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  1. Spinoza and the Philosophy of Science: Mathematics, Motion, and Being.Eric Schliesser - 1986, 2002
    This chapter argues that the standard conception of Spinoza as a fellow-travelling mechanical philosopher and proto-scientific naturalist is misleading. It argues, first, that Spinoza’s account of the proper method for the study of nature presented in the Theological-Political Treatise (TTP) points away from the one commonly associated with the mechanical philosophy. Moreover, throughout his works Spinoza’s views on the very possibility of knowledge of nature are decidedly sceptical (as specified below). Third, in the seventeenth-century debates over proper methods in the (...)
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  2. Review of Matthew Homan. Spinoza’s Epistemology through a Geometrical Lens. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2021. Pp. xv+256. [REVIEW]Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2023 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 61 (2):329-31.
    Like most, if not all, of his contemporaries, Spinoza never developed a full-fledged philosophy of mathematics. Still, his numerous remarks about mathematics attest not only to his deep interest in the subject (a point which is also confirmed by the significant presence of mathematical books in his library), but also to his quite elaborate and perhaps unique understanding of the nature of mathematics. At the very center of his thought about mathematics stands a paradox (or, at least, an apparent paradox): (...)
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  3. Mogens L ærke, Spinoza and the freedom of philosophizing, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2021, 387 p.Jacques-Louis Lantoine - 2022 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 115 (3):442-444.
  4. Spinoza's Epistemology through a Geometrical Lens.Michael LeBuffe - 2022 - Philosophical Quarterly 73 (3):859-861.
    This book concerns Spinoza's theory of knowledge and closely related issues: Spinoza's conceptions of geometrical figure or shape, number, and observational sci.
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  5. La verdadera ciencia: método geométrico y filosofía en la Ética de Spinoza.Mario Andrés Narváez - 2022 - Anales Del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 39 (1):55-72.
    In the present paper we propose to approach the Spinoza`s methodological project from a philosophical and historical perspective broad enough to adequately understand the reasons that led him to adopt geometric method to expose his philosophy. Even if the topic has been widely discussed by Spinoza´s commentators in the four centuries since the Ethics was published, we believe that the approaches are either inadequate or suffer from some fragmentation, in the sense that they address this or that aspect, but don`t (...)
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  6. Spinoza and Counterpossible Inferences.Galen Barry - 2021 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 102 (1):27-50.
    Spinoza reasons about impossibilities on a regular basis. But he also says they're unthinkable and that reasoning is a mental process. How can he do this? The paper defends a linguistic account of counterpossible inferences in Spinoza's geometrical method.
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  7. On the Utility of Spinoza’s Philosophy.Luis Rodríguez Camarero - 2021 - Critical Hermeneutics 5 (S1).
    After some reflections about the utility and singularity of philosophy, it is shown that the main utility of philosophy, following Spinoza, would be the perfection of human nature, with the aid of our understanding. Lastly, a synthesis is made of the path followed by Spinoza in his Ethica in the direction of this perfection.
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  8. Spinoza’s Epistemology Through a Geometrical Lens.Matthew Homan - 2021 - Springer Verlag.
    This book interrogates the ontology of mathematical entities in Spinoza as a basis for addressing a wide range of interpretive issues in Spinoza’s epistemology—from his antiskepticism and philosophy of science to the nature and scope of reason and intuitive knowledge and the intellectual love of God. Going against recent trends in Spinoza scholarship, and drawing on various sources, including Spinoza’s engagements with optical theory and physics, Matthew Homan argues for a realist interpretation of geometrical figures in Spinoza; illustrates their role (...)
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  9. La notion de système philosophique: Spinoza et Nietzsche.Koffi Niamkey - 2021 - Paris: L'Harmattan.
