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  1. A Note on Incomplete Theory.Han Geurdes - manuscript
    In the paper it is demonstrated that Bell's theorem is unproveable.
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  2. Jacques Lacan’s Registers of the Psychoanalytic Field, Applied Using Geometric Data Analysis to Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Purloined Letter”.Fionn Murtagh & Giuseppe Iurato - manuscript
    In a first investigation, a Lacan-motivated template of the Poe story is fitted to the data. A segmentation of the storyline is used in order to map out the diachrony. Based on this, it will be shown how synchronous aspects, potentially related to Lacanian registers, can be sought. This demonstrates the effectiveness of an approach based on a model template of the storyline narrative. In a second and more Comprehensive investigation, we develop an approach for revealing, that is, uncovering, Lacanian (...)
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  3. Enhancing Student Understanding of Color Perception: A Teaching Activity on Intersubjective Color Variations.Dimitria Electra Gatzia, Richard Einsporn & Rex Ramsier - forthcoming - American Biology Teacher.
    Abstract: -/- We present a teaching activity, whose aim is to enhance students’ understanding of color perception by introducing them to intersubjective color variations among normal perceivers. The approach can be used in different disciplines, including biology, philosophy, psychology, physics, or statistics, for different purposes and with college students having various levels of sophistication and scientific training.
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  4. Misalignment Between Research Hypotheses and Statistical Hypotheses: A Threat to Evidence-Based Medicine?Insa Lawler & Georg Zimmermann - 2021 - Topoi 40 (2):307-318.
    Evidence-based medicine frequently uses statistical hypothesis testing. In this paradigm, data can only disconfirm a research hypothesis’ competitors: One tests the negation of a statistical hypothesis that is supposed to correspond to the research hypothesis. In practice, these hypotheses are often misaligned. For instance, directional research hypotheses are often paired with non-directional statistical hypotheses. Prima facie, one cannot gain proper evidence for one’s research hypothesis employing a misaligned statistical hypothesis. This paper sheds lights on the nature of and the reasons (...)
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  5. Papias's Prologue and the Probability of Parallels.Nevin Climenhaga - 2020 - Journal of Biblical Literature 139 (3):591-596.
    Several scholars, including Martin Hengel, R. Alan Culpepper, and Richard Bauckham, have argued that Papias had knowledge of the Gospel of John on the grounds that Papias’s prologue lists six of Jesus’s disciples in the same order that they are named in the Gospel of John: Andrew, Peter, Philip, Thomas, James, and John. In “A Note on Papias’s Knowledge of the Fourth Gospel” (JBL 129 [2010]: 793–794), Jake H. O’Connell presents a statistical analysis of this argument, according to which the (...)
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  6. Scientific Self-Correction: The Bayesian Way.Felipe Romero & Jan Sprenger - 2020 - Synthese:1-21.
    The enduring replication crisis in many scientific disciplines casts doubt on the ability of science to estimate effect sizes accurately, and in a wider sense, to self-correct its findings and to produce reliable knowledge. We investigate the merits of a particular countermeasure—replacing null hypothesis significance testing with Bayesian inference—in the context of the meta-analytic aggregation of effect sizes. In particular, we elaborate on the advantages of this Bayesian reform proposal under conditions of publication bias and other methodological imperfections that are (...)
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  7. Why Do We Need to Employ Bayesian Statistics and How Can We Employ It in Studies of Moral Education?: With Practical Guidelines to Use JASP for Educators and Researchers.Hyemin Han - 2018 - Journal of Moral Education 47 (4):519-537.
    ABSTRACTIn this article, we discuss the benefits of Bayesian statistics and how to utilize them in studies of moral education. To demonstrate concrete examples of the applications of Bayesian statistics to studies of moral education, we reanalyzed two data sets previously collected: one small data set collected from a moral educational intervention experiment, and one big data set from a large-scale Defining Issues Test-2 survey. The results suggest that Bayesian analysis of data sets collected from moral educational studies can provide (...)
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  8. An Open Database of Productivity in Vietnam's Social Sciences and Humanities for Public Use.Quan-Hoang Vuong, Viet-Phuong La, Thu-Trang Vuong, Manh-Toan Ho, Hong K. T. Nguyen, Viet-Ha T. Nguyen, Hiep-Hung Pham & Manh-Tung Ho - 2018 - Scientific Data (Nature) 5 (180188):1-15.
