Stuckenbruck (eds.), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions About Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity. Brill.
  34. Spinoza's Ethics: An Introduction - by Steven Nadler.Michael Futch - 2008 - Philosophical Books 49 (4):373-375.
  35. Spinoza.Michael Della Rocca - 2008 - New York: Routlege.
    Spinoza ' s understanding and understanding Spinoza -- Spinoza ' s understanding -- Understanding Spinoza -- The metaphysics of substance -- Descartes and substance -- Spinoza contra Descartes on substance -- Modes -- Necessitarianism -- The purpose of it all -- The human mind -- Parallelism and representation -- Essence and representation -- Parallelism and mind - body identity -- The idea of the human body -- The pancreas problem, the pan problem, and panpsychism -- Nothing but representation -- Representation, (...)
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  36. Radical Protestantism in Spinoza’s Thought.Laura Byrne - 2007 - Review of Metaphysics 60 (4):868-870.
  37. Spinoza’s Arguments for the Existence of God.Martin Lin - 2007 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 75 (2):269-297.
    It is often thought that, although Spinoza develops a bold and distinctive conception of God, the arguments that he offers which purport to prove God’s existence contribute nothing new to natural theology. Rather, he is seen as just another participant in the seventeenthcentury revival of the ontological argument initiated by Descartes and taken up by Malebranche and Leibniz among others. That this is the case is both puzzling and unfortunate. It is puzzling because although Spinoza does offer an ontological proof (...)
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  38. Steven Nadler, Spinoza's “Ethics”: An Introduction. [REVIEW]Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2007 - Ethics 117 (3):563-565.
  39. The Role of God in Spinoza's Metaphysics.Deveaux Sherry - 2007 - London, England: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC.
    Baruch Spinoza began his studies learning Hebrew and the Talmud, only to be excommunicated at the age of twenty-four for supposed heresy. Throughout his life, Spinoza was simultaneously accused of being an atheist and a God-intoxicated man. Bertrand Russell said that, compared to others, Spinoza is ethically supreme, 'the noblest and most lovable of the great philosophers'. This book is an exploration of (a) what Spinoza understood God to be, (b) how, for him, the infinite and eternal power of God (...)
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  40. Maimonides' God and Spinoza's Deus Sive Natura.Carlos Fraenkel - 2006 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 44 (2):169-215.
    In this paper I explain how Spinoza's ontological monism is related to the monotheism of a distinct tradition in medieval Aristotelianism exemplified by Maimonides. My main contention is that Maimonides' God, conceived as intellectual activity has the same structure as Spinoza's Deus sive Natura. The main difference between them is that Maimonides' God is confined to cognitive activity, whereas Spinoza's God is extensive activity as well. I trace the impact of the medieval doctrine of God on Spinoza's thought from the (...)
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  41. Spinoza’s Heresy.Shannon Dea - 2004 - Symposium 8 (1):156-158.
  42. Radical Protestantism in Spinoza's Thought.Graeme Hunter - 2004 - Ashgate.
    Context -- A Jew in Amsterdam -- Conflicts and communities -- Christian philosophy? -- A Bible gallery -- Religion and politics in the TTP -- Miracles, meaning, and moderation -- Christian pluralism -- Ethics reconsidered -- Providence, obedience, and love -- Spinoza and Christianity.
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  43. The Divine Essence and the Conception of God in Spinoza.Sherry Deveaux - 2003 - Synthese 135 (3):329-338.
    I argue against a prevailing view that the essence of God is identical with the attributes. I show that given what Spinoza says in 2d2 -- Spinoza's purported definition of the essence of a thing -- the attributes cannot be identical with the essence of God. I argue that while the attributes do not satisfy the stipulations of 2d2 relative to God, absolutely infinite and eternal power does satisfy those stipulations. Hence, I conclude that absolutely infinite and eternal power is (...)
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  44. Whose History? Spinoza’s Critique of Religion As an Other Modernity.Idit Dobbs-Weinstein - 2003 - Idealistic Studies 33 (2/3):219-235.
    This paper discusses Spinoza's critique of religion as a visible moment of a radically occluded materialist Judeo-Arabic Aristotelian philosophical tradition. While the prevailing tradition begins with the familiar gesture to metaphysics as first philosophy, Spinoza's thought takes politics as its point of departure with its concrete emphasis on a critique of dogma. This paper will show-by way of differing readings of Spinoza-how this materialist tradition becomes occluded by the prevailing tradition, even in the work of such careful materialist Spinoza commentators (...)
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  45. Jewish Themes in Spinoza's Philosophy (Review).Yisrael Yehoshua Melamed - 2003 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 41 (3):417-418.
  46. The Piety of a Heretic: Spinoza's Interpretation of Judaism.Steven Frankel - 2002 - Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy 11 (2):117-134.
  47. Contra Spinoza.John F. X. Knasas - 2002 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 76 (3):417-429.
    My article confronts three of Spinoza’s four arguments against free will in God with Aquinas’s contrary position in the Summa contra Gentiles, Book I. Spinoza’s three arguments come from his Ethics, props. XVII and XXXII. First, since free choice is always exclusive, free choice in God would leave unactualized power in God. Second, if God’s will could be different without entailing divine mutability, then a divine voluntarism would reign. Third, if God has freedom of will but his willing is his (...)
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  48. Review of Nadler Steven, Spinoza's Heresy: Immortality and the Jewish Mind[REVIEW]Martin Lin - 2002 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2002 (12).
  49. The Essence of Spinoza's God.Sherry Lynn Deveaux & Sherry Deveaux - 2000 - Dissertation, University of California, Davis
    In my dissertation I approach the subject of the attributes of God in Spinoza's metaphysics by considering three pivotal and closely linked problems. I discuss the problem of the relation of God to the attributes, the problem of the essence of God, and the problem of the true conception of God. ;I examine three interpretations of God and the attributes in Spinoza: that of Jonathan Bennett, according to which God is the thing that has the attributes and modes as properties, (...)
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  50. Spinoza, Liberalism, and the Question of Jewish Identity.Paul J. Bagley - 1999 - Review of Metaphysics 52 (3):730-731.
    In a work that draws on an impressive array of scholarly resources and an extensive study of Spinoza’s teaching, Steven Smith’s recent book examines the status of Spinoza as “the first emancipated Jew” in the broader context of “the Jewish Question”. The author’s interest is to relate Spinoza’s treatment of the theologico-political problem to his advocacy of liberalism and commercial republicanism in the Tractatus theologico-politicus. The authority of the doctrine conveyed in that work is reflected in the championing of religious (...)
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