    Dans cet ouvrage, Niamkey-Koffi, après avoir affronté l'idée de système, en écho chez Spinoza, se consacre à la constitution de contenus de vérité soumis à l'exigence fragmentaire. Celle-ci fut le souci primordial de Nietzsche. La notion de système philosophique engage dans un mouvement critique qui démasque la volonté de vérité dissimulée dans l'idéologie et les mensonges du système comme instrument de la socialisation totalitaire. Mais une telle démarche critique, tributaire d'une morale de l'ambivalence, ne saurait reconduire la dialectique des dichotomies (...)
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  10. We Still Do Not Know What a Body Can Do: Rereading Deleuze's Spinozist Ethology Toward a Non-Ontological Interpretation of Transcendental Empiricism.Kyle Novak - 2021 - Symposium: Canadian Journal of Continental Philosophy/Revue canadienne de philosophie continentale 25 (2):75-97.
    Throughout much of his career, Deleuze repeats a problem he attributes to Spinoza: “we do not even know what a body can do.” The problem is closely associated with Deleuze’s parallelist reading of Spinoza and what he calls ethology. In this article, I argue that Deleuze takes ethology to be a new model for philosophy which he intends to replace ontology. I ground my claim in Deleuze’s suggestion that Spinoza offers philosophers the means of thinking “with AND rather than thinking (...)
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  11. Mogens Lærke, Spinoza and the Freedom of Philosophizing.Dan Taylor - 2021 - Danish Yearbook of Philosophy 55 (1):76-77.
  12. Everything is conceivable: a note on an unused axiom in Spinoza's Ethics.Justin Vlasits - 2021 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 30 (3):496-507.
    Spinoza's Ethics self-consciously follows the example of Euclid and other geometers in its use of axioms and definitions as the basis for derivations of hundreds of propositions of philosophical si...
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  13. Knowing mind through knowing body : Spinoza on causal knowledge of the self and the external world.Daniel Garber - 2020 - In Dominik Perler & Sebastian Bender (eds.), Causation and Cognition in Early Modern Philosophy. London: Routledge.
  14. The Young Spinoza on Scepticism, Truth, and Method.Valtteri Viljanen - 2020 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 50 (1):130-142.
    This paper offers a new interpretation of the young Spinoza’s method of distinguishing the true ideas from the false, which shows that his answer to the sceptic is not a failure. This method combines analysis and synthesis as follows: if we can say of the object of an idea which simple things underlie it, how it can be constructed out of simple elements, and what properties it has after it has been produced, doubt concerning the object simply makes no sense. (...)
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  15. Spinoza and the Logical Limits of Mental Representation.Galen Barry - 2019 - Journal of Modern Philosophy 1 (1):5.
    This paper examines Spinoza’s view on the consistency of mental representation. First, I argue that he departs from Scholastic tradition by arguing that all mental states—whether desires, intentions, beliefs, perceptions, entertainings, etc.—must be logically consistent. Second, I argue that his endorsement of this view is motivated by key Spinozistic doctrines, most importantly the doctrine that all acts of thought represent what could follow from God’s nature. Finally, I argue that Spinoza’s view that all mental representation is consistent pushes him to (...)
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  16. Affirmation, judgment, and epistemic theodicy in Descartes and Spinoza.Martin Lin - 2019 - In Brian Andrew Ball & Christoph Schuringa (eds.), The Act and Object of Judgment: Historical and Philosophical Perspectives. New York: Routledge.
  17. Being and Reason: An Essay on Spinoza's Metaphysics.Martin Lin - 2019 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    In Spinoza’s metaphysics, we encounter many puzzling doctrines that appear to entangle metaphysical notions with cognitive, logical, and epistemic ones. According to him, a substance is that which can be conceived through itself and a mode is that which is conceived through another. Thus, metaphysical notions, substance and mode, are defined through a notion that is either cognitive or logical, being conceived through. He defines an attribute as that which an intellect perceives as constituting the essence of a substance. Intellectual (...)
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  18. Naturalistic Explanation in Spinoza's Ethics: Being Mind-Full of Nature.Harvey Shoolman - 2019 - Lanham: Lexington Books.
