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  1. Spinoza on conatus, inertia and the impossibility of self-destruction.F. Buyse - manuscript
    Suicide or self-destruction means in ordinary language “the act of killing oneself deliberately” (intentionally or on purpose). Indeed, that’s what we read in the Oxford dictionary and the Oxford dictionary of philosophy , which seems to be confirmed by the etymology of the term “suicide”, a term introduced around mid-17th century deduced from the modern Latin suicidium, ‘act of suicide’. Traditionally, suicide was regarded as immoral, irreligious and illegal in Western culture. However, during the 17th century this Christian view started (...)
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  2. A Study Of The Oneness Of Being In Spinoza's Philosophy With A Look At Mulla Sadra's Philosophy Of Existential Oneness.Fahimah Shari'ati - unknown - Kheradnameh Sadra Quarterly 51.
    In his philosophical book called The Ethics, Spinoza has extensively discussed God. In his view, God is a unique substance with infinite attributes. He is self-subsistent and has no cause. He believes that because of His being infinite, there is nothing in the world in which there is no trace of God. Otherwise, His infinity would be challenged. There have been various judgments concerning this idea. After presenting a brief but clear explanation of Spinoza's idea and clarifying the existing views (...)
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  3. Essence as power, or Spinoza on heartbreak.Karolina Hübner - forthcoming - Journal of the History of Philosophy.
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  4. Spinoza and Leibniz on the Principle of Sufficient Reason.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - forthcoming - In Michael Della Rocca & Fatema Amijee (eds.), The Principle of Sufficient Reason: A History. Oxford University Press.
    The early modern period was the natural historical habitat of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, i.e., the demand that everything must have a cause, or reason. It is in this period that the principle was explicitly articulated and named, and throughout the period we find numerous formulations and variants of the PSR and its closely related ‘ex nihilo nihil fit’ principle, which the early moderns inherited from medieval philosophy. Contemporary discussions of these principles were not restricted to philosophy. “Nothing will (...)
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  5. Existence.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2025 - In Karolina Hübner & Justin Steinberg (eds.), The Cambridge Spinoza lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    The distinction between essence (essentia) and existence (existentia) plays a major role in Spinoza’s metaphysics. Although the distinction did not originate with Avicenna, it is primarily through Avicenna’s influence that it became widespread, if not ubiquitous, in both Jewish and Christian medieval philosophy (e.g., Ogden 2021). Spinoza was clearly familiar with this important distinction through his study of Maimonides, Crescas, and Descartes, and it is particularly useful to examine Spinoza’s employment of the distinction in contrast to Descartes’. In the Meditations, (...)
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  6. Immanence.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2025 - In Karolina Hübner & Justin Steinberg (eds.), The Cambridge Spinoza lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Responding to Henry Oldenburg’s request to clarify his views about the relation between God and Nature (Ep. 71), Spinoza writes: “I favor an opinion concerning God and Nature far different from the one Modern Christians usually defend. For I maintain that God is, as they say, the immanent, but not the transitive, cause of all things” (Ep. 73 (IV/307)). In the Ethics, Spinoza does not define the notion of causa immanens, but we can easily retrieve the precise meaning of the (...)
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  7. Ontology and the Political Absolute: A Critical Reading of Spinoza on Women.Eylem Canaslan - 2023 - Manuscrito 46 (1):147-196.
    The “black page” in Spinoza’s Political Treatise has been much discussed and interpreted. These can be roughly divided into three groups: Approaches that see the “black page” as an extension of Spinoza’s theory of the passions and imagination; approaches that maintain that Spinoza excluded women from politics not because of their innate weaknesses but because of their social conditions; approaches that maintain that he excluded women because he saw them as weaker beings, but this contradicts his certain accounts, especially in (...)
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  8. Spinoza’s Theophany - The Expression of God’s Nature by Particular Things.Alexander Douglas - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 11 (2):49-69.
