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  1. Spinoza and Judaism in the French Context: The Case of Milner's Le Sage Trompeur.Jack Stetter - 2020 - Modern Judaism - A Journal of Jewish Ideas and Experience 40 (2):227-255.
    Jean-Claude Milner’s Le sage trompeur (2013), a controversial recent piece of French Spinoza literature, remains regrettably understudied in the English-speaking world. Adopting Leo Strauss’ esoteric reading method, Milner alleges that Spinoza dissimulates his genuine analysis of the causes of the persecution and survival of the Jewish people within a brief “manifesto” found at the end of the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (TTP), Chapter 3. According to Milner, Spinoza holds that the Jewish people themselves are responsible for the hatred of the Jewish people, (...)
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Spinoza: Biblical Criticism
  1. Teologinis-politinis traktatas / Tractatus theologico-politicus. Spinoza & Laurynas Adomaitis (eds.) - 2017 - Vilnius: Jonas ir Jokūbas.
    Baruch Spinoza, Tractatus Theologico-Politicus/Teologinis-politinis traktatas, bilingual edition, Lithuanian translation and introduction by Laurynas Adomaitis, Latin text edition by Fokke Akkerman based on the editio princeps, Vilnius: Jonas ir Jokūbas, 2017, 674 pp. -/- Barucho Spinozos "Teologinis-politinis traktatas" (1670) yra vienas esminių modernios filosofijos tekstų. Pagrindinis "Teologinio-politinio traktato" tikslas yra parodyti dvi esmines politinio gyvenimo ydas: baimę, kuri kliudo aiškiai formuoti mintis ir viltį, kuri trukdo aktyviai dalyvauti politiniame gyvenime. Pasak Spinozos, koja kojon einanti viltis ir baimė paralyžiuoja mąstymą, vaizduotę ir (...)
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  2. Steven Smith’s, Spinoza, Liberalism, and the Question of Jewish Identity. [REVIEW]Frank Lucash - 1998 - Southwest Philosophy Review 14 (2):179-182.
  3. Whose History? Spinoza’s Critique of Religion As an Other Modernity.Idit Dobbs-Weinstein - 2003 - Idealistic Studies 33 (2/3):219-235.
    This paper discusses Spinoza's critique of religion as a visible moment of a radically occluded materialist Judeo-Arabic Aristotelian philosophical tradition. While the prevailing tradition begins with the familiar gesture to metaphysics as first philosophy, Spinoza's thought takes politics as its point of departure with its concrete emphasis on a critique of dogma. This paper will show-by way of differing readings of Spinoza-how this materialist tradition becomes occluded by the prevailing tradition, even in the work of such careful materialist Spinoza commentators (...)
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  4. "Poverty in Rabbinic Midrash", A Poor People of God for the Poor in the World?Hanoch Ben-Pazi - 2014 - In Achim Buckenmaier Ludwig Weimer (ed.), 4. "Poverty in Rabbinic Midrash", A Poor People of God for the Poor in the World?, Achim Buckenmaier and Ludwig Weimer (eds.), Rome: Latern University Press 2014, pp. 33 - 58. Latern University Press. pp. pp. 33 - 58.
    This study attempts to provide access to the thinking about poverty and the poor reflected in classic rabbinic literature, focusing on a single passage in Leviticus Rabbah that addresses the verse (Lev. 25:25) beginning “should your brother come to ruin.” This passage affords us an opportunity to take a penetrating look into the meaning of poverty, and into its theological and metaphysical contexts, which lie beyond the social and economic issue of poverty. Rabbinic literature comes to us in a variety (...)
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  5. Spinoza’s Heresy.Shannon Dea - 2004 - Symposium 8 (1):156-158.
  6. Philosophical Religions From Plato to Spinoza: Reason, Religion, and Autonomy.Carlos Fraenkel - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    Many pagan, Jewish, Christian and Muslim philosophers from Antiquity to the Enlightenment made no meaningful distinction between philosophy and religion. Instead they advocated a philosophical religion, arguing that God is Reason and that the historical forms of a religious tradition serve as philosophy's handmaid to promote the life of reason among non-philosophers. Carlos Fraenkel provides the first account of this concept and traces its history back to Plato. He shows how Jews and Christians appropriated it in Antiquity, follows it through (...)