    Spinoza’s naturalism is unique. It explains conscious mind, physical behavior, and scientific, cultural, social and political phenomena by recourse to the deductive relation of causes to effects as expressed by Nature itself. This book provides an innovative and original interpretation of the way in which Spinoza achieved this unique vision.
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  19. Necessity and Nature in Spinoza's Philosophy.Don Garrett - 2018 - New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  20. Nature and necessity in Spinoza's philosophy.Don Garrett - 2018 - New York City: Oxford University Press.
    Spinoza's guiding commitment to the thesis that nothing exists or occurs outside of the scope of nature and its necessary laws makes him one of the great seventeenth-century exemplars of both philosophical naturalism and explanatory rationalism. Nature and Necessity in Spinoza's Philosophy brings together for the first time eighteen of Don Garrett's articles on Spinoza's philosophy, ranging over the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of mind, ethics, and political philosophy. Taken together, these influential articles provide a comprehensive interpretation of that (...)
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  21. Spinoza and the Cunning of Imagination.Eugene Garver - 2018 - London: University of Chicago Press.
    Spinoza’s Ethics, and its project of proving ethical truths through the geometric method, have attracted and challenged readers for more than three hundred years. In Spinoza and the Cunning of Imagination, Eugene Garver uses the imagination as a guiding thread to this work. Other readers have looked at the imagination to account for Spinoza’s understanding of politics and religion, but this is the first inquiry to see it as central to the Ethics as a whole—imagination as a quality to be (...)
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  22. Metaphysik und Methode bei Spinoza: eine problemorientierte Darstellung der Ethica ordine geometrico demonstrata.Roland Braun - 2017 - Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann.
  23. Spinoza on Reason.Michael LeBuffe - 2017 - Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.
    Michael LeBuffe explains claims about reason in Spinoza's metaphysics, theory of mind, ethics, and politics. He emphasizes the extent to which different claims build upon one another so contribute to the systematic coherence of Spinoza's philosophy.
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  24. The Causes of Our Belief in Free Will: Spinoza on Necessary, ‘Innate,’ yet False Cognition.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2017 - In Spinoza’s Ethics: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
    This chapter will discuss Spinoza’s critique of free will, though our brief study of this topic in the first part of the chapter will aim primarily at preparing us to address the main topic of the chapter, which is Spinoza’s explanation of the reasons which force us to believe in free will. At times, Spinoza seems to come very close to asserting the paradoxical claim that we are not free to avoid belief in free will. In the second part of (...)
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  25. Why Should We Read Spinoza?Susan James - 2016 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 78:109-125.
    Historians of philosophy are well aware of the limitations of what Butterfield called ‘Whig history’: narratives of historical progress that culminate in an enlightened present. Yet many recent studies retain a somewhat teleological outlook. Why should this be so? To explain it, I propose, we need to take account of the emotional investments that guide our interest in the philosophical past, and the role they play in shaping what we understand as the history of philosophy. As far as I know, (...)
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  26. The Role of Contradictions in Spinoza's Philosophy: The God-Intoxicated Heretic.Yuval Jobani - 2016 - New York: Routledge. Edited by Aviv Ben-Or.
    Spinoza is commonly perceived as the great metaphysician of coherence. The Euclidean manner in which he presented his philosophy in the _Ethics _has led readers to assume they are facing a strict and consistent philosophical system that necessarily follows from itself. As opposed to the prevailing understanding of Spinoza and his work, _The Role of Contradictions in Spinoza's Philosophy_ explores an array of profound and pervasive contradictions in Spinoza’s system and argues they are deliberate and constitutive of his philosophical thinking (...)
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  27. Teaching Early Modern Philosophy as a Bridge between Causal or Naturalistic and Conceptual Thought.Jeremy Barris & Paul M. Turner - 2015 - Metaphilosophy 46 (3):326-343.
    It is a challenge in teaching early modern philosophy to balance historical faithfulness to the arguments and concerns of early modern philosophers and interpreting them as relevant to the kinds of thinking that contemporary undergraduate students find plausible. Early modern philosophy is unique, however, in applying modern scientific method directly to problems concerning nonphysical aspects of reality that our contemporary scientific thought, and with it mainstream contemporary culture, no longer find amenable in their own, independent right to reliable reasoned approaches. (...)
