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Summary Spinoza states that the causal orders found in the attributes of thought and extension are "one and the same."  Hence the common description of Spinoza as endorsing psycho-physical parallelism, or the thesis that the mental and physical realms are isomorphic.  Some of the interpretive questions raised by this thesis are global, such as whether the infinitely complex networks in thought and extension are in fact isomorphic.  Other questions are more local in nature, such as pertaining to the precise structural similarities between the human mind and the human body.  Most interpret Spinoza as holding that the sets of mental and physical things are not merely isomorphic but numerically identical.
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  1. Spiritual Automata and Bodies Without Organs: Spinoza, Deleuze, and Parallelism.Emanuele Costa - forthcoming - LaDeleuziana.
    In this paper, I seek to examine Deleuze’s fascination with “spiritual automata” as a counterpoint to his more famous notion, the “body without organs”. I shall argue that both are grounded in a deep reflection, on Deleuze’s part, on the problems and issues generated by Spinoza’s notion of parallel attributes. Ultimately, I argue, the development of the two notions is motivated by identical metaphysical worries regarding the tenability of transformation, persistence, and affective interrelations between individuals. The answer, for both thinkers, (...)
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  2. Spinoza's Ethics: a guide.Michael LeBuffe - 2023 - New York, NY, United States of America: Oxford University Press.
    This guide has an introduction and five chapters, one for each of the parts of Spinoza's Ethics. The Introduction includes background material necessary for productive study of the Ethics: advice for working with Spinoza's geometrical method, a biographical sketch of Spinoza, and accounts of important predecessors: Aristotle, Maimonides, and Descartes. The chapters that follow trace the Ethics in detail, including accounts of most of the elements in Spinoza's book and raising questions for further research. Chapter 1, "One Infinite Substance," covers (...)
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  3. Contrariety and Complementarity: Reading Spinoza’s Intersubjective Holism of Ideas with Aristotle’s Two Accounts of Motion.Buhr Lorina - 2023 - Journal of Spinoza Studies 2 (2):14-20.
    Do minds and ideas connect, interact, or even depend on each other, and if so, how exactly do they connect and interact? How should we conceive of the mode and process of minds and ideas being in a network and connected in some way, that is, being intersubjective or social? Martin Lenz's study Socializing Minds convincingly shows that, contrary to widespread opinion in philosophy of mind, at least some early modern philosophers, here Spinoza, Locke, and Hume, actually give a positive (...)
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  4. Hindu Nondual Philosophy, Spinoza, and the Mind-Body Problem.James H. Cumming - 2022 - Dogma: Revue de Philosophie Et de Sciences Humaines 19:20-48.
    This article is the SECOND of several excerpts from my book The Nondual Mind: Vedānta, Kashmiri Pratyabhijñā Shaivism, and Spinoza (the full book is posted on this site). “I liked James H. Cumming’s The Nondual Mind a lot. It is beautifully written, thoughtful, and very clear.” (Prof. Yitzhak Y. Melamed, Charlotte Bloomberg Professor of Philosophy, Johns Hopkins University) “James H. Cumming’s scholarly interpretation of Spinoza’s works, persuasively showing how 17th century European ideas that ushered in the Enlightenment find a precursor (...)
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  5. Representation and Mind-Body Identity in Spinoza’s Philosophy.Karolina Hübner - 2022 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 60 (1):47-77.
  6. Od patetiky k etike. Spinozova teória ľudskej slobody [From Pathetics to Ethics. Spinoza's Theory of Human Freedom].Michaela Petrufova Joppova - 2022 - Prešov, Slovensko: Atény nad Torysou.
    The monograph offers an original account of Spinoza’s philosophy and ethics concentrated on its concordance with selected modern neuroscientific theories. The book proceeds through the whole of Spinoza’s philosophy and by increasingly complex analytical account acquaints with its essential frameworks, terminology, and concepts, and is thus accessible also to readers who are not yet familiar with the thought of this peculiar thinker. The fundamental motives of this interpretation are the nature of the mind and the questions of human freedom and (...)