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  7. Spinoza's 'Theological-Political Treatise': A Critical Guide.Yitzhak Y. Melamed & Michael A. Rosenthal (eds.) - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    Spinoza's Theological-Political Treatise was published anonymously in 1670 and immediately provoked huge debate. Its main goal was to claim that the freedom of philosophizing can be allowed in a free republic and that it cannot be abolished without also destroying the peace and piety of that republic. Spinoza criticizes the traditional claims of revelation and offers a social contract theory in which he praises democracy as the most natural form of government. This Critical Guide presents essays by well-known scholars in (...)
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  8. Spinoza’s Respublica Divina: The Rise and Fall, Virtues and Vices of the Hebrew Republic.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2014 - In Otfried Höffe (ed.), Spinoza: Theologisch-Politischer Traktat. De Gruyter. pp. 195-210.
    Chapters 17 and 18 of the TTP constitute a textual unit in which Spinoza submits the case of the ancient Hebrew state to close examination. This is not the work of a historian, at least not in any sense that we, twenty-first century readers, would recognize as such. Many of Spinoza’s claims in these chapters are highly speculative, and seem to be poorly backed by historical evidence (Cf. Verbeek (2003), 126). Other claims are broad-brush, ahistorical generalizations: for example, in a (...)
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  9. Spinoza on Philosophy, Religion, and Politics, by Susan James (Review). [REVIEW]Eugene Marshall - 2013 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 51 (2):318-319.
    Event synopsis: Professor Susan James inverses Leo Strauss’ reading of Spinoza. Whereas Strauss emphasized the hidden subtext of Spinoza’s arguments, James revives the explicit debates of his time within which Spinoza's Theologico-Political Treatise was situated. But this is not a simple historical reconstruction. James’ close reading of the Treatise offers a radically new perspective on Spinoza’s revolutionary book – a reading that presents startling new perspective on the political, metaphysical and theological implications of the book. Given the importance of Spinoza’s (...)
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  10. Spinoza's Critique of Religion. [REVIEW]C. H. - 1966 - Review of Metaphysics 20 (2):380-380.
    This is a study of what Spinoza intended to be the refutation of orthodox Judaism, and indeed, of all religious orthodoxy. The recovery of that refutation, as Strauss illustrates in his preface to this translation, is needed by theology because the progressive liberalization of religion has now reached the point where theology is hardly able to distinguish itself from sundry civil moralities. Owing to this beginning, both in its plan and execution this study has little in common with historical studies (...)
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  11. Could Spinoza Have Presented the Ethics as the True Content of the Bible?Carlos Fraenkel, D. Garber & S. Nadler - 2008 - Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy 4:1-50.
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  12. Nadler, Steven. A Book Forged in Hell. Spinoza's Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age. [REVIEW]José Luis Cárdenas - 2012 - Ideas Y Valores 61 (150):260-265.
  13. Review of Susan James, Spinoza on Philosophy, Religion, and Politics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012). [REVIEW]Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2012 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
  14. Spinoza, Liberalism, and the Question of Jewish Identity.Paul J. Bagley - 1999 - Review of Metaphysics 52 (3):730-731.
    In a work that draws on an impressive array of scholarly resources and an extensive study of Spinoza’s teaching, Steven Smith’s recent book examines the status of Spinoza as “the first emancipated Jew” in the broader context of “the Jewish Question”. The author’s interest is to relate Spinoza’s treatment of the theologico-political problem to his advocacy of liberalism and commercial republicanism in the Tractatus theologico-politicus. The authority of the doctrine conveyed in that work is reflected in the championing of religious (...)
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  15. Spinoza’s Bible.Nancy Levene - 2001 - Philosophy and Theology 13 (1):93-142.
    My essay explores the connections between Spinoza’s theory of biblical interpretation and his conception of prophecy, linking the two through what he calls “moral certainty.” The question of what prophecy conveys is connected to the question of how to read Scripture because readers are in a similar position to both the prophets, who attain sure knowledge of some matter revealed by God, and the audience of prophecy, who have access to this knowledge only through faith. Like prophets, readers are interpreters (...)
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  16. Jewish Themes in Spinoza's Philosophy (Review).Yisrael Yehoshua Melamed - 2003 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 41 (3):417-418.