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  28. Methode und Aufbau von Spinozas Ethik als Symbol ihrer inneren Einheit.Brady Bowman - 2015 - In Jure Zovko, Dimitris Karydas & Sarah Schmidt (eds.), Begriff Und Interpretation Im Zeichen der Moderne. De Gruyter. pp. 15-32.
  29. Spinoza as an Exemplar of Foucault’s Spirituality and Technologies of the Self.Christopher Davidson - 2015 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 4 (2):111-146.
    Practices of the self are prominent in Spinoza, both in the Ethics and On the Emendation of the Intellect. The same can be said of Descartes, e.g., his Discourse on the Method. What, if anything, distinguishes their practices of the self? Michel Foucault’s concept of “spirituality” isolates how Spinoza ’s practices are relatively unusual in the early modern era. Spirituality, as defined by Foucault in The Hermeneutics of the Subject, requires changes in the ethical subject before one can begin philosophizing, (...)
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  30. Spinoza's Short Treatise on God, Man & His Wellbeing.Benedictus de Spinoza & A. Wolf - 2015 - Andesite Press.
    This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain (...)
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  31. Some Additional (But Not Final) Words.Daniel Garber - 2015 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 53 (3):537-539.
    i would like to thank Michael Della Rocca for his thoughtful response to my remarks. Needless to say, I am not entirely convinced by everything he says, but I am also sure that he did not think that I would be! The substantive points on which we differ are complex, and deserve careful consideration and argument; this is not the occasion on which to thrash out those differences. But I would like to add a few words about the methodological differences (...)
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  32. Geometrical Method.Ursula Goldenbaum - 2015
    The Geometrical Method The Geometrical Method is the style of proof that was used in Euclid’s proofs in geometry, and that was used in philosophy in Spinoza’s proofs in his Ethics. The term appeared first in 16th century Europe when mathematics was on an upswing due to the new science of mechanics. … Continue reading Geometrical Method →.
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  33. Back to Metaphysics in Spinoza’s Ethics: Spinoza’s Theory of Reading.Ryan J. Johnson - 2015 - Pli 27:23-56.
    This paper begins with a pressing question for contemporary philosophy: What does it mean to read Spinoza’s Ethics today? Before we can address this particular question, we pose another, one possibly prior, question. The question is situated within Spinozism itself. It asks, ‘What does it mean to read, for Spinoza?’ Given Spinoza’s commitment to the theory of parallelism, reading affects both the body and the mind. We first show how an explicit formulation of the three kinds of material bodies allows (...)
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  34. Fixing Descartes: Ethical Intellectualism in Spinoza's Early Writings.Andrea Sangiacomo - 2015 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 53 (3):338-361.
    This paper aims at reconstructing the ethical issues raised by Spinoza's early Treatise on the Emendation of the Intellect. Specifically, I argue that Spinoza takes issue with Descartes’ epistemology in order to support a form of “ethical intellectualism” in which knowledge is envisaged as both necessary and sufficient to reach the supreme good. First, I reconstruct how Descartes exploits the distinction between truth and certainty in his Discourse on the Method. On the one hand, this distinction acts as the basis (...)
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  35. Spinoza: Basic Concepts.Andre Santos Campos (ed.) - 2015 - Imprint Academic.
    Spinoza is among the most pivotal thinkers in the history of philosophy. He has had a deep and enduring influence on a wide range of philosophical subjects, and his work is encountered by all serious students of Western philosophy. His _Ethics_ is one of the seminal works of metaphysical, moral, religious and political thought; his _Theological-Political Treatise_ inaugurated a novel method of biblical exegesis; and both his political works developed the pre-eminence of democracy above all other regimes. Nevertheless, the significance (...)
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  36. Without Reason?Benjamin Schnieder & Alex Steinberg - 2015 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 97 (4):523-541.
