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  1. Embryo and Fetus. Stem Cell Research and Therapy.J. M. Harris, D. Morgan & M. Ford - forthcoming - Encyclopedia of Bioethics.
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  2. Avoiding the Potentiality Trap: Thinking About the Moral Status of Synthetic Embryos.Monika Piotrowska - forthcoming - Monash Bioethics Review.
    Research ethics committees must sometimes deliberate about objects that do not fit nicely into any existing category. This is currently the case with the “gastruloid,” which is a self-assembling blob of cells that resembles a human embryo. The resemblance makes it tempting to group it with other members of that kind, and thus to ask whether gastruloids really are embryos. But fitting an ambiguous object into an existing category with well-worn pathways in research ethics, like the embryo, is only a (...)
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  3. Defining Life From Death: Problems with the Somatic Integration Definition of Life.Bruce P. Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger - 2020 - Bioethics (5):1-5.
    To determine when the life of a human organism begins, Mark T. Brown has developed the somatic integration definition of life. Derived from diagnostic criteria for human death, Brown’s account requires the presence of a life‐regulation internal control system for an entity to be considered a living organism. According to Brown, the earliest point at which a developing human could satisfy this requirement is at the beginning of the fetal stage, and so the embryo is not regarded as a living (...)
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  4. Human Embryos, Human Beings: A Scientific and Philosophical Approach. [REVIEW]Bruce Philip Blackshaw - 2020 - The New Bioethics 1:1-3.
    A crucial question in reproductive ethics is whether a human being’s life begins at conception – if it does not, it is more difficult to argue that early embryos possess substantial moral status. I...
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  5. Being Human: Why and in What Sense It is Morally Relevant.Roland Kipke - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (2):148-158.
    The debate on the question of the moral status of human beings and the boundaries of the moral community has long been dominated by the antagonism between personism and speciesism: either certain mental properties or membership of the human species is considered morally crucial. In this article, I argue that both schools of thought are equally implausible in major respects, and that these shortcomings arise from the same reason in both cases: a biological notion of being human. By contrast, I (...)
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  6. Thinking Critically About Abortion: Why Most Abortions Aren’T Wrong & Why All Abortions Should Be Legal.Nathan Nobis & Kristina Grob - 2019 - Atlanta, GA: Open Philosophy Press.
    This book introduces readers to the many arguments and controversies concerning abortion. While it argues for ethical and legal positions on the issues, it focuses on how to think about the issues, not just what to think about them. It is an ideal resource to improve your understanding of what people think, why they think that and whether their (and your) arguments are good or bad, and why. It's ideal for classroom use, discussion groups, organizational learning, and personal reading. -/- (...)
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  7. Cancer Stem Cells Modulate Patterns and Processes of Evolution in Cancers.Lucie Laplane - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (3-4):18.
    The clonal evolution model and the cancer stem cell model are two independent models of cancers, yet recent data shows intersections between the two models. This article explores the impacts of the CSC model on the CE model. I show that CSC restriction, which depends on CSC frequency in cancer cell populations and on the probability of dedifferentiation of cancer non-stem cells into CSCs, can favor or impede some patterns of evolution and some processes of evolution. Taking CSC restriction into (...)
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  8. Der manipulierbare Embryo.Markus Rothhaar, Martin Hähnel & Roland Kipke (eds.) - 2018
    Der moralische Status menschlicher Embryonen ist und bleibt umstritten. Zugleich gibt es immer neue und tiefergehende biotechnologische Möglichkeiten, Embryonen zu manipulieren. Das betrifft insbesondere ihr Entwicklungspotential und die klare Zuordnung zur menschlichen Spezies. Dieses Buch untersucht, welche Auswirkungen diese neuen Manipulationsmöglichkeiten auf die Tragfähigkeit der Argumente haben, mit denen ein herausgehobener moralischer Status des Embryos begründet werden soll: die Potentialitäts- und Speziesargumente. In den Beiträgen werden aktuelle Entwicklungen in der Forschung mit Embryonen zusammengetragen und insbesondere folgende Fragen diskutiert: Was bedeuten (...)
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  9. The Grounds of Moral Status.Julie Tannenbaum & Agnieszka Jaworska - 2018 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:0-0.
    This article discusses what is involved in having full moral status, as opposed to a lesser degree of moral status and surveys different views of the grounds of moral status as well as the arguments for attributing a particular degree of moral status on the basis of those grounds.
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  10. Disappearing Women, Vanishing Ladies and Property in Embryos.Donna Dickenson - 2017 - International Journal of Law and the Biosciences 4:1-6.