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  7. Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Mind vol. 2.Uriah Kriegel (ed.) - 2022 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Mind presents cutting-edge work in the philosophy of mind, combining invited articles and articles selected from submissions. Each volume will highlight two themes to bring focus to debates. The series will reflect the diversity of methods adopted in contemporary philosophy of mind and provide a venue for rigorous and innovative work by both established and up-and-coming voices in the field. The themes covered in the second volume are doxastic states, the metaphysics of mind, and Spinoza's (...)
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  8. Mind-Body Parallelism and Spinoza's Philosophy of Mind.Ruben Noorloos - 2022 - Dissertation, Central European University
    Mind-body parallelism is the view that mind and body stand in the same “order and connection,” as Spinoza put it, or that corresponding mental and physical states have corresponding causal explanations in terms of other mental and physical states. This dissertation investigates the nature and role of mind-body parallelism, as well as other forms of parallelism, in Spinoza’s philosophy of mind. In doing so, it also considers how Spinoza’s views relate to current discussions. In present-day philosophy of mind, mind-body parallelism (...)
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  9. Two Problems in Spinoza's Theory of Mind.James Van Cleve - 2022 - Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Mind 2:337-378.
    My aim in what follows is to expound and (if possible) resolve two problems in Spinoza’s theory of mind. The first problem is how Spinoza can accept a key premise in Descartes’s argument for dualism—that thought and extension are separately conceivable, “one without the help of the other”—without accepting Descartes’s conclusion that no substance is both thinking and extended. Resolving this problem will require us to consider a crucial ambiguity in the notion of conceiving one thing without another, the credentials (...)
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  10. Leibniz’s Appropriation of Spinoza’s Argument against Mind-Body Causation.Matteo Favaretti Camposampiero - 2021 - The Leibniz Review 31:35-57.
    In a 1687 letter to Arnauld, Leibniz draws on an argument against mind-body causation that is reminiscent of one from Spinoza’s Ethics. According to this argument, mind-body causation is impossible because of the lack of proportion between thoughts and motions. This paper aims to shed light on Leibniz’s use of Spinoza’s argument by reconstructing both its internal structure and its development in Leibniz’s later works. In particular, the reconstruction focuses on the new version of this argument that Leibniz adopts against (...)
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  11. Spinoza on Numerical Identity and Time.John Morrison - 2021 - In Yitzhak Y. Melamed (ed.), A Companion to Spinoza. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. pp. 189–203.
    Spinoza claims that a person's body can be numerically identical over time, despite changes in its size, shape, and speed. This chapter argues that he would reject the Indiscernibility of Identicals. The Indiscernibility of Identicals is often taken to have profound implications for one's view of change. Spinoza seems to deny the existence of times, because he similarly classifies them as “beings of reason”. As Spinoza understands instantiation, whenever a property is instantiated by an object, it metaphysically depends on that (...)
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  12. The Explainability of Experience: Realism and Subjectivity in Spinoza's Theory of the Human Mind.Noa Shein - 2021 - Philosophical Review 130 (2):299-303.
  13. Reconceiving Spinoza, by Samuel Newlands. [REVIEW]Karolina Hübner & Róbert Mátyási - 2020 - Mind 129 (513):307-314.
    Reconceiving Spinoza, by Samuel Newlands. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018. Pp. x + 283.
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  14. La Metafisica di Spinoza: Sostanza e Pensiero.Yitzhak Melamed - 2020 - Milan: Mimesis Edizioni.
  15. Being and Reason: An Essay on Spinoza's Metaphysics.Martin Lin - 2019 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    In Spinoza’s metaphysics, we encounter many puzzling doctrines that appear to entangle metaphysical notions with cognitive, logical, and epistemic ones. According to him, a substance is that which can be conceived through itself and a mode is that which is conceived through another. Thus, metaphysical notions, substance and mode, are defined through a notion that is either cognitive or logical, being conceived through. He defines an attribute as that which an intellect perceives as constituting the essence of a substance. Intellectual (...)