    This study presents a description of an open database on scientific output of Vietnamese researchers in social sciences and humanities, one that corrects for the shortcomings in current research publication databases such as data duplication, slow update, and a substantial cost of doing science. Here, using scientists’ self-reports, open online sources and cross-checking with Scopus database, we introduce a manual system and its semi-automated version of the database on the profiles of 657 Vietnamese researchers in social sciences and humanities who (...)
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  9. Understanding Polarization: Meaning, Measures, and Model Evaluation.Aaron Bramson, Patrick Grim, Daniel J. Singer, William Berger, Graham Sack, Steven Fisher, Carissa Flocken & Bennett Holman - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84:115-159.
    Polarization is a topic of intense interest among social scientists, but there is significant disagreement regarding the character of the phenomenon and little understanding of underlying mechanics. A first problem, we argue, is that polarization appears in the literature as not one concept but many. In the first part of the article, we distinguish nine phenomena that may be considered polarization, with suggestions of appropriate measures for each. In the second part of the article, we apply this analysis to evaluate (...)
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  10. Causal Analysis of an Agent-Based Model of Human Behaviour.Marcel Kvassay, Peter Krammer, Ladislav Hluchý & Bernhard Schneider - 2017 - Complexity 2017:1-18.
    This article investigates causal relationships leading to emergence in an agent-based model of human behaviour. A new method based on nonlinear structural causality is formulated and practically demonstrated. The method is based on the concept of a causal partition of a model variable which quantifies the contribution of various factors to its numerical value. Causal partitions make it possible to judge the relative importance of contributing factors over crucial early periods in which the emergent behaviour of a system begins to (...)
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  11. Uncertainty in Hiring Does Not Justify Affirmative Action.Thomas Mulligan - 2017 - Philosophia 45 (3):1299-1311.
    Luc Bovens has recently advanced a novel argument for affirmative action, grounded in the plausible idea that it is hard for an employer to evaluate the qualifications of candidates from underrepresented groups. Bovens claims that this provides a profit-maximizing employer with reason to shortlist prima facie less-qualified candidates from underrepresented groups. In this paper, I illuminate three flaws in Bovens’s argument. First, it suffers from model error: A rational employer does not incur costs to scrutinize candidates when it knows their (...)
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  12. Expectational V. Instrumental Reasoning: What Statistics Contributes to Practical Reasoning.Mariam Thalos - 2017 - Diametros 53:125-149.
    Utility theories—both Expected Utility and non-Expected Utility theories—offer numericalized representations of classical principles meant for the regulation of choice under conditions of risk—a type of formal representation that reduces the representation of risk to a single number. I shall refer to these as risk-numericalizing theories of decision. I shall argue that risk--numericalizing theories are not satisfactory answers to the question: “How do I take the means to my ends?” In other words, they are inadequate or incomplete as instrumental theories. They (...)
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  13. Disambiguation of Social Polarization Concepts and Measures.Aaron Bramson, Patrick Grim, Daniel J. Singer, Steven Fisher, William Berger, Graham Sack & Carissa Flocken - 2016 - Journal of Mathematical Sociology 40:80-111.
    ABSTRACT This article distinguishes nine senses of polarization and provides formal measures for each one to refine the methodology used to describe polarization in distributions of attitudes. Each distinct concept is explained through a definition, formal measures, examples, and references. We then apply these measures to GSS data regarding political views, opinions on abortion, and religiosity—topics described as revealing social polarization. Previous breakdowns of polarization include domain-specific assumptions and focus on a subset of the distribution’s features. This has conflated multiple, (...)
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  14. Neonatal Diagnostics: Toward Dynamic Growth Charts of Neuromotor Control.Elizabeth B. Torres, Beth Smith, Sejal Mistry, Maria Brincker & Caroline Whyatt - 2016 - Frontiers in Pediatrics 4:121.
    The current rise of neurodevelopmental disorders poses a critical need to detect risk early in order to rapidly intervene. One of the tools pediatricians use to track development is the standard growth chart. The growth charts are somewhat limited in predicting possible neurodevelopmental issues. They rely on linear models and assumptions of normality for physical growth data – obscuring key statistical information about possible neurodevelopmental risk in growth data that actually has accelerated, non-linear rates-of-change and variability encompassing skewed distributions. Here, (...)
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  15. The Ontology of Biological and Clinical Statistics (OBCS) for Standardized and Reproducible Statistical Analysis.Jie Zheng, Marcelline R. Harris, Anna Maria Masci, Lin Yu, Alfred Hero, Barry Smith & Yongqun He - 2016 - Journal of Biomedical Semantics 7 (53).
