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Summary As it is to be expected from a rationalist of the 17th century, Spinoza places as much confidence in reason’s ability to lead a good life as he does in its power to reveal the fundamental order and content of reality. But he is distinctive in that he emphasizes the importance of a special form of intellectual cognition: namely, intuition. Spinoza considers knowledge obtained by intuition (scientia intuitiva) as the most powerful and most desirable kind of knowledge, and hence as superior to reason. Accordingly, he holds that the greatest virtue of the mind and the greatest human perfection consist in understanding things through intuitive knowledge. Whereas reason is necessary in order to lead a happy life, for Spinoza, it cannot reach ultimate happiness and blessedness. Notwithstanding the importance that Spinoza ascribes to intuitive knowledge, his account of this superior form of knowledge is frustratingly concise. Most of the issues surrounding this topic derive from attempts to fill in the details of his account. Among these issues are the representative content of intuitive knowledge, the nature of intuition as a method, the affective state accompanying intuitive knowledge, the superiority of intuitive knowledge to reason, phenomenology of intuitive knowledge, and ethical (ir)relevance of intuitive knowledge.
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  1. added 2018-09-27
    Aaron V. Garret: MEANING IN SPINOZA'S METHOD. [REVIEW]José Luís Cárdenas - 2005 - Ideas Y Valores 54 (128):123-126.
  2. added 2018-01-29
    Scientia Intuitiva in the Ethics.Kristin Primus - 2017 - In The Critical Guide to Spinoza's Ethics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 169-186.
    Abstract: Cognition of the third kind, or scientia intuitiva, is supposed to secure beatitudo, or virtue itself (E5p42). But what is scientia intuitiva, and how is it different from (and superior to) reason? I suggest a new answer to this old and vexing question at the core of Spinoza’s project in the Ethics. On my view, Spinoza’s scientia intuitiva resembles Descartes’s scientia more than has been appreciated. Although Spinoza’s God is not Descartes’s benevolent, transcendent God, Spinoza agrees with Descartes that (...)
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  3. added 2018-01-29
    La béatitude et le désir chez Duns Scot: beatitudo est frui summo bono.Maria Manuela Brito-Martins - 2015 - Quaestio 15:649-664.
    In this paper we examine the idea of beatitudo in Duns Scotus. We begin with the Quaestiones super libros metaphysicorum, where the Doctor Subtilis presents a conception of the act of intellective knowledge through the natural meaning of beatitude. Taking up the famous incipit of the Metaphysics, Duns Scotus develops the idea of a maximum desiderium and a maxima scientia as a way of human and natural perfection. In conceiving this desiderium naturale as form of ultimate realization, he sees it (...)
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  4. added 2018-01-29
    From Ordinary Life to Blessedness, The Power of Intuitive Knowledge in Spinoza's Ethics.Sanem Soyarslan - 2014 - In Matthew Kisner & Andrew Youpa (eds.), Essays on Spinoza's Ethical Theory. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 236-257.
  5. added 2018-01-29
    From Scientia Operativa to Scientia Intuitiva: Producing Particulars in Bacon and Spinoza.Daniel Selcer - 2014 - Intellectual History Review 24 (1):1-19.
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  6. added 2018-01-29
    Knowing the Essence of the State in Spinoza's Tractatus Theologico‐Politicus.Aaron Garrett - 2012 - European Journal of Philosophy 20 (1):50-73.
    This paper argues that Spinoza's main political writings are concerned, in part, with knowledge of essences as detailed in the Ethics. It is further argued that knowledge of the essences of states, and essential properties that belong to states, may be an example of the elusive scientia intuitiva or third kind of knowledge. The paper concludes by considering Spinoza's goals in his political writings and the importance of metaphysics and the theory of knowledge more broadly for early modern political philosophers.
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  7. added 2018-01-29
    Reason and Intuitive Knowledge in Spinoza’s Ethics: Two Ways of Knowing, Two Ways of Living.Sanem Soyarslan - 2011 - Dissertation, Duke University
    In this dissertation, I explore the distinction between reason (ratio) and intuitive knowledge (scientia intuitiva) in Spinoza’s Ethics in order to explain the superior affective power of the latter over the former. In addressing this fundamental but relatively unexplored issue in Spinoza scholarship, I suggest that these two kinds of adequate knowledge differ not only in terms of their method, but also with respect to their content. I hold that unlike reason, which is a universal knowledge, intuitive knowledge descends to (...)