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  16. Spinoza's Theory of the Human Mind: Consciousness, Memory, and Reason.Oberto Marrama - 2019 - Dissertation, University of Groningen/Uqtr
    Spinoza attributes mentality to all things existing in nature. He claims that each thing has a mind that perceives everything that happens in the body. Against this panpsychist background, it is unclear how consciousness relates to the nature of the mind. This study focuses on Spinoza’s account of the conscious mind and its operations. It builds on the hypothesis that Spinoza’s panpsychism can be interpreted as a self-consistent philosophical position. It aims at providing answers to the following questions: what is (...)
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  17. Individuation and Death in Spinoza’s Ethics: The Spanish Poet Case Reconsidered.Davide Monaco - 2019 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 27 (5):941-958.
    The example of the Spanish poet’s amnesia, mentioned by Spinoza in the scholium of proposition 39 of part IV of the Ethics in order to elucidate his conception of death, has given rise to many controversies in the scholarly interpretations, which in most cases maintain that the poet dies and that Spinoza himself thought this way. However, the matter is more complex than it at first appears and in this article I take a different path by reconstructing this scholium anew (...)
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  18. Spinoza's two claims about the mind-body relation.Alison Peterman - 2019 - In Jack Stetter & Charles Ramond (eds.), Spinoza in Twenty-First-Century American and French Philosophy: Metaphysics, Philosophy of Mind, Moral and Political Philosophy. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
  19. Spinoza's two claims about the mind-body relation.Alison Peterman - 2019 - In Charles Ramond & Jack Stetter (eds.), Spinoza in 21st-Century American and French Philosophy.
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  20. The gap between the idea for the body and the idea of the body.Jack Stetter - 2019 - In Charles Ramond & Jack Stetter (eds.), Spinoza in 21st-Century American and French Philosophy.
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  21. Spinoza in Twenty-First-Century American and French Philosophy: Metaphysics, Philosophy of Mind, Moral and Political Philosophy.Jack Stetter & Charles Ramond (eds.) - 2019 - London: Bloomsbury Academic.
    Contributors: Steven Barbone, Laurent Bove, Edwin Curley, Valérie Debuiche, Michael Della Rocca, Simon B. Duffy, Daniel Garber, Pascale Gillot, Céline Hervet, Jonathan Israel, Chantal Jaquet, Mogens Lærke, Jacqueline Lagrée, Martin Lin, Yitzhak Y. Melamed, Pierre-François Moreau, Steven Nadler, Knox Peden, Alison Peterman, Charles Ramond, Michael A. Rosenthal, Pascal Sévérac, Hasana Sharp, Jack Stetter, Ariel Suhamy, Lorenzo Vinciguerra.
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  22. Necessity and Nature in Spinoza's Philosophy.Don Garrett - 2018 - New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  23. Nature and necessity in Spinoza's philosophy.Don Garrett - 2018 - New York City: Oxford University Press.
    Spinoza's guiding commitment to the thesis that nothing exists or occurs outside of the scope of nature and its necessary laws makes him one of the great seventeenth-century exemplars of both philosophical naturalism and explanatory rationalism. Nature and Necessity in Spinoza's Philosophy brings together for the first time eighteen of Don Garrett's articles on Spinoza's philosophy, ranging over the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of mind, ethics, and political philosophy. Taken together, these influential articles provide a comprehensive interpretation of that (...)
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  24. 'An activity whereby the mind regards itself': Spinoza on consciousness.Michaela Petrufová Joppová - 2018 - Pro-Fil 19 (2):2-11.
    Baruch Spinoza’s philosophy of mind stirs up the disputes about the nature of body-mind relations with its rigorous and naturalistic monism. The unity of body and mind is consequential of his metaphysics of the substance, but the concept of the unity of the mind and its idea rightfully confuses Spinoza’s commentators. Many have been tempted to interpret this as a possible account of consciousness, but it still has not yet been fully understood. This paper attempts to introduce an interpretation of (...)
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  25. Consciousness, ideas of ideas and animation in Spinoza’s Ethics.Oberto Marrama - 2017 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 25 (3):506-525.