    Statistics play a critical role in biological and clinical research. However, most reports of scientific results in the published literature make it difficult for the reader to reproduce the statistical analyses performed in achieving those results because they provide inadequate documentation of the statistical tests and algorithms applied. The Ontology of Biological and Clinical Statistics (OBCS) is put forward here as a step towards solving this problem. Terms in OBCS, including ‘data collection’, ‘data transformation in statistics’, ‘data visualization’, ‘statistical data (...)
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  16. Philosophical Controversies in the Evaluation of Medical Treatments : With a Focus on the Evidential Roles of Randomization and Mechanisms in Evidence-Based Medicine.Alexander Mebius - 2015 - Dissertation, KTH Royal Institute of Technology
    This thesis examines philosophical controversies surrounding the evaluation of medical treatments, with a focus on the evidential roles of randomised trials and mechanisms in Evidence-Based Medicine. Current 'best practice' usually involves excluding non-randomised trial evidence from systematic reviews in cases where randomised trials are available for inclusion in the reviews. The first paper challenges this practice and evaluates whether adding of evidence from non-randomised trials might improve the quality and precision of some systematic reviews. The second paper compares the alleged (...)
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  17. Refrain From Standards? French, Cavemen and Computers. A (Short) Story of Multidimensional Analysis in French Prehistoric Archaeology.Sébastien Plutniak - 2015 - In Oliver Schlaudt & Lara Huber (eds.), Standardization in Measurement. Philosophical and Sociological Issues. Londra, Regno Unito: pp. 39-52.
    Focusing on the history of prehistoric archaeology in the 20th century, this papers shows (1) that statistical multidimensional analyses were carried out by a new kind of actors who challenged the previous common language shared by prehistorians. This fundamental change was important, considering that (2) language is a fundamental point for the epistemology of archaeology. However, a comparison of multidimensional analyses applications over time shall make clear that (3) the differences are mostly a generational matter: the transmission processes between them (...)
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  18. The Inflationary and Deflationary Trends in the Global Economy, or ‘the Japanese Disease’ is Spreading.Leonid Grinin & Andrey Korotayev - 2014 - Journal of Globalization Studies 5 (2):152-173.
    The danger of deflation has been rather frequently mentioned recently among nu-merous concerns over the European and partly American economies. Analysts cite the Japanese economy which has been suffering from deflation for the last two decades despite the large investments in economy and the government's efforts to increase inflation. Similarly, notwithstanding many trillions of dollars, euro, pounds and yen that were invested in economies over the past few years, the infla-tion in the Western countries still remains low. On the whole, (...)
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  19. OBCS: The Ontology of Biological and Clinical Statistics.Jie Zheng, Marcelline R. Harris, Anna Maria Masci, Yu Lin, Alfred Hero, Barry Smith & Yongqun He - 2014 - Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Biomedical Ontology 1327:65.
    Statistics play a critical role in biological and clinical research. To promote logically consistent representation and classification of statistical entities, we have developed the Ontology of Biological and Clinical Statistics (OBCS). OBCS extends the Ontology of Biomedical Investigations (OBI), an OBO Foundry ontology supported by some 20 communities. Currently, OBCS contains 686 terms, including 381 classes imported from OBI and 147 classes specific to OBCS. The goal of this paper is to present OBCS for community critique and to describe a (...)
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  20. Statistical Analyses.Glenys Bishop - 2013 - In Katrina Hutchison & Fiona Jenkins (eds.), Women in Philosophy: What Needs to Change? Oup Usa. pp. 253.
  21. Towards the Reduction of Data Used for the Classification of Network Flows.Maciej Grzenda - 2012 - In Emilio Corchado, Vaclav Snasel, Ajith Abraham, Michał Woźniak, Manuel Grana & Sung-Bae Cho (eds.), Hybrid Artificial Intelligent Systems. Springer. pp. 68--77.
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  22. Nociones Introductorias de Muestreo Estadístico (Introductory Notions of Statistical Sampling).M. H. Badii, A. Guillen, E. Cerna & J. Valenzuela - 2011 - Daena 6 (1):89-105.
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  23. Statistical Learning Theory: A Tutorial.Sanjeev R. Kulkarni & Gilbert Harman - 2011 - Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Statistics 3 (6):543-556.