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  8. added 2018-01-29
    “Nemo Non Videt”: Intuitive Knowledge and the Question of Spinoza's Elitism.Hasana Sharp - 2011 - In Smith Justin & Fraenkel Carlos (eds.), The Rationalists. Springer/Synthese. pp. 101--122.
    Although Spinoza’s words about intuition, also called “the third kind of knowledge,” remain among the most difficult to grasp, I argue that he succeeds in providing an account of its distinctive character. Moreover, the special place that intuition holds in Spinoza’s philosophy is grounded not in its epistemological distinctiveness, but in its ethical promise. I will not go as far as one commentator to claim that the epistemological distinction is negligible (Malinowski-Charles 2003),but I do argue that its privileged place in (...)
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  9. added 2018-01-29
    Democracy, Multitudo and the Third Kind of Knowledge in the Works of Spinoza.Del Lucchese Filippo - 2009 - European Journal of Political Theory 8 (3):339-363.
    In Spinoza, what I call the ‘Being Individual Multiple’ is the multitudo. Its form of life is Democracy, understood as the autonomous and conflictual organization of collective dynamics and not one form of government among others. Combining an original mode of argumentation with a critical discussion of opposing interpretations, I maintain that democracy is the translation into politics of the third and highest kind of knowledge in Spinoza, intuitive science. I argue moreover that the multitudo self-organized in a democracy has (...)
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  10. added 2018-01-29
    Anschauung des Universums Und Scientia Intuitiva: Die Spinozistischen Grundlagen von Schleiermachers Früher Religionstheorie.Christof Ellsiepen - 2006 - De Gruyter.
    This monograph aims to explicate Schleiermacher's early theory of religion in relation to his reception of Spinoza.
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  11. added 2018-01-29
    Partecipazione come scientia intuitiva Lévy-Bruhl e Spinoza.Francesco Saverio Nisio - 2005 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 130 (3):323.
    On peut trouver dans l’œuvre de Lévy-Bruhl des traces de la présence de Spinoza, en particulier de sa conception de la connaissance du troisième genre, ou « science intuitive ». Il apparaît que Lévy-Bruhl a travaillé à une « new science of metaphysics », aussi bien dans ses œuvres d’histoire de la philosophie que dans ses ouvrages ethnologiques.One may find in Lévy-Bruhl’s works traces of Spinoza’s presence, in particular of his conception of « knowledge of the third kind », i.e. (...)
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  12. added 2018-01-29
    Habitude, Connaissance Et Vertu Chez Spinoza.Syliane Malinowski-Charles - 2004 - Dialogue 43 (1):99.
    The goal of this article is to reveal the primal role played by in Spinoza's Ethics. Contrary to appearances, the concept is not linked only to passivity; it is an essential feature of the reinforcement of virtue toward wisdom. Considering that Laurent Bove's analyses of habit within the realm of imagination leave aside the links with adequate knowledge, this article offers an extension of his interpretation in a completely new direction. The new elements are, above all, a demonstration of the (...)
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  13. added 2018-01-29
    Spinoza in Schelling.Joseph P. Lawrence - 2003 - Idealistic Studies 33 (2/3):175-193.
    This paper explores Schelling's life-long fascination with Spinoza. Through moments of ambivalence and enthusiasm, one aspect of the latter's thought remains central for Schelling: the intellectual intuition of God/Nature. While he consistently emphasizes the non-objectifiable nature of the intuition (as constituting the ground of freedom), the influence of Spinoza is still apparent in what Schelling calls the Ullvordellklichkeit des Seills. Freedom is a response to an ungroundable necessity that consciousness lives out of, but behind which it can never penetrate. This (...)
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  14. added 2018-01-29
    La Laetitia en Spinoza.Jesús Ezquerra Gómez - 2003 - Revista de Filosofía (Madrid) 28 (1):129-155.
    Laetitia in Spinoza has a twofold meaning: on the one hand is a passion, then is a product of inadecuates ideas and is associated with the first kind of knowledge (Imaginatio); on the other hand is expression of the Conatus and is an active affect (Fortitudo) connected with the third kind of knowledge (Scientia intuitiva). This second meaning confront us to a happines no human, frozen, abyssal which prefigure thinkers as Nietzsche, Bataille or lanchot.
