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Summary The Stoic school of philosophy was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium c. 300 BCE. He was succeeded as head by Cleanthes and then Chrysippus, who is widely held to be the most important of the early Athenian Stoics. Later Hellenistic Stoics of note included Panaetius and Posidonius. The most important Stoics during the Roman period were Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius; also noteworthy are Musonius Rufus, Hierocles, and Cleomedes. The Stoics divided their philosophy into three parts: logic, physics, and ethics.
Key works All of the works of the early Stoics are lost. Our earliest extended accounts of Stoic philosophy are in the philosophical works of Cicero from the first century BCE. Another important source is the extended account in Book 7 of Diogenes Laertius' Lives and Opinions of the Philosophers. The fragments for the early Athenian Stoics are gathered together in von Arnim 1903-24. A good selection is translated in Inwood & Gerson 2008, which is based on their earlier selection in Gerson & Inwood 1988. Another highly recommended selection is Long & Sedley 1987. The fragments for Posidonius are edited in Edelstein & Kidd 1972. The surviving works of the Roman Stoics Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius are widely available in a number of different editions and translations.
Introductions For a general introduction to Stoicism see Sellars 2006. The edited volume Inwood 2003 offers a fuller overview. Inwood 2005 brings out the philosophical importance of Seneca. For an introduction to Epictetus the best place to start is Long 2002. Marcus Aurelius is examined in Hadot et al 1998.
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  1. Clear and Distinct Perception in the Stoics, Augustine, and William of Ockham.Tamer Nawar - 2022 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 96 (1):185-207.
    There is a long history of philosophers granting a privileged epistemic status to cognition of directly present objects. In this paper, I examine three important historic accounts which provide different models of this cognitive state and its connection with its objects: that of the Stoics, who are corporealists and think that ordinary perception may have an epistemically privileged status, but who seem to struggle to accommodate non-perceptual cognizance; that of Augustine, who thinks that incorporeal objects are directly present to us (...)
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  2. Nietzsche, the Stoics, and Philosophical Therapy.Joseph Breidenstein - 2019 - New Nietzsche Studies 11 (1):45-64.
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  3. Intertextuality in Seneca’s Philosophical Writings.Myrto Garani & Andreas N. Michalopoulos - 2020 - Routledge.
    This volume is the first systematic study of Seneca's interaction with earlier literature of a variety of genres and traditions. It examines this interaction and engagement in his prose works, offering interpretative readings that are at once groundbreaking and stimulating to further study. Focusing on the Dialogues, the Naturales Quaestiones, and the Moral Epistles, the volume includes multi-perspectival studies of Seneca's interaction with all the great Latin epics, and discussions of how Seneca's philosophical thought is informed by Hellenistic doxography, forensic (...)
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  4. Філософія внутрішньої свободи. Long, A. A. (2018). How to be free. An Ancient Guide to the Stoic Life. Epictetus. Encheiridion and Selections from Discourses. Princeton: Princeton University Press. [REVIEW]Ксенія Мирошник - 2020 - Sententiae 39 (2):197-206.
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  5. Seneca: The Life of a Stoic.Paul Veyne - 2002 - Routledge.
    The great stoic philosopher, playwright and Roman statesman of the first century, Lucius Annaeus Seneca, exercised enormous influence for nearly fifteen years as tutor and political advisor to the Emperor Nero until forced to commit suicide by his former pupil. In the hands of Annales School historian Paul Veyne, the dramatic story of his life - one of power, politics and intrigue - becomes a mirror of the time in which he lived. Seneca's philosophical writings remain our core source for (...)
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  6. Seneca and Society - (C.) Seal Philosophy and Community in Seneca's Prose. Pp. XII + 209. New York: Oxford University Press, 2021. Cased, £47.99, Us$74. Isbn: 978-0-19-049321-9. [REVIEW]Catharine Edwards - forthcoming - The Classical Review:1-3.
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  7. Ancient and Modern Stoicism - Sherman Stoic Wisdom. Ancient Lessons for Modern Resilience. Pp. X + 294, Ills. New York: Oxford University Press, 2021. Cased, £18.99, Us$24.95. Isbn: 978-0-19-750183-2. [REVIEW]John Sellars - forthcoming - The Classical Review:1-2.