  17. Spinoza and the Irrelevance of Biblical Authority (Review).Daniel H. Frank - 2002 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 40 (2):263-264.
    Daniel H. Frank - Spinoza and the Irrelevance of Biblical Authority - Journal of the History of Philosophy 40:2 Journal of the History of Philosophy 40.2 263-264 Book Review Spinoza and the Irrelevance of Biblical Authority J. Samuel Preus. Spinoza and the Irrelevance of Biblical Authority. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Pp. xvi + 228. Cloth, $54.95. This book is the history of ideas at its best. In lesser hands, volumes in the genre tend to be reductionist to the (...)
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  18. Philosophy, Theology, and Politics: A Reading of Benedict Spinoza’s Tractatus Theologico-Politicus.Paul Bagley - 2008 - Brill.
  19. Faith and Philosophy: Spinoza on Religion.Arthur C. FOX - 1990 - University of Western Australia Press.
  20. Spinoza's Dual Teachings of Scripture: His Solution to the Quarrel Between Reason and Revelation.Steven Frankel - 2002 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 84 (3):273-296.
  21. The Piety of a Heretic: Spinoza's Interpretation of Judaism.Steven Frankel - 2002 - Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy 11 (2):117-134.
  22. Radical Protestantism in Spinoza's Thought.Graeme Hunter - 2004 - Ashgate.
    Context -- A Jew in Amsterdam -- Conflicts and communities -- Christian philosophy? -- A Bible gallery -- Religion and politics in the TTP -- Miracles, meaning, and moderation -- Christian pluralism -- Ethics reconsidered -- Providence, obedience, and love -- Spinoza and Christianity.
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  23. Radical Protestantism in Spinoza's Thought. [REVIEW]Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2007 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 45 (2):333-334.
    Yitzhak Y. Melamed - Radical Protestantism in Spinoza's Thought - Journal of the History of Philosophy 45:2 Journal of the History of Philosophy 45.2 333-334 Muse Search Journals This Journal Contents Reviewed by Yitzhak Y. Melamed University of Chicago Graeme Hunter. Radical Protestantism in Spinoza's Thought. Aldershot, UK–Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2005. Pp. vii + 196. Cloth, $89.95. If this book's announced and modest aim—"to present the Christian dimension of Spinoza's thought positively and directly" —were all the author meant to achieve, (...)
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Spinoza: Divine and Ceremonial Laws
  1. Steven Smith’s, Spinoza, Liberalism, and the Question of Jewish Identity. [REVIEW]Frank Lucash - 1998 - Southwest Philosophy Review 14 (2):179-182.
  2. Whose History? Spinoza’s Critique of Religion As an Other Modernity.Idit Dobbs-Weinstein - 2003 - Idealistic Studies 33 (2/3):219-235.
    This paper discusses Spinoza's critique of religion as a visible moment of a radically occluded materialist Judeo-Arabic Aristotelian philosophical tradition. While the prevailing tradition begins with the familiar gesture to metaphysics as first philosophy, Spinoza's thought takes politics as its point of departure with its concrete emphasis on a critique of dogma. This paper will show-by way of differing readings of Spinoza-how this materialist tradition becomes occluded by the prevailing tradition, even in the work of such careful materialist Spinoza commentators (...)
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  3. Spinoza’s Heresy.Shannon Dea - 2004 - Symposium 8 (1):156-158.
  4. Philosophical Religions From Plato to Spinoza: Reason, Religion, and Autonomy.Carlos Fraenkel - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    Many pagan, Jewish, Christian and Muslim philosophers from Antiquity to the Enlightenment made no meaningful distinction between philosophy and religion. Instead they advocated a philosophical religion, arguing that God is Reason and that the historical forms of a religious tradition serve as philosophy's handmaid to promote the life of reason among non-philosophers. Carlos Fraenkel provides the first account of this concept and traces its history back to Plato. He shows how Jews and Christians appropriated it in Antiquity, follows it through (...)
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  5. Spinoza on Philosophy, Religion, and Politics, by Susan James (Review). [REVIEW]Eugene Marshall - 2013 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 51 (2):318-319.