    The argument for modal collapse is partly responsible for the widespread rejection of the so-called Principle of Sufficient Reason in recent times. This paper discusses the PSR against the background of the recent debate about grounding and develops principled reasons for rejecting the argument from modal collapse.
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  37. Spinoza's Materialist "Epistemology".Norman Lee Whitman - 2015 - Dissertation, Vanderbilt University
    Scholars have begun to explore Baruch Spinozas critique of rationalism, largely because of his importance for later thinkers deeply concerned about the nature of body, including Nietzsche, Freud, Marx, Frankfurt school critical theorists, and feminists. Until now, however, Spinozas epistemological writings have not been properly addressed in this revival of interest in his materialism. My dissertation reconstructs Spinozas materialist method of knowing in an effort to reclaim it from Cartesian and idealist readings, offering instead a materialist reading of Spinozas epistemological (...)
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  38. Was Spinoza a Naturalist?Alexander Douglas - 2014 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 96 (1):77-99.
    In this article I dispute the claim, made by several contemporary scholars, that Spinoza was a naturalist. ‘Naturalism’ here refers to two distinct but related positions in contemporary philosophy. The first, ontological naturalism, is the view that everything that exists possesses a certain character permitting it to be defined as natural and prohibiting it from being defined as supernatural. I argue that the only definition of ontological naturalism that could be legitimately applied to Spinoza's philosophy is so unrestrictive as to (...)
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  39. Hobbes’s and Zabarella’s Methods: A Missing Link.Helen Hattab - 2014 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 52 (3):461-485.
    early modern philosophers commonly appeal to a mathematical method to demonstrate their philosophical claims. Since such claims are not always followed by what we would recognize as mathematical proofs, they are often dismissed as mere rhetoric. René Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, and Benedict de Spinoza are perhaps the most well-known early modern philosophers who fall into this category. It is a matter of dispute whether the ordo geometricus amounts to more than a method of presentation in Spinoza’s philosophy. Descartes and Hobbes (...)
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  40. Spinoza’s Language.Mogens Lærke - 2014 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 52 (3):519-547.
    when reading spinoza’s Ethics,1 one comes upon a particularly disconcerting passage in Part Three. In an explication of two definitions of ‘favor’ (favor) and ‘indignation’ (indignatio), Spinoza writes,I know that in their common usage these words mean something else. But my purpose is to explain the nature of things, not the meaning of words. I intend to indicate these things by words whose meaning is not entirely opposed to the meaning with which I wish to use them. One warning of (...)
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  41. Adequate and Inadequate Ideas in Spinoza.Blake McAllister - 2014 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 31 (2):119-136.
    Adequate and inadequate ideas play a central role in Spinoza’s system. A number of recent commentators have suggested that the internality or externality of an idea’s immediate cause is a necessary and sufficient condition of the idea’s adequacy or inadequacy, respectively. I show that this thesis is subject to counterexample and briefly explore the significance of this critique for recent interpretations. I offer an alternative interpretation on which adequate and inadequate ideas are characterized by the manner in which they grasp (...)
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  42. Spinoza on Physical Science.Alison Peterman - 2014 - Philosophy Compass 9 (3):214-223.
    In this paper, I discuss Spinoza on the proper methods and content of physical science. I start by showing how Spinoza's epistemology leads him to a kind of pessimism about the prospects of empirical and mathematical methods in natural philosophy. While they are useful for life, they do not tell us about nature, as Spinoza puts it, “as it is in itself.” At the same time, Spinoza seems to allow that we have some knowledge of physical things and their behavior. (...)
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  43. Spinoza's PSR as a Principle of Clear and Distinct Representation.Daniel Schneider - 2014 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 95 (1):109-129.
    It is argued first, that Spinoza's Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR) is best seen as an auxiliary premise and not as an axiom of the Ethics; second, that Spinoza held the PSR to be a self-evident truth that indicates a necessary condition for clearly and distinctly representing the existence or non-existence of a thing; and third, that this interpretation of Spinoza's PSR explains the near absence of the PSR within the demonstrations of the Ethics as well as the importance of (...)