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  8. Marion Bourbon, Penser L’Individu. Genèse Stoïcienne de la Subjectivité, Turnhout, Brepols, 2019, 424p. [REVIEW]John Sellars & Jean-Baptiste Gourinat - 2022 - Les Etudes Philosophiques 1:147-150.
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  9. Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy, Edited by Brad Inwood and James Warren (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020). [REVIEW]John Sellars - 2022 - Philosophy 97 (2):263-265.
  10. Epicureans and Stoics on the Rationality of Perception.Whitney Schwab & Simon Shogry - forthcoming - Wiley: Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, EarlyView.
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  11. Veiled Criticism in Seneca's Epistulae Morales.Tamás Károly Preston - unknown
    This thesis aims to illuminate Seneca’s criticisms of Neronian Rome through a novel exploration of the philosopher’s collection of moral letters – the so-called Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium. Noting the glaring absence of court politics in these letters the thesis identifies themes of dissimulation and veiled criticism, penned by Seneca in a concealed manner to ensure his safety during a time of dire political unrest. The first chapter establishes the cultural context of this collection by examining how they fit in (...)
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  12. Intuitions in Stoic Philosophy.Katerina Ierodiakonou - forthcoming - British Journal for the History of Philosophy:1-16.
    There is no single ancient Greek word in the surviving fragments and testimonies of Hellenistic philosophy that is directly translatable by the term ‘intuition’. But if we are in search of intuitio...
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  13. Of Savages and Stoics: Converging Moral and Political Ideals in the Conjectural Histories of Rousseau and Ferguson.Rudmer Bijlsma - 2022 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 48 (2):209-244.
    This article undertakes a comparative study of the conjectural histories of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Adam Ferguson, focusing on the convergences in the moral and political ideals expressed and grounded in these histories. In comparison with Scots like Adam Smith and John Millar, the conjectural histories of Ferguson and Rousseau follow a similar historical trajectory as regards the development and progress of commercial, political and cultural arts. However, their assessment of the moral progress of humanity does not, or in a much (...)
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  14. 7 Seneca Against Derrida: Gift and Alterity.Jean-Joseph Goux - 2020 - In Edith Wyschogrod, Jean-Joseph Goux & Eric Boynton (eds.), The Enigma of Gift and Sacrifice. Fordham University Press. pp. 148-160.
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  15. The Roots of Occasionalism? Causation, Metaphysical Dependence, and Soul-Body Relations in Augustine.Tamer Nawar - 2021 - Vivarium 59 (1):1-27.
    It has long been thought that Augustine holds that corporeal objects cannot act upon incorporeal souls. However, precisely how and why Augustine imposes limitations upon the causal powers of corporeal objects remains obscure. In this paper, the author clarifies Augustine’s views about the causal and dependence relations between body and soul. He argues that, contrary to what is often thought, Augustine allows that corporeal objects do act upon souls and merely rules out that corporeal objects exercise a particular kind of (...)
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  16. Libertad, Providencia y Fortuna en Séneca.Tirso Alesanco - 1965 - Augustinus 10 (39-40):433-452.
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  17. "Séneca, nuestro contemporáneo", de G. Uscatescu.Víctor Masino - 1965 - Augustinus 10 (39-40):473-477.
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  18. Séneca, genio paremiológico.Víctor Masino - 1965 - Augustinus 10 (39-40):419-432.
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  19. Alienación e inferioridad en Séneca.Victorino Capánaga - 1965 - Augustinus 10 (39-40):395-408.
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  20. Naturaleza y Dios en las "Cuestiones naturales" de Séneca.Angel Benito Y. Durán - 1965 - Augustinus 10 (39-40):345-375.
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  21. La preceptiva literaria de Séneca y su obra de escritor.Agustín López Kindler - 1965 - Augustinus 10 (39-40):327-343.
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  22. Séneca y San Agustín.José Oroz-Reta - 1965 - Augustinus 10 (39-40):295-325.
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  23. Of Savages and Stoics: Converging Moral and Political Ideals in the Conjectural Histories of Rousseau and Ferguson.Rudmer Bijlsma - 2022 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 48 (2):209-244.