    In the following article, I aim to elucidate the meaning and scope of Spinoza’s vocabulary related to ‘consciousness’. I argue that Spinoza, at least in his Ethics, uses this notion consistently, although rarely. He introduces it to account for the knowledge we may have of the mind considered alone, as conceptually distinct from the body. This serves two purposes in Spinoza’s Ethics: to explain our illusion of a free will, on the one hand, and to refer to the knowledge we (...)
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  26. The Nature and Scope of Spinoza's "One and the Same" Relation.Alex Silverman - 2017 - Res Philosophica 94 (4):535-554.
    I argue that we should rethink the nature and scope of Spinoza’s “one and the same” relation. Contrary to the standard reading, the nature of this relation is not identity but a union, and its scope includes all idea-object pairs, even God and the idea of God. A crucial reason we should adopt this dual picture is that the idea of God must be one and the same as something found when Nature is conceived under each of the other attributes. (...)
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  27. Mind and Body in Early Modern Philosophy.Stewart Duncan - 2016 - Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy Online.
    A survey of the issue. Topics include Descartes; early critics of Descartes; occasionalism and pre-established harmony; materialism; idealism; views about animal minds; and simplicity.
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  28. Spinoza's parallelism doctrine and metaphysical sympathy.Karolina Hübner - 2015 - In Eric Schliesser Christa Mercer (ed.), Sympathy: Oxford Philosophical Concepts.
    This paper offers a new interpretation of Spinoza's doctrine of parallelism. It argues Spinoza reinterprets the ancient doctrine of metaphysical sympathy among ostensibly disconnected and distant beings in terms of fully intelligible relations of 1) identity between formal and objective reality, and in terms of 2) "real identity," grounded in Spinoza's substance-monism. Finally, the paper argues against the standard reading of mind-body pairs as "numerically identical".
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  29. Spinoza on negation, mind-dependence and the reality of the finite.Karolina Hübner - 2015 - In Yitzhak Y. Melamed (ed.), The Young Spinoza: A Metaphysician in the Making. Oxford University Press USA. pp. 221-37.
    The article explores the idea that according to Spinoza finite thought and substantial thought represent reality in different ways. It challenges “acosmic” readings of Spinoza's metaphysics, put forth by readers like Hegel, according to which only an infinite, undifferentiated substance genuinely exists, and all representations of finite things are illusory. Such representations essentially involve negation with respect to a more general kind. The article shows that several common responses to the charge of acosmism fail. It then argues that we must (...)
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  30. Is There a "Pancreas Problem" in Spinoza’s Theory of the Human Mind?Henk Keizer - 2015 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 20 (1):65-80.
    This article explores a new reading of an important section of Part II of Spinoza’s Ethics. It recognizes that Spinoza actually differentiates between the human mind conceived from the viewpoint of its cause and the human mind conceived from the viewpoint of its nature. It shows, most importantly, that Spinoza assigns different objects to those ‘minds’. Consequently they represent different knowledge of the body. It will appear that the human mind in respect of its cause represents non-conscious knowledge of the (...)
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  31. Spinoza on Composition, Causation, and the Mind's Eternity.John Grey - 2014 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 22 (3):446-467.
    Spinoza's doctrine of the eternity of the mind is often understood as the claim that the mind has a part that is eternal. I appeal to two principles that Spinoza takes to govern parthood and causation to raise a new problem for this reading. Spinoza takes the composition of one thing from many to require causal interaction among the many. Yet he also holds that eternal things cannot causally interact, without mediation, with things in duration. So the human mind, since (...)
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  32. All Things in Mind: Panpsychist Elements in Spinoza, Deleuze, and Peirce. [REVIEW]Jonathan Beever & Vernon Cisney - 2013 - Biosemiotics 6 (3):351-365.
    Benedict de Spinoza, C.S. Peirce, and Gilles Deleuze delineate a trajectory through the history of ideas in the dialogue about the potentials and limitations of panpsychism, the view that world is fundamentally made up of mind. As a parallel trajectory to the panpsychism debate in contemporary philosophy of mind and cognitive psychology, this approach can inform and enrich the discussion of the role and scope of mind in the natural world. The philosophies of mind developed by Deleuze and Peirce are (...)
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  33. Spinoza’s Metaphysics: Substance and Thought by Yitzhak Y. Melamed.Martin Lin - 2013 - The Leibniz Review 23:195-205.