    Guidelines on embryo storage prioritise 'respect for the embryo' above the wishes of the women whose labour and tissue have gone into creating the embryo in the first place, effectively making women and the female body disappear. In this article I draw a parallel between this phenomenon relating to embryo storage and other instances of a similar phenomenon that I have called 'the lady vanishes', particularly in stem cell and 'mitochondrial transfer' research. I suggest that a modified property regime could (...)
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  11. Stem Cell Lineages: Between Cell and Organism.Melinda Bonnie Fagan - 2017 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 9 (6).
    Ontologies of living things are increasingly grounded on the concepts and practices of current life science. Biological development is a process, undergone by living things, which begins with a single cell and (in an important class of cases) ends with formation of a multicellular organism. The process of development is thus prima facie central for ideas about biological individuality and organismality. However, recent accounts of these concepts do not engage developmental biology. This paper aims to fill the gap, proposing the (...)
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  12. The Moral Status of Human Embryos and Other Possible Sources of Stem Cells.Lawrence Masek - 2017 - In Jason Eberl (ed.), Contemporary Controversies in Catholic Bioethics. Springer. pp. 331-343.
    I argue against the view that modern biology has undermined traditional moral rules, including the prohibition of abortion and restrictions on human embryonic stem cell research, by blurring the distinction between humans and other animals. I argue that this view depends on the false premise that an organism can be wronged only if the organism has conscious interests. I then defend a rule against harvesting stem cells in a way that kills an organism with a rational nature. Finally, I apply (...)
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  13. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: Middle-Ground Positions and Moral Compromise.Angeliki Kerasidou - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 57:167-169.
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  14. Cancer Stem Cells: Philosophy and Therapies.Lucie Laplane - 2016 - Cambridge (Massachusetts): Harvard University Press.
  15. Thought Experiments, the Reliability of Intuitions, and Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research.Stephen Napier - 2016 - International Philosophical Quarterly 56 (1):77-98.
    It is common in bioethical discussion to present thought experiments or cases in order to construct an argument. Some thought experiments are quite illuminating, and ethical theorizing will often appeal at some point to one’s intuitions. But there are cases in which thought experiments are useless or do not contribute to the argument. This article considers cases presented in the context of stem cell research that are destructive of human embryos. I argue that certain popular cases that are meant to (...)
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  16. Review of Peoples' Science: Bodies and Rights on the Stem Cell Frontier. [REVIEW]Joan H. Robinson - 2016 - Spontaneous Generations 8 (1):112-114.
  17. Strange Bedfellows? Common Ground on the Moral Status Question.Shane Maxwell Wilkins - 2016 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 41 (2):130-147.
    When does a developing human being acquire moral status? I outline three different positions based on substance ontology that attempt to solve the question by locating some morally salient event in the process of human development question. In the second section, I consider some specific empirical objections to one of these positions, refute them, and then show how similar objections and responses would generalize to the other substance-based positions on the question. The crucial finding is that all the attempts to (...)
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  18. The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research.Katrien Devolder - 2015 - Oxford University Press.
    Embryonic stem cell research holds great promise for biomedical research, but involves the destruction of human embryos. Katrien Devolder explores the tension between the view that embryos should never be deliberately harmed, and the view that such research must go forward. She provides an in-depth analysis of major attempts to resolve the problem.
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  19. Review of John P. Lizza, Ed., Potentiality: Metaphysical and Bioethical Dimensions. [REVIEW]Jake Earl - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (8):10-12.
    Each of the 13 articles in this collection wrestles with intricate metaphysical and moral aspects of the widespread belief that a thing’s potential—what it could, would, might, or will be, but isn’t yet—matters for how we should treat that thing. As John Lizza explains in his lucid introduction, the articles are grouped into three parts according to their aims and theoretical constraints. In this review, I briefly summarize and offer some critical discussion of each part.
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  20. Crucial Stem Cell Experiments? Stem Cells, Uncertainty, and Single-Cell Experiments.Melinda Bonnie Fagan - 2015 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 30 (2):183-205.
    I have previously argued that stem cell experiments cannot demonstrate that a single cell is a stem cell. Laplane and others dispute this claim, citing experiments that identify stem cells at the singlecell level. This paper rebuts the counterexample, arguing that the alleged ‘crucial stem cell experiments’ do not measure self-renewal for a single cell, do not establish a single cell’s differentiation potential, and, if interpreted as providing results about single cells, fall into epistemic circularity. I then discuss the source (...)