    What does Spinoza mean when he claims, as he does several times in the Ethics, that particular things are expressions of God’s nature or attributes? This article interprets these claims as a version of what is called theophany in the Neoplatonist tradition. Theophany is the process by which particular things come to exist as determinate manifestations of a divine nature that is in itself not determinate. Spinoza’s understanding of theophany diverges significantly from that of the Neoplatonist John Scottus Eriugena, largely (...)
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  9. Spinoza on Free Will and Freedom.Christopher Kluz - 2023 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    This article provides an overview of Spinoza's positions on determinism, free will, and freedom framed by an attempt to make sense of a Spinozistic ethical project that simultaneously denies free will as an illusion while advocating the significance of human freedom for the good life. Within this context, other key doctrines in Spinoza's moral psychology are explored including his view of the will, passions, rational activity, and responsibility.
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  10. Spinoza's Ethics: a guide.Michael LeBuffe - 2023 - New York, NY, United States of America: Oxford University Press.
    This guide has an introduction and five chapters, one for each of the parts of Spinoza's Ethics. The Introduction includes background material necessary for productive study of the Ethics: advice for working with Spinoza's geometrical method, a biographical sketch of Spinoza, and accounts of important predecessors: Aristotle, Maimonides, and Descartes. The chapters that follow trace the Ethics in detail, including accounts of most of the elements in Spinoza's book and raising questions for further research. Chapter 1, "One Infinite Substance," covers (...)
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  11. Schopenhauer on Spinoza: Animals, Jews, and Evil.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2023 - In David Bather Woods & Timothy Stoll (eds.), The Schopenhauerian mind. New York, NY: Routledge.
    Schopenhauer’s philosophical engagement with Spinoza spreads over many fronts, and an adequate – not to say, complete – treatment of the topic, should cover at least the following issues: Schopenhauer’s critique (and misunderstanding) of Spinoza’s pivotal concept of causa sui; Schopenhauer’s claim that Spinoza confused reason [ratio] and cause [causa]; the relationship between Schopenhauer’s and Spinoza’s monisms; the eminent role that both philosophers assign to causality; and finally, Schopenhauer’s view of the world as a macroanthropos, as opposed to Spinoza’s attack (...)
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  12. Sustentação, produção, ação: um caminho até a essência actuosa da substância em Espinosa.Cristiano Novaes Rezende - 2023 - Substância Na História da Filosofia.
  13. Spinoza on the Ontology of Justice: The Role of ‘Beings of Reason’ (Entia Rationis).Michael A. Rosenthal - 2023 - In Jenny E. Pelletier & Christian Rode (eds.), The Reality of the Social World: Medieval, Early Modern, and Contemporary Perspectives on Social Ontology. Cham: Springer Verlag. pp. 117-135.
    In this paper I make four claims. First, there is an apparent contradiction in Spinoza’s theory of justice. On the one hand, in the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (1670), he argues that justice is entirely conventional and depends on the ruler’s decision. On the other hand, in the later and unpublished Tractatus Politicus (1677), he claims that man really is a social animal and that we can articulate ideal forms of justice on that basis. Second, to address this apparent inconsistency, we need (...)
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  14. Expression and the Perfection of Finite Individuals in Spinoza and Leibniz.Sarah Tropper - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 11 (2):31-48.
    It is obvious that both Spinoza and Leibniz attach importance to the notion of expression in their philosophical writings and that both do so in a similar fashion: They agree, for example, that the mind expresses the body (although this claim has rather different meanings for each of them). Another – albeit related – use of ‘expression’ that appears in both thinkers provides a deeper insight into some metaphysical similarity as well as difference: The idea that expression is closely connected (...)
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  15. Spinoza y una alternativa a la dialéctica: monismo y sublimación.Gonzalo Ricci Cernadas - 2022 - Hybris, Revista de Filosofí­A 13 (1):69-91.
