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  1. Spinoza on Learning to Live Together by Susan James.Hadley Marie Cooney - 2022 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 60 (2):347-348.
    For too long, Spinoza's ethics was misread as an ethics of ideals, in which the most virtuous life possible was said to consist of the life of pure reasoning. The "free man," Spinoza's paragon of virtue, was understood to be the individual who is neither helped nor harmed by anything external. The goal, on this view, was to transcend the life of the body, of the material, and of the political, in order to focus solely on becoming like God by (...)
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  2. Felicidade e beatitude em Spinoza.Eduardo Weisz & Wellington Amorim - 2022 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 78 (1-2):579-596.
    Contemporary society characterizes itself by a quest for material progress that is established in detriment of human subjectivity/spirituality. In this context “happiness” could mean “the over-all level of happiness of a person with his/her life”, which necessarily means a conciliation between societal quest-for-progress and human subjectivity/spirituality. The objective of the present paper is to present Spinoza’s understanding on how to achieve happiness while coping with human reality. To Spinoza, “happiness” consists in comprehending the way the world works to the point (...)
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  3. Benedict de Spinoza’s Virtue.Columbus N. Ogbujah - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (2):107-122.
    Benedict de Spinoza (1632–1677) was about the most radical of the early modern philosophers who developed a unique metaphysics that inspired an intriguing moral philosophy, fusing insights from ancient Stoicism, Cartesian metaphysics, Hobbes and medieval Jewish rationalism. While helping to ground the Enlightenment, Spinoza’s thoughts, against the intellectual mood of the time, divorced transcendence from divinity, equating God with nature. His extremely naturalistic views of reality constructed an ethical structure that links the control of human passion to virtue and happiness. (...)
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  4. La influencia de Séneca en la filosofía de Spinoza: una aproximación / An approach to the influence of Seneca in Spinoza’s philosophy.Alberto Luis López - 2020 - Signos Filosóficos 43 (22):34-57.
    En filosofía es importante conocer las influencias entre los filósofos porque de ello depende tener un conocimiento más completo y preciso de sus propuestas. Ejemplo de esto son las investigaciones sobre los orígenes estoicos de la filosofía spinoziana, que se han incrementado notablemente en las últimas décadas, pero aún hace falta indagar con mayor detalle, autor por autor e idea por idea, qué tipo de estoicismo y qué parte del mismo influyó en el pensador neerlandés. En este artículo examino, a (...)
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  5. Spinoza's Theory of the Human Mind: Consciousness, Memory, and Reason.Oberto Marrama - 2019 - Dissertation, University of Groningen/Uqtr
    Spinoza attributes mentality to all things existing in nature. He claims that each thing has a mind that perceives everything that happens in the body. Against this panpsychist background, it is unclear how consciousness relates to the nature of the mind. This study focuses on Spinoza’s account of the conscious mind and its operations. It builds on the hypothesis that Spinoza’s panpsychism can be interpreted as a self-consistent philosophical position. It aims at providing answers to the following questions: what is (...)
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  6. Le sfide di Baruch Spinoza e di Pierre Bayle: l'invenzione dell'"ateo virtuoso" alle origini della "religione civile".Giuseppe Ricuperati - 2019 - Torino: Nino Aragno editore.
  7. Generosity as Freedom in Spinoza's Ethics.Hasana Sharp - 2019 - In Jack Stetter & Charles Ramond (eds.), Spinoza in Twenty-First-Century American and French Philosophy: Metaphysics, Philosophy of Mind, Moral and Political Philosophy. London: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 277-288.
    Generosity is not best understood as an alliance of forces, necessary for mortal beings with limited time and skills. Sociability as generosity exceeds the realm of need and follows directly from our strength of character [fortitudo] because it expresses a positive power to overcome anti-social passions, such as hatred, envy, and the desire for revenge. Spinoza asserts that generous souls resist and overwhelm hostile forces and debilitating affects with wisdom, foresight, and love. The sociability yielded by generosity, then, is not (...)
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  8. Spinoza: les deux voies du salut.Hélène Bouchilloux - 2018 - Paris: L'Harmattan.
    Spinoza est-il un adversaire de la religion? Rien n'est moins sûr. Dès la correspondance avec Guillaume de Blyenbergh, il admet l'existence de deux voies de salut hétérogènes : par la philosophie et par la religion, par l'intelligence et par la charité. Y a-t-il là quelque incohérence? Rien n'est moins sûr. Il s'agit dans cet essai de montrer pourquoi et comment coexistent ces deux voies de salut hétérogènes. Par là même, Spinoza s'avérera unique, un hapax dans la constellation des grands philosophes (...)
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  9. Slowness and speeds, latitudesand longitudes : in the vicinity of beatitude.Hélène Frichot - 2018 - In Beth Lord (ed.), Spinoza’s Philosophy of Ratio. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 141-154.
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  10. Spinoza’s Critique of Humility in the Ethics.Sanem Soyarslan - 2018 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 56 (3):342-364.