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  21. Stem Cell Lacunae: Sarah Franklin: Biological Relatives: IVF, Stem Cells, and the Future of Kinship. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2013, 376pp, $26.95, £17.99 PB Charis Thompson: Good Science: The Ethical Choreography of Stem Cell Research. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2013, 360pp, $36.00, £24.95 HB.Melinda Bonnie Fagan - 2015 - Metascience 24 (1):147-153.
    Sarah Franklin’s Biological relatives: IVF, stem cells, and the future of kinship and Charis Thompson’s Good science: the ethical choreography of stem cell research, examine recently normalized biotechnologies. Franklin’s monograph extends her previous work on in vitro fertilization , deconstructing the success of a technology that, she argues, has grown “curiouser and curiouser” while taking hold in scientific and social life. IVF in its diverse aspects becomes a lens for scrutinizing our ambivalence about new technology, which Franklin articulates by putting (...)
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  22. Stem Cell Epistemological Issues. Chapter in Charbord P and Durand C (Eds) Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine.Lucie Laplane - 2015 - River Publishers.
    This chapter brings a philosophical perspective to the concept of stem cell. Three general questions both clarify the concept of stem cell and emphasize its ambiguities: (1) How should we define stem cells? (2) What makes them different from non-stem cells? (3) What is their ontology? (i.e. what kind of property is “stemness”?) Following this last question, the Chapter distinguishes four conceptions of stem cells and highlights their respective consequences for the cancer stem cell theory. Determining what kind of property (...)
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  23. Reprogramming and Stemness.Lucie Laplane - 2015 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 58 (2):229-246.
    Reprogramming technologies show that cellular identity can be reprogrammed, challenging the classical conception of cell differentiation as an irreversible process. If non-stem cells can be reprogrammed into stem cells, then what is it to be a stem cell, and what kind of property is stemness? This article addresses this question both philosophically and biologically, states the different possibilities, and illustrates their potential consequences for science with the example of anti-cancer therapies.
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  24. Science and Politics in the Regulation of Human Embryonic Stem-Cell Research in Brazil.Maya Mitre & Bruno P. W. Reis - 2015 - Social Science Information 54 (1):3-22.
    This case study deals with the regulation of human embryonic stem-cell research in Brazil. It aims to analyze the process that led to the authorization, in 2005, of the use of stem cells obtained from so-called supernumerary embryos for purposes of research and therapy. We argue that the pro-research lobby in Brazil had considerable success because it framed the issue by referring to Brazil’s peculiar policy background in the fields of assisted reproduction and embryo research. Moreover, this group of actors (...)
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  25. Human Tissue Legislation in South Africa: Focus on Stem Cell Research and Therapy.Michael Sean Pepper & M. Nőthling Slabbert - 2015 - South African Journal of Bioethics and Law 8 (2):4.
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  26. Patient-Funded Trials: Opportunity or Liability?Danielle M. Wenner, Alex John London & Jonathan Kimmelman - 2015 - Cell Stem Cell 17 (2):135-137.
    Patient-funded trials are gaining traction as a means of accelerating clinical translation. However, such trials sidestep mechanisms that promote rigor, relevance, efficiency, and fairness. We recommend that funding bodies or research institutions establish mechanisms for merit review of patient-funded trials, and we offer some basic criteria for evaluating PFT protocols.
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  27. The Potentiality of the Embryo and the Somatic Cell.Andrew McGee - 2014 - Metaphilosophy 45 (4-5):689-706.
    Recent arguments on the ethics of stem cell research have taken a novel approach to the question of the moral status of the embryo. One influential argument focuses on a property that the embryo is said to possess—namely, the property of being an entity with a rational nature or, less controversially, an entity that has the potential to acquire a rational nature—and claims that this property is also possessed by a somatic cell. Since nobody seriously thinks that we have a (...)
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  28. Multiplex Parenting: IVG and the Generations to Come.César Palacios-González, John Harris & Giuseppe Testa - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (11):752-758.
    Recent breakthroughs in stem cell differentiation and reprogramming suggest that functional human gametes could soon be created in vitro. While the ethical debate on the uses of in vitro generated gametes (IVG) was originally constrained by the fact that they could be derived only from embryonic stem cell lines, the advent of somatic cell reprogramming, with the possibility to easily derive human induced pluripotent stem cells from any individual, affords now a major leap in the feasibility of IVG derivation and (...)
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  29. Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Transferring Morality to Human–Nonhuman Chimeras”.Monika Piotrowska - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (10):6-9.