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  15. added 2018-01-29
    Intuition and Reality: A Study of the Attributes of Substance in the Absolute Idealism of Spinoza. [REVIEW]Philip Ferreira - 2001 - Maritain Studies/Etudes Maritainiennes 17:132-135.
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  16. added 2018-01-29
    Spinoza: Reason and Intuitive Knowledge.Herman De Dijn - 1989 - Philosophy 13:1-22.
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  17. added 2018-01-29
    Spinoza’s Scientia Intuitiva.Joseph Grange - 1988 - Philosophy and Theology 2 (3):241-257.
    I argue that Spinoza’s concept of “intuitive knowledge” is rooted in his notion of experienced unity. Following an analysis of this notion of unity, and its general application to human emotional life, I provide an analysis of intuitive knowledge designed to integrate Spinoza’s notion of “Iiberation” with his theory of emotions. Two shorter sections are provide which deal with the Spinozistic concept of love, and the fact-value distinction within a Spinozistic framework.
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  18. added 2018-01-29
    La Scienza Intuitiva di Spinoza.Paolo Cristofolini - 1987 - Morano.
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  19. added 2018-01-29
    The Third Way of Knowledge (Intuition) in Spinoza.H. G. Hubbeling - 1986 - Studia Spinozana: An International and Interdisciplinary Series 2:219-232.
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  20. added 2018-01-29
    Infinite Understanding, Scientia Intuitiva, and Ethics 1.16.Margaret D. Wilson - 1983 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 8 (1):181-191.
  21. added 2018-01-29
    Spinozas Idee der Scientia intuitiva und die Spinozanische Wissenschaftskonzeption.Wolfgang Röd - 1977 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 31 (4):497 - 510.
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  22. added 2018-01-29
    Substance, Reason and Intuition in Spinoza.Stephen Stanislaus Feehan - 1970 - Dissertation, Saint Louis University
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  23. added 2018-01-29
    Ueber den Begriff der Intuition bei Spinoza.Jacob Bleiberg - 1937 - Travaux du IXe Congrès International de Philosophie 5:140-146.
    On se propose d’apporter la preuve que le concept d’intuition n’est pas essentiellement étranger au spinozisme mais qu’il s’y rattache très étroitement. Il subit drvers changements depuis l’interprétation irrationnelle, subjective et mystique du Court Traité jusqu’à l’interprétation objective et scientifique de Y Éthique. Sous sa forme finale, Spinoza conçoit la scientia intuitiva comme un organe de la recherche empirique.
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  24. added 2016-11-28
    The Distinction Between Reason and Intuitive Knowledge in Spinoza's Ethics.Sanem Soyarslan - 2016 - European Journal of Philosophy 24 (1):27-54.
    While both intuitive knowledge and reason are adequate ways of knowing for Spinoza, they are not equal. Intuitive knowledge, which Spinoza describes as the ‘greatest virtue of mind’, is superior to reason. The nature of this superiority has been the subject of some controversy due to Spinoza's notoriously parsimonious treatment of the distinction between reason and intuitive knowledge in the Ethics. In this paper, I argue that intuitive knowledge differs from reason not only in terms of its method of cognition—but (...)
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  25. added 2015-05-20
    Salvation as a State of Mind: The Place of Acquiescentia in Spinoza's Ethics.Donald Rutherford - 1999 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 7 (3):447 – 473.
    (1999). Salvation as a state of mind: The place of acquiescentia in spinoza's ethics. British Journal for the History of Philosophy: Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 447-473. doi: 10.1080/09608789908571039.
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  26. added 2015-05-20
    Spinoza: The Enduring Questions. [REVIEW]Don Garrett - 1996 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 34 (3):460-461.
    460 JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY 34:3 JULY 1996 Graeme Hunter, editor. Spinoza: The Enduring Questions. Toronto: University of To- ronto Press, 1994. Pp. xi + 182. Cloth, $70.00. This volume of eight essays is dedicated to the memory of the late David Savan, and originated from a conference held in his honor prior to his untimely death. The lead essay is by Savan himself, and most of the other essays acknowledge the influence of his work. The first three (...)
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  27. added 2015-03-18
    Intuitus and Ratio in Spinoza's Ethical Thought.Ronald Sandler - 2005 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 13 (1):73 – 90.