    The work will be structured in three sections. The first of them analyzes how the different specialists in Spinozian work have studied the Dutch corpus in a dialectical way. This type of interpretation will be emphasized here not only in regard to Spinoza's own ontology, but also to his political philosophy. Secondly, this article investigates the way in which Spinozian ontology can be studied, proposing that, rather than making use of a dialectical method of Hegelian roots, it is rather possible (...)
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  16. Spinoza on Expression and Grounds of Intelligibility.Karolina Hübner & Róbert Mátyási - 2022 - Philosophical Quarterly 72 (3):628-651.
    Recent literature on Spinoza has emphasized his commitment to universal intelligibility, understood as the claim that there are no brute facts. We draw attention to an important but overlooked element of Spinoza's commitment to intelligibility, and thereby question its most prominent interpretation, on which this commitment results in the priority of conceptual relations. We argue that such readings are both incomplete in their account of Spinozistic intelligibility and mistaken in their identification of the most fundamental relation. We argue that Spinoza (...)
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  17. Ab placito humanum and the Normativity of Human Laws in the Theological-Political Treatise.Lia Levy - 2022 - Journal of Spinoza Studies 1 (1):62-81.
    The few passages in Spinoza’s work in which he focuses on the concept of human law have not received as much scholarly attention as passages focused on other themes, but they have still been very well examined. It is true that most of these studies do not directly aim to determine whether Spinoza adopts a normative conception of human law in the political-legal field or, if he does adopt such a conception, what the conditions under which he could do so (...)
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  18. Schelling and Spinoza: realism, idealism, and the absolute.Benjamin Norris - 2022 - Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Presents a novel interpretation of Schelling's philosophy by way of his reading and critique of Spinoza.
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  19. Spinoza on Essence Constitution.Antonio Salgado Borge - 2022 - Philosophia 50 (3):987-999.
    I argue that, against what is commonly believed, Spinoza’s use of the relation of constitution to characterize the relation between attributes and the essence of a substance does not indicate that, for him, there must be a numerical identity between each attribute and the essence constituted by that attribute. To do this, I follow a twofold strategy. First, I contend that the claim that because in Spinoza’s time constitution was understood as a one- to-one relation is mistaken: the main logicians (...)
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  20. How Spinoza conceives being: a reply to Vlasits' “Note on an Unused Axiom”.Daniel Schneider - 2022 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 31 (1):44-57.
    In his recent article, “Everything is Conceivable: A Note on an Unused Axiom in Spinoza's Ethics”, Justin Vlasits carefully analyzes parallels between the first four propositions of the Ethics and Spinoza’s correspondence with Henry Oldenburg to argue that Spinoza intended to appeal to E1A2 in E1P4dem of the Ethics. In this short response, I identify a problem with Vlasits’ analysis. Vlasits insists that the scope of E1A2 is not determined by what is conceivable, and I show that this creates a (...)
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  21. Pantheism, Panentheism, and Ecosophy: Getting Back to Spinoza?Luca Valera & Gabriel Vidal - 2022 - Zygon 57 (3):545-563.
    Many authors in the field of Environmental Philosophy have claimed to be inspired by Spinoza's monism, which has traditionally been considered a form of pantheism because nature and God coincide. This idea has deep normative implications, as some environmental ethicists claim that wounding nature is the same as wounding God, which implies a resacralization of nature. In particular, we will focus on Arne Næss's Ecosophy (or Deep Ecology) to offer a current relevant example of the pantheist (or panentheist) worldview. However, (...)
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  22. Love and essence in Spinoza's ethics.Noa Lahav Ayalon - 2021 - Manuscrito 44 (3):1-41.
    Several questions regarding Spinoza's concept of essence have been the topic of recent scholarly debate. In this paper, I show that the connection between love, desire and essence is ubiquitous in the Ethics, as well as metaphysically and psychologically coherent; moreover, it provides the key to answer unresolved questions. Analyzing the notion of essence through Spinoza's theory of love shows that essence can be expressed in different ways, and be reflected through different objects of love. These objects of love, in (...)