    I am grateful to the authors who commented on my article (Piotrowska 2014) for their careful examination of my argument. They have presented a variety of stimulating ideas and suggestions, with which I largely agree and which I would like to discuss further, but in the interest of brevity, I shall try to concentrate only on points of contention.
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  30. Transferring Morality to Human–Nonhuman Chimeras.Monika Piotrowska - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (2):4-12.
    Human–nonhuman chimeras have been the focus of ethical controversies for more than a decade, yet some related issues remain unaddressed. For example, little has been said about the relationship between the origin of transferred cells and the morally relevant capacities to which they may give rise. Consider, for example, a developing mouse fetus that receives a brain stem cell transplant from a human and another that receives a brain stem cell transplant from a dolphin. If both chimeras acquire morally relevant (...)
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  31. Concerns About Eroding the Ethical Barrier to in Vitro Eugenics: Lessons From the hESC Debate.Jonathan Pugh - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (11):737-738.
    In his discussion of in vitrogametogenesis, Rob Sparrow claims that an ethical barrier to development of this technology is that many jurisdictions currently prohibit the practice of creating embryos solely for the purpose of research. However, he suggests that this ethical barrier will soon be eroded, in view of the fact that in vitro gametogenesis could serve as a powerful new technology to overcome infertility. In this commentary, I argue that Sparrow is being overly optimistic in his analysis here. I (...)
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  32. Embryos, The Principle of Proportionality, and the Shaky Ground of Moral Respect.Jonathan Pugh - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (8):420-426.
    The debate concerning the moral permissibility of using human embryos in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research has long centred on the question of the embryo's supposed right to life. However, in focussing only on this question, many opponents to hESC research have escaped rigorous scrutiny by making vague and unfounded appeals to the concept of moral respect in order to justify their opposition to certain hESC practices. In this paper, I offer a critical analysis of the concept of moral (...)
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  33. Moral Uncertainty in Bioethical Argumentation: A New Understanding of the Pro-Life View on Early Human Embryos.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2014 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (6):441-457.
    In this article, I present a new interpretation of the pro-life view on the status of early human embryos. In my understanding, this position is based not on presumptions about the ontological status of embryos and their developmental capabilities but on the specific criteria of rational decisions under uncertainty and on a cautious response to the ambiguous status of embryos. This view, which uses the decision theory model of moral reasoning, promises to reconcile the uncertainty about the ontological status of (...)
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  34. Stem Cells and Aging From a Quasi‐Immortal Point of View.Anna‐Marei Boehm, Philip Rosenstiel & Thomas Cg Bosch - 2013 - Bioessays 35 (11):994-1003.
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  35. No Ethical Bypass of Moral Status in Stem Cell Research.Mark Brown - 2013 - Bioethics 27 (1):12-19.
    Recent advances in reprogramming technology do not bypass the ethical challenge of embryo sacrifice. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) research has been and almost certainly will continue to be conducted within the context of embryo sacrifice. If human embryos have moral status as human beings, then participation in iPS research renders one morally complicit in their destruction; if human embryos have moral status as mere precursors of human beings, then advocacy of iPS research policy that is inhibited by embryo sacrifice (...)
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  36. Blood Stem Cell Products: Toward Sustainable Benchmarks for Clinical Translation.Elizabeth Csaszar, Sandra Cohen & Peter W. Zandstra - 2013 - Bioessays 35 (3):201-210.
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  37. Blood Stem Cell Products: Toward Sustainable Benchmarks for Clinical Translation.Elizabeth Csaszar, Sandra Cohen & Peter W. Zandstra - 2013 - Bioessays 35 (3):201-210.
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  38. Skepticism About the “Convertibility” of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.Thomas V. Cunningham - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (1):40-42.
    No abstract available. First paragraph: In this issue’s target article, Stier and Schoene-Siefert purport to ‘depotentialize’ the argument from potentiality based on their claim that any human cell may be “converted” into a morally significant entity, and consequently, the argument from potentiality finally succumbs to a reductio ad absurdum. I aim to convey two reasons for skepticism about the innocuousness of the notion of cell convertibility, and hence, the cogency of their argument.
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  39. What Justifies the Ban on Federal Funding for Nonreproductive Cloning?Thomas V. Cunningham - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy 16:825-841.
    This paper explores how current United States policies for funding nonreproductive cloning are justified and argues against that justification. I show that a common conceptual framework underlies the national prohibition on the use of public funds for cloning research, which I call the simple argument. This argument rests on two premises: that research harming human embryos is unethical and that embryos produced via fertilization are identical to those produced via cloning. In response to the simple argument, I challenge the latter (...)