    In this article, we provide a tutorial overview of some aspects of statistical learning theory, which also goes by other names such as statistical pattern recognition, nonparametric classification and estimation, and supervised learning. We focus on the problem of two-class pattern classification for various reasons. This problem is rich enough to capture many of the interesting aspects that are present in the cases of more than two classes and in the problem of estimation, and many of the results can be (...)
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  24. Steps Towards a Unified Basis for Scientific Models and Methods.Inge S. Helland - 2010 - World Scientific.
  25. Finite-Time Destruction of Entanglement and Non-Locality by Environmental Influences.Kevin Ann & Gregg Jaeger - 2009 - Foundations of Physics 39 (7):790-828.
    Entanglement and non-locality are non-classical global characteristics of quantum states important to the foundations of quantum mechanics. Recent investigations have shown that environmental noise, even when it is entirely local in influence, can destroy both of these properties in finite time despite giving rise to full quantum state decoherence only in the infinite time limit. These investigations, which have been carried out in a range of theoretical and experimental situations, are reviewed here.
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  26. Factor Structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI): Findings From a Large Incarcerated Sample.Craig S. Neumann, Melanie B. Malterer & Joseph Newman - 2008 - Psychological Assessment 20 (2):169–174.
    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; S. O. Lilienfeld, 1990; S. O. Lilienfeld & B. P. Andrews, 1996) with a community sample has suggested that the PPI subscales may comprise 2 higher order factors (S. D. Benning, C. J. Patrick, B. M. Hicks, D. M. Blonigen, & R. F. Krueger, 2003). However, substantive and structural evidence raises concerns about the viability of this 2-factor model, particularly in offender populations. The authors attempted to replicate the S. D. (...)
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  27. Assessment of Strategies for Evaluating Extreme Risks.James Franklin & Scott Sisson - 2007 - Australian Centre of Excellence for Risk Analysis Reports.
    The report begins by outlining several case studies with varying levels of data, examining the role for extreme event risk analysis. The case studies include BA’s analysis of fire blight and New Zealand apples, bank operational risk and several technical failures. The report then surveys recent developments in methods relevant to evaluating extreme risks and evaluates their properties. These include methods for fraud detection in banks, formal extreme value theory, Bayesian approaches, qualitative reasoning, and adversary and advocacy models. The document (...)
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  28. Statistical Magic and/or Statistical Serendipity: An Age of Progress in the Analysis of Categorical Data.Leo A. Goodman - 2007 - Annual Review of Sociology 33:1-19.
    This essay describes in simple terms some of the major concepts of categorical data analysis (CDA) that have been and will continue to be useful in the analysis of sociological data, examples of which include data in the area of social stratification and mobility, and in many other areas that make use of survey data and/or panel studies data, and in empirical studies of latent types, latent variables, and latent structures. The exposition does not make use of any mathematical formulas, (...)
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  29. Statistical Concepts in Philosophy of Science.Patrick Suppes - 2007 - Synthese 154 (3):485--496.
    This article focuses on the role of statistical concepts in both experiment and theory in various scientific disciplines, especially physics, including astronomy, and psychology. In Sect. 1 the concept of uncertainty in astronomy is analyzed from Ptolemy to Laplace and Gauss. In Sect. 2 theoretical uses of probability and statistics in science are surveyed. Attention is focused on the historically important example of radioactive decay. In Sect. 3 the use of statistics in biology and the social sciences is examined, with (...)
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  30. Understanding and Calculating the Odds: Probability Theory Basics and Calculus Guide for Beginners, with Applications in Games of Chance and Everyday Life.Catalin Barboianu - 2006 - Craiova, Romania: Infarom.
  31. Severe Testing as a Basic Concept in a Neyman–Pearson Philosophy of Induction.Deborah G. Mayo & Aris Spanos - 2006 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 57 (2):323-357.
    Despite the widespread use of key concepts of the Neyman–Pearson (N–P) statistical paradigm—type I and II errors, significance levels, power, confidence levels—they have been the subject of philosophical controversy and debate for over 60 years. Both current and long-standing problems of N–P tests stem from unclarity and confusion, even among N–P adherents, as to how a test's (pre-data) error probabilities are to be used for (post-data) inductive inference as opposed to inductive behavior. We argue that the relevance of error probabilities (...)
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  32. Towards a Probability Logic Based on Statistical Reasoning.Niki Pfeifer & G. D. Kleiter - 2006 - In Proceedings of the 11 T H Ipmu International Conference (Information Processing and Management of Uncertainty in Knowledge-Based Systems). pp. 2308--2315.