    Event synopsis: Professor Susan James inverses Leo Strauss’ reading of Spinoza. Whereas Strauss emphasized the hidden subtext of Spinoza’s arguments, James revives the explicit debates of his time within which Spinoza's Theologico-Political Treatise was situated. But this is not a simple historical reconstruction. James’ close reading of the Treatise offers a radically new perspective on Spinoza’s revolutionary book – a reading that presents startling new perspective on the political, metaphysical and theological implications of the book. Given the importance of Spinoza’s (...)
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  6. Spinoza's Critique of Religion. [REVIEW]C. H. - 1966 - Review of Metaphysics 20 (2):380-380.
    This is a study of what Spinoza intended to be the refutation of orthodox Judaism, and indeed, of all religious orthodoxy. The recovery of that refutation, as Strauss illustrates in his preface to this translation, is needed by theology because the progressive liberalization of religion has now reached the point where theology is hardly able to distinguish itself from sundry civil moralities. Owing to this beginning, both in its plan and execution this study has little in common with historical studies (...)
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  7. Shlomo Pines on Maimonides, Spinoza, and Kant.Warren Zev Harvey - 2012 - Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy 20 (2):173-182.
    In his “Spinoza’s TTP , Maimonides, and Kant” (1968), Pines compared Spinoza’s dogmas of universal faith ( TTP , 14) with Kant’s postulates of practical reason ( Critique of Practical Reason , part 1). According to him, Spinoza’s dogmas, like Maimonides’ “necessary beliefs” ( Guide 3:28), are postulates necessary for political welfare, and do not fall under the jurisdiction of theoretical reason. They define the faith of the common person, not that of the philosopher. Kant, in his remarks about Spinoza (...)
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  8. Review of Susan James, Spinoza on Philosophy, Religion, and Politics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012). [REVIEW]Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2012 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
  9. Spinoza, Liberalism, and the Question of Jewish Identity.Paul J. Bagley - 1999 - Review of Metaphysics 52 (3):730-731.
    In a work that draws on an impressive array of scholarly resources and an extensive study of Spinoza’s teaching, Steven Smith’s recent book examines the status of Spinoza as “the first emancipated Jew” in the broader context of “the Jewish Question”. The author’s interest is to relate Spinoza’s treatment of the theologico-political problem to his advocacy of liberalism and commercial republicanism in the Tractatus theologico-politicus. The authority of the doctrine conveyed in that work is reflected in the championing of religious (...)
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  10. When Does Truth Matter? Spinoza on the Relation Between Theology and Philosophy.Susan James - 2012 - European Journal of Philosophy 20 (1):91-108.
    One of the aims of Spinoza's Tractatus Theologico-Politicus is to vindicate the view that philosophy and theology are separate forms of enquiry, neither of which has any authority over the other. However, many commentators have objected that this aspect of his project fails. Despite his protestations to the contrary, Spinoza implicitly gives epistemological precedence to philosophy. I argue that this objection misunderstands the nature of Spinoza's position and wrongly charges him with inconsistency. To show how he can coherently allow both (...)
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  11. “’Christus Secundum Spiritum’: Spinoza, Jesus, and the Infinite Intellect”.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2012 - In Neta Stahl (ed.), The Jewish Jesus. Routledge.
  12. Spinoza on Ceremonial Observances and the Moral Function of Religion. Lemmens - 2010 - Bijdragen. International Journal in Philosophy and Theology (1):51-64.
    This article forms a critical reflection on the views of Spinoza, developed in the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, on the role of the ‘ceremonial law’ in the moral life of ancient Hebrew culture. According to Spinoza, a merely external obedience to the ceremonial law should not be confused with the sense of obligation towards the moral Divine Law of ‘justice and charity’: only in this last one can true piety be found. The idea is defended that Spinoza’s critical attitude towards the Jewish (...)
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  13. Jewish Themes in Spinoza's Philosophy (Review).Yisrael Yehoshua Melamed - 2003 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 41 (3):417-418.
  14. Philosophy, Theology, and Politics: A Reading of Benedict Spinoza’s Tractatus Theologico-Politicus.Paul Bagley - 2008 - Brill.
  15. Spinoza's Dual Teachings of Scripture: His Solution to the Quarrel Between Reason and Revelation.Steven Frankel - 2002 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 84 (3):273-296.
  16. The Piety of a Heretic: Spinoza's Interpretation of Judaism.Steven Frankel - 2002 - Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy 11 (2):117-134.