  34. The Spiritual Automaton: Spinoza's Science of the Mind.Eugene Marshall - 2013 - Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
    Eugene Marshall presents an original, systematic account of Spinoza's philosophy of mind, in which the mind is presented as an affective mechanism that, when rational, behaves as a spiritual automaton. He explores key themes in Spinoza's thought, and illuminates his philosophical and ethical project in a striking new way.
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  35. Symposium on Yitzhak Y. Melamed, Spinoza’s Metaphysics,.Yitzhak Melamed - 2013 - Leibniz Review 23:207-222.
  36. Spinoza's Metaphysics: Substance and Thought.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2013 - Oxford: Oxford University Press USA.
    Yitzhak Melamed here offers a new and systematic interpretation of the core of Spinoza's metaphysics. In the first part of the book, he proposes a new reading of the metaphysics of substance in Spinoza: he argues that for Spinoza modes both inhere in and are predicated of God. Using extensive textual evidence, he shows that Spinoza considered modes to be God's propria. He goes on to clarify Spinoza's understanding of infinity, mereological relations, infinite modes, and the flow of finite things (...)
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  37. The Relation between Conception and Causation in Spinoza's Metaphysics.John Morrison - 2013 - Philosophers' Imprint 13:1-17.
    Conception and causation are fundamental notions in Spinoza's metaphysics. I argue against the orthodox view that, due to the causal axiom, if one thing is conceived through another thing, then the second thing causes the first thing. My conclusion forces us to rethink Spinoza's entitlement to some of his core commitments, including the principle of sufficient reason, the parallelism doctrine and the conatus doctrine.
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  38. Sartre and Spinoza on the nature of mind.Kathleen Wider - 2013 - Continental Philosophy Review 46 (4):555-575.
    What surfaces first when one examines the philosophy of mind of Sartre and Spinoza are the differences between them. For Spinoza a human mind is a mode of the divine mind. That view is a far cry from Sartre’s view of human consciousness as a desire never achieved: the desire to be god, to be the foundation of one’s own existence. How could two philosophers, one a determinist and the other who grounds human freedom in the nature of consciousness itself, (...)
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  39. Spinoza’s Metaphysics of Thought: Parallelisms and the Multifaceted Structure of Ideas.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2012 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 86 (3):636-683.
    In this paper, I suggest an outline of a new interpretation of core issues in Spinoza’s metaphysics and philosophy of mind. I argue for three major theses. (1) In the first part of the paper I show that the celebrated Spinozistic doctrine commonly termed “the doctrine of parallelism” is in fact a confusion of two separate and independent doctrines of parallelism. Hence, I argue that our current understanding of Spinoza’s metaphysics and philosophy of mind is fundamentally flawed. (2) The clarification (...)
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  40. Beyond Personal Feelings and Collective Emotions: Toward a Theory of Social Affect.Robert Seyfert - 2012 - Theory, Culture and Society 29 (6):27-46.
    In the Sociology of Emotion and Affect Studies, affects are usually regarded as an aspect of human beings alone, or of impersonal or collective atmospheres. However, feelings and emotions are only specific cases of affectivity that require subjective inner selves, while the concept of ‘atmospheres’ fails to explain the singularity of each individual case. This article develops a theory of social affect that does not reduce affect to either personal feelings or collective emotions. First, I use a Spinozist understanding of (...)
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  41. Intentionality and God’s Mind. Stumpf on Spinoza.R. Martinelli - 2011 - In G.-J. Boudewijnse & S. Bonacchi (eds.), Carl Stumpf: From philosophical reflection to interdisciplinary scientific investigation. Krammer. pp. 51-67.
    In his Spinozastudien Stumpf dismisses the commonplace interpretation of Spinoza’s parallelism in psychophysical terms. Rather, he suggests to read Ethics, II, Prop. 7, as the heritage of the scholastic doctrine of intentionality. Accordingly, things are the intentional objects of God’s ideas. On this basis, Stumpf also tries to make sense of the puzzling spinozian doctrine of the infinity of God’s attributes. In support of this exegesis, Stumpf offers an interesting reconstruction of the history of intentionality from Plato and Aristotle to (...)