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  23. Aristotle and Aristoxenus on Effort.John Robert Bagby - 2021 - Conatus 6 (2):51-74.
    The discussions of conatus – force, tendency, effort, and striving – in early modern metaphysics have roots in Aristotle’s understanding of life as an internal experience of living force. This paper examines the ways that Spinoza’s conatus is consonant with Aristotle on effort. By tracking effort from his psychology and ethics to aesthetics, I show there is a conatus at the heart of the activity of the ψυχή that involves an intensification of power in a way which anticipates many of (...)
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  24. Cohen über Spinoza: Das Denken der Natur und die Natur des Denkens.Luca Bertolino - 2021 - Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy 29 (2):205-230.
    This analysis of Cohen's reception of Spinoza's thought draws attention to theoretical issues: the nature of thinking and the thinking of nature. In a synoptic way it refers to several of Cohen's works, trying to determine continuity and discontinuity in his interpretation of Spinoza, with a specific focus on "Ethica ordine geometrico demonstrata". Thus, Cohen's reception of Spinoza's thought seems to be characterized by a continuity similar to what we can find in Cohen's philosophical system as a whole. Discrepancies in (...)
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  25. Spinozistic expression as signification.Antonio Salgado Borge - 2021 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 30 (1):24-47.
    I propose a new interpretation of Spinoza’s obscure but important concept of ‘expression’. Any account of Spinozistic expression must be able to fulfil two principal requirements. First, it must be...
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  26. Naturalistic Explanation in Spinoza’s Ethics: Being Mind-Full of Nature by Harvey Shoolman.Michael Futch - 2021 - Review of Metaphysics 75 (2):398-400.
  27. Spinoza on Relations.Zachary Gartenberg - 2021 - In Yitzhak Y. Melamed (ed.), Blackwell Companion to Spinoza. Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell. pp. 179-188.
    Relations occupy a shadowy place in Spinoza's metaphysics while they play a distinguished role in our mental lives and possess a complex epistemological status at the interface between being and its representation in the mind. This chapter attempts to disentangle Spinoza's concept of relations from his concept of universals. It suggests that there are grounds for regarding universals as a separate type of “metaphysical being." The chapter focuses on two of Spinoza's early works, the Short Treatise (KV) and the Metaphysical (...)
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  28. The Metaphysics of Natural Right in Spinoza.John R. T. Grey - 2021 - Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy 10:37-60.
    In the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (TTP), Spinoza argues that an individual’s natural right extends as far as their power. Subsequently, in the Tractatus Politicus (TP), he offers a revised argument for the same conclusion. Here I offer an account of the reasons for the revision. In both arguments, an individual’s natural right derives from God’s natural right. However, the TTP argument hinges on the claim that each individual is part of the whole of nature (totius naturae), and for this reason inherits (...)
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  29. Spinoza's Metaphysics of Time.Raphael Krut-Landau - 2021 - In Yitzhak Y. Melamed (ed.), Blackwell Companion to Spinoza. Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell.
  30. Citizens and States in Spinoza’s Political Treatise.Michael LeBuffe - 2021 - Mind 130 (519):809-832.
    In his Political Treatise, Spinoza repeatedly compares states to human beings. In this interpretation of the comparisons, I present a progressively more restrictive account of Spinoza’s views about the nature of human beings in the Ethics and show at each step how those views inform the account of states in the Political Treatise. Because, like human beings, states are individuals, they strive to persevere in existence. Because, like human beings, states are composed of parts that are individuals, states' parts also (...)
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  31. Blackwell Companion to Spinoza.Yitzhak Y. Melamed (ed.) - 2021 - Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell.