    (2005). Intuitus and Ratio in Spinoza's Ethical Thought. British Journal for the History of Philosophy: Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 73-90. doi: 10.1080/0960878042000317591.
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  28. added 2015-02-03
    “ ’Scientia Intuitiva’: Spinoza’s Third Kind of Cognition”.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2013 - In Johannes Haag (ed.), Übergänge - diskursiv oder intuitiv? Essays zu Eckart Förster die 25 Jahre der Philosophie. Klostermann. pp. 99-116.
    I am not going to solve in this paper the plethora of problems and riddles surrounding Spinoza’s scientia intuitiva, but I do hope to break some new ground and help make this key doctrine more readily understandable. I will proceed in the following order (keep in mind the word ‘proceed’). I will first provide a close preliminary analysis of the content and development of Spinoza’s discussion of scientia intuitiva in the Treatise on the Emendation of the Intellect and the Ethics. (...)
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  29. added 2015-01-30
    Spinoza's Scientia Intuitiva.Joseph Grange - 1988 - Philosophy and Theology 2 (3):241-257.
    I argue that Spinoza’s concept of “intuitive knowledge” is rooted in his notion of experienced unity. Following an analysis of this notion of unity, and its general application to human emotional life, I provide an analysis of intuitive knowledge designed to integrate Spinoza’s notion of “Iiberation” with his theory of emotions. Two shorter sections are provide which deal with the Spinozistic concept of love, and the fact-value distinction within a Spinozistic framework.
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  30. added 2015-01-07
    Spinoza in Schelling’s Early Conception of Intellectual Intuition.Dalia Nassar - 2012 - In Eckart Förster & Yitzhak Melamed (eds.), Spinoza and German Idealism. Cambridge University Press.
    In this paper, I consider Schelling’s early understanding of intellectual intuition. I argue that although the common interpretation of intellectual intuition traces it back to Fichte’s enumerations in the First Introduction to the Wissenschaftslehre of 1797, an examination of the early Schelling reveals that he was employing the term well before Fichte (already in 1795) and in a way that is decisively distinct from Fichte. Thus, I disagree with well-known Schelling scholars, including Xavier Tilliette, who regard the early Schelling as (...)
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  31. added 2015-01-07
    "Spinoza on Knowing, Being and Freedom," Ed. J. G. Van der Bend. [REVIEW]Stephen H. Daniel - 1976 - Modern Schoolman 53 (3):329-330.
  32. added 2015-01-07
    Causa Sui and the Object of Intuition in Spinoza.Quintin C. Terrenal - 1976 - University of San Carlos.
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  33. added 2015-01-07
    Spinoza's Theory of Knowledge.Guttorm Fløistad - 1969 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 12 (1-4):41 – 65.
    This paper is a discussion of which kinds of knowledge Spinoza himself employs in developing the system of the Ethics. The problem is raised by Professor D. Savan and further discussed by G. H. R. Parkinson. The thesis is (1) that no occurrence of the first kind of knowledge is to be found in the Ethics (against Parkinson), (2) that the main part of the analysis in the Ethics is conducted on the level of the second kind of knowledge (in (...)
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  34. added 2015-01-05
    The Circle of Adequate Knowledge: Notes on Reason and Intuition in Spinoza.Syliane Malinowski-Charles - 2004 - In Daniel Garber & Steven Nadler (eds.), Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy Volume 1. Oxford University Press.
  35. added 2015-01-05
    Spinoza's Distinction Between Rational and Intuitive Knowledge.Spencer Carr - 1978 - Philosophical Review 87 (2):241-252.
  36. added 2014-12-29
    The Susceptibility of Intuitive Knowledge to Akrasia in Spinoza's Ethical Thought.Sanem Soyarslan - 2014 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 22 (4):725-747.
    Spinoza unequivocally states in the Ethics that intuitive knowledge is more powerful than reason. Nonetheless, it is not clear what exactly this greater power promises in the face of the passions. Does this mean that intuitive knowledge is not liable to akrasia? Ronald Sandler offers what, to my knowledge, is the only explicit answer to this question in recent Spinoza scholarship. According to Sandler, intuitive knowledge, unlike reason, is not susceptible to akrasia. This is because, intuitive knowledge enables the knower (...)
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