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  42. Adequate knowledge and bodily complexity in Spinoza’s account of consciousness.Andrea Sangiacomo - 2011 - Methodus 6:77-104.
    This paper aims to discuss Spinoza’s theory of consciousness by arguing that consciousness is the expression of bodily complexity in terms of adequate knowledge. Firstly, I present the link that Spinoza built up in the second part of the Ethics between the ability of the mind to know itself and the idea ideae theory. Secondly, I present in what sense consciousness turns out to be the result of an adequate knowledge emerging from the epistemological resources of a body as complex (...)
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  43. Law and sovereignty in Spinoza's politics.Susan James - 2009 - In Moira Gatens (ed.), Feminist Interpretations of Benedict Spinoza. Pennsylvania State University Press. pp. 211--28.
    Book synopsis: This volume brings together international scholars working at the intersection of Spinoza studies and critical and feminist philosophy. It is the first book-length study dedicated to the re-reading of Spinoza’s ethical and theologico-political works from a feminist perspective. The twelve outstanding chapters range over the entire field of Spinoza’s writings—metaphysical, political, theological, ethical, and psychological—drawing out the ways in which his philosophy presents a rich resource for the reconceptualization of friendship, sexuality, politics, and ethics in contemporary life. The (...)
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  44. The Mind and the Body as 'One and the Same Thing' in Spinoza.Colin R. Marshall - 2009 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 17 (5):897-919.
    I argue that, contrary to how he is often read, Spinoza did not believe that the mind and the body were numerically identical. This means that we must find some alternative reading for his claims that they are 'one and the same thing'.
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  45. Partem totius naturae esse: Spinoza’s alternative to the mutual incomprehension of physicalism and mentalism in psychology.William Meehan - 2009 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 29 (1):47-59.
    Spinoza’s account of human agency is presented as a solution to the fundamental dichotomy between physicalism and mentalism in psychology. It is argued that this dichotomy originates in the 17th century with the Cartesian and Hobbesian responses to the collapse of the Scholastic synthesis. Spinoza’s view of nature as equally Mind and Body, and his understanding of efficient causality as grounded in a self-caused natural totality are described. Spinozism’s relative lack of influence on contemporary scientific culture is attributed to his (...)
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  46. Tammy Nyden-Bullock, Spinoza's Radical Cartesian Mind. [REVIEW]Sherry Deveaux - 2008 - Philosophy in Review 28 (5):361-364.
  47. On the Reconciliation of the Spinozistic Doctrines of the Eternality of the Mind and Monistic Parallelism.Robyn Gaier - 2008 - Southwest Philosophy Review 24 (1):211-218.
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  48. Begriffliche und psychologische Ordnung bei Spinoza.Dominik Perler - 2008 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 90 (2):188-215.
    Spinoza's metaphysical thesis that there is only one substance in the universe but a plurality of modes, each of them falling under an attribute, raises a crucial question. How are modes of thinking, i.e. ideas, related to modes of extension? This paper intends to show that there are at least two answers, depending on an understanding of the equivocal term ‘idea’. If ideas are taken to be mental acts, they are identical with modes of extension. If, however, they are understood (...)
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  49. Spinoza.Michael Della Rocca - 2008 - New York: Routledge.
    Spinoza ' s understanding and understanding Spinoza -- Spinoza ' s understanding -- Understanding Spinoza -- The metaphysics of substance -- Descartes and substance -- Spinoza contra Descartes on substance -- Modes -- Necessitarianism -- The purpose of it all -- The human mind -- Parallelism and representation -- Essence and representation -- Parallelism and mind - body identity -- The idea of the human body -- The pancreas problem, the pan problem, and panpsychism -- Nothing but representation -- Representation, (...)
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  50. The Union and Interaction of Mind and Body.Paul Hoffman - 2007 - In Janet Broughton & John Carriero (eds.), A Companion to Descartes. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 390--403.
    This chapter contains section titled: Descartes's Hylomorphism The Interaction Between Mind and Body Notes References and Further Reading.
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