    An unparalleled collection of original essays on Benedict de Spinoza's contributions to philosophy and his enduring legacy A Companion to Spinoza presents a panoramic view of contemporary Spinoza studies in Europe and across the Anglo-American world. Designed to stimulate fresh dialogue between the analytic and continental traditions in philosophy, this extraordinary volume brings together 53 original essays that explore Spinoza's contributions to Western philosophy and intellectual history. A diverse team of established and emerging international scholars discuss new themes and classic (...)
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  32. Being Consistently Biocentric: On the (Im)possibility of Spinozist Animal Ethics.Chandler D. Rogers - 2021 - Journal for Critical Animal Studies 18 (1):52-72.
    Spinoza’s attitude toward nonhuman animals is uncharacteristically cruel. This essay elaborates upon this ostensible idiosyncrasy in reference to Hasana Sharp’s commendable desire to revitalize a basis for animal ethics from within the bounds of his system. Despite our favoring an ethics beginning from animal affect, this essay argues that an animal ethic adequate to the demands of our historical moment cannot be developed from within the confines of strict adherence to Spinoza’s system—and this is not yet to speak of a (...)
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  33. La potencia como medio de diferenciación en la inmanencia. Deleuze, lector de Schelling, lectores de Spinoza.Gonzalo Santaya - 2021 - Areté. Revista de Filosofía 33 (1):119-146.
    Este artículo busca analizar el concepto deleuziano de potencia, trazando una genealogía que lo asocia con la filosofía de Schelling –inspirado, a su vez, en Spinoza–, con la finalidad de mostrar el modo en que dicho concepto puede funcionar como el medio para pensar la multiplicidad de diferenciaciones e individuaciones del Ser en el contexto de la filosofía de la inmanencia. Para ello, reconstruiremos la presencia de Schelling en el concepto de potencia tal como Deleuze lo desarrolla en sus obras (...)
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  34. Spinoza on Composition, Monism, and Beings of Reason.Róbert Mátyási - 2020 - Journal of Modern Philosophy 2 (1):1-16.
    In this paper, I argue that Spinoza holds a perspectivalist view of mereological composition, a form of anti-realism. The paper has two parts: In the first half of the paper, I introduce interpretive puzzles for the standard realist reading of Spinoza’s mereology. In the second half of the paper, I discuss Spinoza’s positive view on mereological composition and present a perspectivalist reading that avoids the interpretive puzzles.
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  35. Review of Don Garrett, Necessity and Nature in Spinoza (Oxford University Press, 2018). The Philosophical Review 129 (2020). [REVIEW]Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2020 - Philosophical Review 129 (3):469-473.
  36. Spinozistic Selves.Samuel Newlands - 2020 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 6 (1):16-35.
    Spinoza'sEthicspromises a path for sweeping personal transformations, but his accounts face two sets of overarching problems. The first concerns his peculiar metaphysics of action and agents; the second his apparent neglect of the very category of persons. Although these are somewhat distinct concerns, they have a common, unified solution in Spinoza's system that is philosophically rich and interesting, both in its own right and in relation to contemporary work in moral philosophy. After presenting the core of the problem facing Spinoza's (...)
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  37. Psychoanalyzing Nature, Dark Ground of Spirit.Chandler D. Rogers - 2020 - Journal of the Pacific Association for the Continental Tradition 3:1-19.
    The ontological paradigms of Schelling and the late Merleau-Ponty bear striking resemblances to Spinoza’s ontology. Both were developed in response to transcendental models of a Cartesian mold, resisting tendencies to exalt the human ego to the neglect or the detriment of the more-than-human world. As such, thinkers with environmental concerns have sought to derive favorable ethical prescriptions on their basis. We begin by discerning a deadlock between two such thinkers: Ted Toadvine and Sean McGrath. With ecological responsibility in mind, both (...)
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  38. The Identity of Man – Winch between Spinoza, Weil, and Wittgenstein.Sarah Tropper - 2020 - In Ethics, Society and Politics: Themes from the Philosophy of Peter Winch. Cham: pp. 135-148.