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  40. Embryo Loss and Double Effect.Ezio Di Nucci - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (8):537-540.
    I defend the argument that if embryo loss in stem cell research is morally problematic, then embryo loss in in vivo conception is similarly morally problematic. According to a recent challenge to this argument, we can distinguish between in vivo embryo loss and the in vitro embryo loss of stem cell research by appealing to the doctrine of double effect. I argue that this challenge fails to show that in vivo embryo loss is a mere unintended side effect while in (...)
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  41. The Promise and Challenges of Stem Cell‐Based Therapies for Skeletal Diseases.Solvig Diederichs, Kristy M. Shine & Rocky S. Tuan - 2013 - Bioessays 35 (3):220-230.
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  42. Potentiality Arguments and the Definition of “Human Organism”.Annette Dufner - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (1):33-34.
    Bettina Schöne-Seifert and Marco Stier present a host of detailed and intriguing arguments to the effect that potentiality arguments have to be viewed as outdated due to developments in stem cell research, in particular the possibility of re-setting the development potential of differentiated cells, such as skin cells. However, their argument leaves them without an explanation of the intuitive difference between skin cells and human beings, which seems to be based on the assumption that a skin cell is merely part (...)
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  43. Live Long and Prosper:“Germline Stem Cell Maintenance Revisited”(Retrospective on DOI: 10.1002/Bies. 201000085).Cassandra G. Extavour - 2013 - Bioessays 35 (9):763-763.
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  44. Stem Cells of the Respiratory System: From Identification to Differentiation Into Functional Epithelium.Michael D. Green, Sarah Xl Huang & Hans‐Willem Snoeck - 2013 - Bioessays 35 (3):261-270.
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  45. Nichotherapy for Stem Cells: There Goes the Neighborhood.Jean-Pierre Levesque, Ingrid G. Winkler & John Ej Rasko - 2013 - Bioessays 35 (3):183-190.
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  46. Nichotherapy for Stem Cells: There Goes the Neighborhood.Jean‐Pierre Levesque, Ingrid G. Winkler & John Ej Rasko - 2013 - Bioessays 35 (3):183-190.
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  47. In Dubio Pro Embryone? Schwierigkeiten Eines Vorsichtsarguments Gegen Embryonale StammzellenforschungIn Dubio Pro Embryone? Problems for a Precautionary Argument Against Embryonic Stem Cell Research.Hans-Jürgen Link - 2013 - Ethik in der Medizin 25 (2):129-142.
    ZusammenfassungIn der Debatte um die embryonale Stammzellenforschung führen die Verfechter der Würde des Embryos gerne eine Gemeinsamkeit von Embryonen und reversibel Komatösen an: Beide sind bloß potentiell Personen. Wenn aber Komatösen fraglos personale Würde zukommt, weshalb sollte man sie Embryonen absprechen? In ihrem AufsatzIn dubio pro embryone kombinieren G. Damschen und D. Schönecker diese Analogie mit einem Vorsichtsargument: Weil die Analogie zumindest gute Gründe für die Annahme biete, Embryonen komme eine menschliche Würde zu, sei angesichts der Schwere des möglichen Unrechts (...)
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  48. The Ethical Dilemma of Embryonic Stem Cell Research.Nabeel Manzar, Bushra Manzar, Nuzhat Hussain, M. Fawwad Ahmed Hussain & Sajjad Raza - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (1):97-106.
    To determine the knowledge, attitude, and ethical concerns of medical students and graduates with regard to Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC) research. This questionnaire based descriptive study was conducted at the Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK), Pakistan from February to July 2008. A well structured questionnaire was administered to medical students and graduate doctors, which included their demographic profile as well as questions in line with the study objective. Informed consent was taken and full confidentiality was assured to the participants. Data were (...)
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  49. Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Systemic Therapy: Shotgun Approach or Magic Bullets?Susan M. Millard & Nicholas M. Fisk - 2013 - Bioessays 35 (3):173-182.
    Given their heterogeneity and lack of defining markers, it is surprising that multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have attracted so much translational attention, especially as increasing evidence points to their predominant effect being not by donor differentiation but via paracrine mediators and exosomes. Achieving long-term MSC donor chimerism for treatment of chronic disease remains a challenge, requiring enhanced MSC homing/engraftment properties and manipulation of niches to direct MSC behaviour. Meanwhile advances in nanoparticle technology are furthering the development of MSCs as (...)
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  50. A Circuit‐Based Gatekeeper for Adult Neural Stem Cell Proliferation.Jonathan Moss & Nicolas Toni - 2013 - Bioessays 35 (1):28-33.
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