    Logical argument forms are investigated by second order probability density functions. When the premises are expressed by beta distributions, the conclusions usually are mixtures of beta distributions. If the shape parameters of the distributions are assumed to be additive (natural sampling), then the lower and upper bounds of the mixing distributions (P´olya-Eggenberger distributions) are parallel to the corresponding lower and upper probabilities in conditional probability logic.
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  33. Методология определения емкости товарного рынка.Sergii Sardak & Сардак С.Э - 2004 - Актуальні Проблеми Економіки 1:86-91.
    В статье предлагается методология, представляющая последовательность выполнения мероприятий по определению емкости товарного рынка.
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  34. Statistical Thought: A Perspective and History.Shoutir Kishore Chatterjee - 2003 - Oxford University Press.
    In this unique monograph, based on years of extensive work, Chatterjee presents the historical evolution of statistical thought from the perspective of various approaches to statistical induction. Developments in statistical concepts and theories are discussed alongside philosophical ideas on the ways we learn from experience.
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  35. Statistical Learning Theory, Capacity, and Complexity.Bernhard Schölkopf - 2003 - Complexity 8 (4):87-94.
  36. Sampling Without Replacement: History and Applications.Oscar Sheynin - 2002 - NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin 10 (1-3):181-187.
    I dwell on the appearance, in the mid-19th century, of a formula describing random sampling without replacement under incomplete knowledge and discuss the statistical aspect of this formula and its applications. I also provide illustrations showing that the fairness of sampling without replacement was being questioned.
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  37. The Nature of Statistical Learning Theory.Vladimir Vapnik - 2000 - Springer: New York.
  38. Hypothesis Tests and Confidence Intervals in the Single Case.D. J. Johnstone - 1988 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 39 (3):353-360.
  39. The Rise of Statistical Thinking, 1820-1900 by Theodore M. Porter. [REVIEW]Lorraine Daston - 1987 - Isis 78:272-274.
  40. Statistics in Britain, 1865-1930: The Social Construction of Scientific Knowledge by Donald A. MacKenzie. [REVIEW]Peter Bowler - 1983 - Isis 74:586-588.
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  41. The Philosophy of Exploratory Data Analysis.I. J. Good - 1983 - Philosophy of Science 50 (2):283-295.
    This paper attempts to define Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) more precisely than usual, and to produce the beginnings of a philosophy of this topical and somewhat novel branch of statistics. A data set is, roughly speaking, a collection of k-tuples for some k. In both descriptive statistics and in EDA, these k-tuples, or functions of them, are represented in a manner matched to human and computer abilities with a view to finding patterns that are not "kinkera". A kinkus is a (...)
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  42. Statistical Demography. By Roland Pressat. Pp. Vii + 150. Price £7.50.Peter R. Cox - 1980 - Journal of Biosocial Science 12 (2):238-239.
    Cambridge Journals Online (CJO) is the online journals publishing service of Cambridge University Press. CJO hosts leading journals across multiple disciplines.
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  43. Support.R. D. Rosenkrantz - 1977 - Synthese 36 (2):181 - 193.
  44. Bytheway's Statistical Trap.Anne Poole - 1974 - Journal of Biosocial Science 6 (1):73-74.
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  45. Fundamentals of Experimental Design.Jerome L. Myers - 1972 - Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    This, the third edition of Fundamentals of Experimental Design, has five added chapters - those on regression (Chapters 12, 14, and 15), multivariate analysis (Chapter 18), and the matrix algebra appropriate to the level of presentation of this material (Chapter 13). I have noted in the preface other additions in this third edition. The added material should enhance the value of the book as a textbook and a reference. Given these additions, however, alternative approaches in using the current edition as (...)
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  46. Material Conditions on Tests of Statistical Hypotheses.Ben Rogers - 1970 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1970:403 - 412.
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  47. Concepts of Statistical Evidence.Allan Birnbaum - 1969 - In Ernest Nagel, Sidney Morgenbesser, Patrick Suppes & Morton Gabriel White (eds.), Philosophy, Science, and Method. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 112--143.
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  48. Eddington's Statistical Theory.C. W. Kilmister & B. O. J. Tupper - 1962 - Oxford, Clarendon Press.
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  49. Combination of Observations.W. M. Smart - 1960 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 11 (41):77-77.
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  50. Reply to Comments on "Statistics, Pragmatics, Induction".C. West Churchman - 1949 - Philosophy of Science 16 (2):151-153.
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