    Throughout his philosophical career, Peter Winch had a particular interest in the philosophy of Spinoza, as is evidenced not only by a variety of references on a diverse range of issues in his works, but also by several lectures and seminars he delivered on this thinker. A reconstruction of his interpretation of Spinoza’s system, which unites epistemological, metaphysical and ethical considerations as mutually dependent, brings to the fore Winch’s interest in the individual not only as an important epistemological, but equally (...)
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  39. Spinoza on the role of the state in education.Johan Dahlbeck - 2019 - Encyclopedia of Educational Philosophy and Theory.
    Is the education of citizens a private matter or is it primarily a concern for the state? Throughout the history of political and educational philosophy, this question has remained central. Different philosophers have answered the question in different ways and different periods have witnessed different ways of organizing public education in response to it. At the root of this question is another question. This question concerns how we understand the state and how we construe the relation between the state and (...)
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  40. Leibniz's principle of (sufficient) reason and principle of identity of indiscernibles.Valérie Debuiche - 2019 - In Jack Stetter & Charles Ramond (eds.), Spinoza in Twenty-First-Century American and French Philosophy: Metaphysics, Philosophy of Mind, Moral and Political Philosophy. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
  41. The transformation of relations in Spinoza's metaphysics.Simon B. Duffy - 2019 - In Jack Stetter & Charles Ramond (eds.), Spinoza in Twenty-First-Century American and French Philosophy: Metaphysics, Philosophy of Mind, Moral and Political Philosophy. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
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  42. Analogia and ens rationis.Jacqueline Lagrée - 2019 - In Jack Stetter & Charles Ramond (eds.), Spinoza in Twenty-First-Century American and French Philosophy: Metaphysics, Philosophy of Mind, Moral and Political Philosophy. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
  43. Review of Samual Newlands's Reconceiving Spinoza. [REVIEW]Martin Lin - 2019 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 1.
  44. Der Pantheismusstreit: Spinozas Weg zur deutschen Philosophie und Kultur.Józef Piórczyński - 2019 - Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann.
    Der Autor stellt in seinem Buch zum Pantheismusstreit dezidierte historische und struktural-theoretische Überlegungen zur Spinoza-Rezeption in Deutschland an. Der Streit darüber, ob Lessing Pantheist war, geht in einen Streit um die Philosophie Spinozas und den Rationalismus über. Im Laufe der Zeit wird der Korrespondenzstreit zwischen Jacobi und Mendelssohn öffentlich und spricht das deutsche Bewusstsein und Unterbewusstsein an, daher engagiert sich das gesamte "gebildete Deutschland" in dieser philosophischen Auseinandersetzung. Die Arbeit hat grosse Bedeutung für das Verständnis der Situation der deutschen Philosophie (...)
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  45. O império da razão: os caminhos do tornar-se ativo em Espinosa.Juarez Soares Rodrigues - 2019 - Dissertation, University of São Paulo, Brazil
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  46. Spinoza on beings of reason [entia rationis] and the analogical imagination.Michael A. Rosenthal - 2019 - In Jack Stetter & Charles Ramond (eds.), Spinoza in Twenty-First-Century American and French Philosophy: Metaphysics, Philosophy of Mind, Moral and Political Philosophy. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
  47. The Metaphysics of the Material World: Suárez, Descartes, Spinoza.Tad M. Schmaltz - 2019 - New York: Oxford University Press.
  48. In what way it exists.Pascal Sévérac - 2019 - In Jack Stetter & Charles Ramond (eds.), Spinoza in Twenty-First-Century American and French Philosophy: Metaphysics, Philosophy of Mind, Moral and Political Philosophy. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
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  49. Qu'y a-t-il de matérialiste chez Spinoza?Pascal Sévérac - 2019 - Villiers St-Josse: HD.
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  50. Acosmismo come religione: Giovanni Gentile e Piero Martinetti interpreti di Spinoza.Michela Torbidoni - 2019 - Roma: Edizioni di Comunità.
1 — 50 / 158