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  44. Philosophizing Historically/Historicizing Philosophy: Some Spinozistic Reflections.Julie R. Klein - 2013 - In Philosophy and Its History. pp. 134-158.
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  45. Spinoza on Skepticism.Dominik Perler - 2013 - In Michael Della Rocca (ed.), The Oxford Handbook to Spinoza. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 220-239.
    Spinoza never discusses the scenario of radical skepticism as it was introduced by Descartes. Why not? This paper argues that he chooses a preventive strategy: instead of taking the skeptical challenge as it is and trying to refute it, he questions the challenge itself and gives a diagnosis of its origin. It is a combination of semantic atomism, dualism and anti-naturalism that gives rise to radical doubts. Spinoza attacks these basic assumptions, opting instead for semantic holism, anti-dualism and naturalism. This (...)
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  46. Kant's Neoplatonism: Kant and Plato on Mathematical and Philosophical Method.Nicholas Rescher - 2013 - Metaphilosophy 44 (1-2):69-78.
    Both Plato and Kant devote much attention and care to deliberating about their method of philosophizing. And, interestingly, both seek to expand and explain their view of philosophical method by one selfsame strategy: explaining the contrast between rational procedure in mathematics and in philosophy. Plato and Kant agree on a fundamental point of philosophical method that is at odds with the mathematico-demonstrative methodology of philosophy found in Spinoza and present in Christian Wolff. Both reject the axiomatic approach with its insistence (...)
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  47. “Omnis determinatio est negatio” – Determination, Negation and Self-Negation in Spinoza, Kant, and Hegel.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2012 - In Eckart Forster & Yitzhak Y. Melamed (eds.), Spinoza and German Idealism. Cambridge University Press.
    Spinoza ’s letter of June 2, 1674 to his friend Jarig Jelles addresses several distinct and important issues in Spinoza ’s philosophy. It explains briefly the core of Spinoza ’s disagreement with Hobbes’ political theory, develops his innovative understanding of numbers, and elaborates on Spinoza ’s refusal to describe God as one or single. Then, toward the end of the letter, Spinoza writes: With regard to the statement that figure is a negation and not anything positive, it is obvious that (...)
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  48. Vom intuitiven Wissen zur dialektischen Bewegung des Denkens. Symposium zu: Eckart Förster: Die 25 Jahre der Philosophie.Ulrich Schlösser - 2012 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 60 (6):983-991.
    This paper critically analyses two of Eckart Förster’s claims on the development of German idealism. The first claim is the following: In his writings on colour and on plant development, Goethe uses a method that is grounded in Spinoza’s third form of knowledge, scientia intuitiva. According to the second claim, Goethe’s methodology played a crucial role in establishing a developmental approach to knowledge in Hegel’s early Jena period. The paper assesses objections to both claims.
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  49. Two Kinds of Definition in Spinoza's Ethics.Kristina Meshelski - 2011 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 19 (2):201-218.
    Spinoza scholars have claimed that we are faced with a dilemma: either Spinoza's definitions in his Ethics are real, in spite of indications to the contrary, or the definitions are nominal and the propositions derived from them are false. I argue that Spinoza did not recognize the distinction between real and nominal definitions. Rather, Spinoza classified definitions according to whether they require a priori or a posteriori justification, which is a classification distinct from either the real/nominal or the intensional/extensional classification. (...)
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  50. Beth Lord , Spinoza's Ethics . Reviewed by. [REVIEW]Hasana Sharp - 2011 - Philosophy in Review 31 (4):290-291.
    The guidebook is meant to be read alongside the Ethics. It thus follows the order of Spinoza’s text and discusses sets of propositions as the development of various strands of argument. It instructs readers to pause and, for example, read Propositions 1-5 of Part 1 together, before moving on to a different component of his argument for the simplicity of substance. Lord dedicates more elaborate discussion to crucial but problematic propositions, like Proposition 11 of Part 1, Proposition 7 of Part (...)
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