    Abstract: In the "Ethics" Spinoza denies that humility is a virtue on the grounds that it arises from a reflection on our lack of power, rather than a rational understanding of our power (Part IV, Proposition 53, Demonstration). He suggests that humility, to the extent that it involves a consideration of our weakness, indicates a lack of self-understanding. However, in a brief remark in the same demonstration he also allows that conceiving our lack of power can be conducive to self-understanding (...)
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  11. Moral realism in Spinoza's Ethics.Colin Marshall - 2017 - In Yitzhak Melamed (ed.), The Cambridge Critical Guide to Spinoza's Ethics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 248-65.
    I argue that Spinoza is more of a moral realist than an anti-realist. More specifically, I argue that Spinoza is more of a realist than Kant, and that his view has deep similarities with Plato's metaethics. Along the way, I identify three approaches to the moral realism/anti-realism distinction. Classifying Spinoza as a moral realist brings out a number of important complexities that have been overlooked by many of Spinoza's readers and by many contemporary metaethicists.
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  12. Spinoza, ou, L'athée vertueux.Alain Billecoq - 2016 - Montreuil: Le Temps des cerises.
    Si l'oxymore désignant Spinoza comme " athée vertueux " est attribué à Bayle, le philosophe fait très tôt l'objet d'une singulière réputation, mélange de fascination et de répulsion. L'accusation d'athéisme, dont il se défend énergiquement, est et sera formulée de toute part : au sein de la communauté juive, chez les chrétiens et chez les philosophes, à commencer par Leibniz. Dans le même temps, les témoignages concernant la vie de Spinoza sont unanimes : même ses ennemis les plus acharnés lui (...)
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  13. Podwójna etyka Spinozy.Jolanta Żelazna - 2015 - In Piotr Domeracki, Adam Grzeliński & Ryszard Wiśniewski (eds.), Filozofia, etyka, ekologia : profesorowi Włodzimierzowi Tyburskiemu w darze. Wydawnictwo Naukowe UMK. pp. 383-397.
  14. Spinoza on Virtue and Eternity.Valtteri Viljanen - 2014 - In Matthew J. Kisner & Andrew Youpa (eds.), Essays on Spinoza’s Ethical Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 258–271.
    The goal of this essay is twofold. First, I will explicate the dynamic nature of Spinoza’s doctrine of virtue by discerning his reasons for defining virtuousness in terms of active power. Second, by taking this understanding of virtue as the point of departure, I will suggest a sense in which we can be said to be more or less eternal to the extent that we are virtuous and active. Spinoza’s specific brand of essentialism underpins both his doctrine of virtue and (...)
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  15. Spinoza and Virtue: The significance of habituation to a virtuous character to the ethics of the Ethics.Bobbie Sue Schindler - 2012 - Portland StateUniversity McNair Research Journal.
    Within Spinoza scholarship of the ethics of the Ethics there are various interpretations of what ethical theory Spinoza was, or may have been, espousing in his work. While that may be debated, what scholars agree upon is the connection between certain types of knowledge and living the good life wherein the ethical exists. The more [adequate] knowledge one develops concerning Nature and one’s emotions, through practice of certain states of character, the more one is apt to act freely and move (...)
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  16. Eve’s Perfection: Spinoza on Sexual (In)Equality.Hasana Sharp - 2012 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 50 (4):559-580.
    Through an examination of his remarks on Genesis, chapters 2–3, I will demonstrate that Spinoza’s argument for sexual inequality is not only an aberration,but a symmetrical inversion of a view he propounds, albeit implicitly, in his Ethics. In particular, “the black page” of his Political Treatise ignores, along with the intellectual capacities of women, the immeasurable benefits of affectionate partnership between a man and a woman that he extols in his retelling of the Genesis narrative. If the doctrine of the (...)
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  17. Virtue as Power.Michael Lebuffe - 2011 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 35 (1):164-178.
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  18. “Eve’s Perfection: Spinoza on Sexual (In)Equality.”.Hasana Sharp - 2011 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 50.4 (2012) 50 (4):559-580.
    This paper outlines Spinoza’s two diametrically opposed views on the question of sexual equality. In the Political Treatise, he contends that women are naturally inferior to men, and that they are unable to practice virtue. Yet, he presents an antithetical portrait of Eve in his retelling of the Fall in the Ethics. There, Eve’s nature accords perfectly with Adam’s, and their relationship might have promoted virtue in each of them. Attention to Spinoza’s version of the Fall reveals the profound importance (...)
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  19. Spinoza’s Benevolence: The Rational Basis for Acting to the Benefit of Others.Matthew J. Kisner - 2009 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (4):pp. 549-567.
    This paper is concerned with Spinoza’s treatment of a problem in early modern moral philosophy: the potential conflict between the pursuit of happiness and virtue. The problem is that people are thought to attain happiness by pursuing their self-interest, whereas virtue requires them to act with benevolence, for the benefit of others. Given the inevitability that people will have different and often competing interests, how can they be both virtuous and happy and, where the two are in conflict, which should (...)