  17. Radical Protestantism in Spinoza's Thought.Graeme Hunter - 2004 - Ashgate.
    Context -- A Jew in Amsterdam -- Conflicts and communities -- Christian philosophy? -- A Bible gallery -- Religion and politics in the TTP -- Miracles, meaning, and moderation -- Christian pluralism -- Ethics reconsidered -- Providence, obedience, and love -- Spinoza and Christianity.
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  18. Evil and Suffering in Jewish Philosophy.Oliver Leaman - 1995 - Cambridge University Press.
    The problems of evil and suffering have been extensively discussed in Jewish philosophy, and much of the discussion has centred on the Book of Job. In this study Oliver Leaman poses two questions: how can a powerful and caring deity allow terrible things to happen to obviously innocent people, and why have the Jewish people been so harshly treated throughout history, given their status as the chosen people? He explores these issues through an analysis of the views of Philo, Saadya, (...)
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  19. Review of Nadler Steven, Spinoza's Heresy: Immortality and the Jewish Mind[REVIEW]Martin Lin - 2002 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2002 (12).
Spinoza: Faith and Obedience
  1. Steven Smith’s, Spinoza, Liberalism, and the Question of Jewish Identity. [REVIEW]Frank Lucash - 1998 - Southwest Philosophy Review 14 (2):179-182.
  2. Whose History? Spinoza’s Critique of Religion As an Other Modernity.Idit Dobbs-Weinstein - 2003 - Idealistic Studies 33 (2/3):219-235.
    This paper discusses Spinoza's critique of religion as a visible moment of a radically occluded materialist Judeo-Arabic Aristotelian philosophical tradition. While the prevailing tradition begins with the familiar gesture to metaphysics as first philosophy, Spinoza's thought takes politics as its point of departure with its concrete emphasis on a critique of dogma. This paper will show-by way of differing readings of Spinoza-how this materialist tradition becomes occluded by the prevailing tradition, even in the work of such careful materialist Spinoza commentators (...)
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  3. Spinoza’s Heresy.Shannon Dea - 2004 - Symposium 8 (1):156-158.
  4. Spinoza on Religious Choice.Richar Mason - 1994 - Philosophy 69 (270):443.
    Here are three sets of circumstances: On 27 July 1656, at the age of 23, Spinoza was thrown out of his religious community–the Portuguese Synagogue in Amsterdam. During the remaining 21 years of his life it would have been easy enough for him to have returned, in practical if not in personal terms, but he chose not to do so. Despite close association with members of various Protestant sects, he chose to live without affiliation to any religious group. At that (...)
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  5. Why Can’T We All Just Get Along: The Reasonable Vs. The Rational According to Spinoza.Eugene Garver - 2010 - Political Theory 38 (6):838-858.
    Spinoza presents a picture of the good human life in which being rational and being reasonable or sociable are mutually supporting: the philosopher makes the best citizen, and citizenship is the best route to philosophy and adequate ideas. Crucial to this mutual implication are the roles of religion and politics in promoting obedience. It is through obedience that people can become "of one mind and one body" in the absence of adequate ideas, through the presence of shared empowering imaginations and (...)
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  6. Philosophical Religions From Plato to Spinoza: Reason, Religion, and Autonomy.Carlos Fraenkel - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    Many pagan, Jewish, Christian and Muslim philosophers from Antiquity to the Enlightenment made no meaningful distinction between philosophy and religion. Instead they advocated a philosophical religion, arguing that God is Reason and that the historical forms of a religious tradition serve as philosophy's handmaid to promote the life of reason among non-philosophers. Carlos Fraenkel provides the first account of this concept and traces its history back to Plato. He shows how Jews and Christians appropriated it in Antiquity, follows it through (...)
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  7. Spinoza's 'Theological-Political Treatise': A Critical Guide.Yitzhak Y. Melamed & Michael A. Rosenthal (eds.) - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    Spinoza's Theological-Political Treatise was published anonymously in 1670 and immediately provoked huge debate. Its main goal was to claim that the freedom of philosophizing can be allowed in a free republic and that it cannot be abolished without also destroying the peace and piety of that republic. Spinoza criticizes the traditional claims of revelation and offers a social contract theory in which he praises democracy as the most natural form of government. This Critical Guide presents essays by well-known scholars in (...)
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