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  20. Spinoza’s Virtuous Passions.Matthew J. Kisner - 2008 - Review of Metaphysics 61 (4):759-783.
    While it is often supposed that Spinoza understood a life of virtue as one of pure activity, with as few passions as possible, this paper aims to make explicit how the passions for Spinoza contribute positively to our virtue. This requires, first, explaining how a passion can increase our power, given Spinoza’s view on the passions generally, which, in turn, requires coming to terms with the problem of passive pleasure, that is, the problem of explaining how being passive can cause (...)
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  21. Habitude, connaissance et vertu chez Spinoza.Syliane Malinowski-Charles - 2004 - Dialogue 43 (1):99-124.
    The goal of this article is to reveal the primal role played by “use” in Spinoza's Ethics. Contrary to appearances, the concept is not linked only to passivity; it is an essential feature of the reinforcement of virtue toward wisdom. Considering that Laurent Bove's analyses of habit within the realm of imagination leave aside the links with adequate knowledge, this article offers an extension of his interpretation in a completely new direction. The new elements are, above all, a demonstration of (...)
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  22. Spinozistic Self-Preservation.Andrew Youpa - 2003 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 41 (3):477-490.
    In Part 4 of his "Ethics," Spinoza puts forward and defends what might appear to be the controversial Hobbesean thesis that the desire to prolong one’s life is the basis of virtue (i.e., E4p22). Indeed there is a tradition of commentators offering an egoistic, Hobbesean interpretation of Spinoza’s ethical theory. In this paper, however, I argue that we should not understand Spinozistic self-preservation in the commonsense, empiricist sense of prolonging our lives. Instead I argue that, for Spinoza, self-preservation is a (...)
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  23. La place du désir dans la philosophie eudémoniste de Spinoza.Robert Misrahi - 2002
  24. Descartes and Spinoza on Freedom and Virtue.Andrew Youpa - 2002 - Dissertation, University of California, Irvine
    Philosophers have devoted a great deal of time and energy to understanding and assessing the metaphysical and epistemological branches of Descartes' and Spinoza's philosophical systems, and deservedly so---they are arguably the most brilliant and innovative metaphysicians and epistemologists of the seventeenth century. The primary aim of this dissertation is to contribute to showing that their brilliance and innovation is also manifested in the ethical branch of their systems. ;Descartes is not known as a moral philosopher, but this reflects the interests (...)
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  25. Tolerance as a Virtue in Spinoza's Ethics.Michael A. Rosenthal - 2001 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 39 (4):535-557.
  26. Spinoza's Ethical Theory.Ronald L. Sandler - 2001 - Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison
    This dissertation is a systematic study of Spinoza's ethical system as a virtue ethic. Spinoza's ethical theory has been under-appreciated in this regard and has therefore been virtually ignored by contemporary virtue ethicists who have looked almost exclusively to the ancients as a source of insight regarding the virtues. With my dissertation I aim both to contribute to Spinoza scholarship and to provide an historical resource to contemporary ethicists working in the area of virtue. ;The dissertation can be divided into (...)
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  27. The Relation Between Life, Conatus, and Virtue in Spinoza’s Philosophy.Sylvain Zac - 1996 - Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 19 (1):151-173.
    In order to further clarify the meaning of Spinoza’s teachings, I will demonstrate in the following article that, according to the author of the Ethics, God is life, that the conatus, the internal dynamism of all singular things, are the manifestations of the life of God in different degrees, in the infinity of his modes relating to the infinity of his attributes, that virtue, the most perfect form of the conatus in man, is the “true life,” participation in the life (...)
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  28. Finalidad, deseo y virtud: Spinoza y Nietzsche.Remedios Avila Crespo - 1985 - Logos. Anales Del Seminario de Metafísica [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, España] 20:21.
    El artículo de Sebastián Salgado trata de explicar las relaciones que la filosofía de Sartre comnparte con Spinoza. De esta manera, este artí culo quiere mostrar el significado del "deseo" como imposibilidad onto lógica del sujeto, es decir, como necesidad existencial de la libertad. En resumen, este articulo expone que la filosofía de Sartre ha conseguido resolver el problema de la fenomenología a través de la ética y la políti ca de Spinoza.
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  29. The Episodic Nature of "Blessedness" in Spinoza's Ethics.Dennis Griem - unknown
    The final chapter of Spinoza’s Ethics has elicited numerous interpretations, and in this work, I discuss Jonathan Bennett’s and Harry Wolfson’s. Bennett claims that the doctrine of blessedness is unintelligible, while Wolfson claims that Spinoza’s account of blessedness actually defends traditional, medieval views of the immortality of the soul. I find neither of these acceptable accounts for the reasons presented below, and I have a simple alternative explanation for this doctrine. Essentially, I argue that by ‘blessedness’ Spinoza means being happy (...)
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