    This article undertakes a comparative study of the conjectural histories of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Adam Ferguson, focusing on the convergences in the moral and political ideals expressed and grounded in these histories. In comparison with Scots like Adam Smith and John Millar, the conjectural histories of Ferguson and Rousseau follow a similar historical trajectory as regards the development and progress of commercial, political and cultural arts. However, their assessment of the moral progress of humanity does not, or in a much (...)
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  24. Epicureans and Stoics on the Rationality of Perception.Whitney Schwab & Simon Shogry - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    This paper examines an ancient debate over the rationality of perception. What leads the Stoics to affirm, and the Epicureans to deny, that to form a sense- impression is an activity of reason? The answer, we argue, lies in a disagreement over what is required for epistemic success. For the Stoics, epistemic success consists in believing the right propositions, and only rational states, in virtue of their predicational structure, put us in touch with propositions. Since they identify some sense-impressions as (...)
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  25. Beyond Hellenistic Epistemology: Arcesilaus and the Destruction of Stoic Metaphysics.Charles E. Snyder - 2021 - Bloomsbury Publishing.
    Charles E. Snyder considers the New Academy's attacks on Stoic epistemology through a critical re-assessment of the 3rd century philosopher, Arcesilaus of Pitane. Arguing that the standard epistemological framework used to study the ancient Academy ignores the metaphysical dimensions at stake in Arcesilaus's critique, Snyder explores new territory for the historiography of Stoic-Academic debates in the early Hellenistic period. Focusing on the dispute between the Old and New Academy, reveals the metaphysical dimensions of Arcesilaus' arguments as essential to grasping what (...)
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  26. The Routledge Handbook of Hellenistic Philosophy.Kelly Arenson (ed.) - 2020 - Routledge.
    Hellenistic philosophy concerns the thought of the Epicureans, Stoics, and Skeptics, the most influential philosophical groups in the era between the death of Alexander the Great and the defeat of the last Greek stronghold in the ancient world. The Routledge Handbook of Hellenistic Philosophy provides accessible yet rigorous introductions to the theories of knowledge, ethics, and physics belonging to each of the three schools. It explores the fascinating ways in which interschool rivalries shaped the philosophies of the era, and offers (...)
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  27. Time and Cosmology in Plato and the Platonic Tradition.Daniel Vázquez & Alberto Ross (eds.) - 2022 - Brill.
    This book assembles an international team of scholars to move forward the study of Plato’s conception of time, to find fresh insights for interpreting his cosmology, and to reimagine the Platonic tradition.
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  28. Proving Cleanthes Wrong.Laureano Luna - 2021 - Journal of Applied Logic 8 (3):707-736.
    Hume’s famous character Cleanthes claims that there is no difficulty in explaining the existence of causal chains with no first cause since in them each item is causally explained by its predecessor. Relying on logico-mathematical resources, we argue for two theses: (1) if the existence of Cleanthes’ chain can be explained at all, it must be explained by the fact that the causal law ruling it is in force, and (2) the fact that such a causal law is in force (...)
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  29. Stoa: Gattungen des Seienden und "Personen".Sonderegger Erwin - 2000 - Museum Helveticum 57:10-19.
    Die 'vier Gattungen' sind selbst nichts Dingliches. Ihr Zweck ist nicht, die Dinge in vier Gruppen einzuteilen. Sie sind vielmehr Unterscheidungen oder Hinsichten an ein und demselben Ding. Jedes einzelne Ding gehört zugleich in jede der vier Gattungen. Schliesslich ist das, was durch die vier Gattungen insgesamt bestimmt werden soll, das Sein des Seienden, oder für die Stoiker eben die Dinglichkeit des Dings. Die vier Gattungen geben das stoische Verständnis von „sein“ wieder. -/- Meine These bezüglich der Personen lautet, dass (...)
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  30. The Stoic Theory of Beauty. By Aistė Čelkytė. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - forthcoming - Bryn Mawr Classical Review.
    This book explores both the historical and philosophical contexts of the Stoics’ aesthetic terms focusing on the concept of beauty in metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical arguments attributed to Chrysippus. The author shows that the Stoic theory of value and Stoic aesthetics were not mutually exclusive areas of study, analyzes the Stoic paradox that only the sage is beautiful, and explains the Stoic view that rationality manifests as order, which manifests as proportion, which produces the formal property of beauty, which results (...)
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  31. Seneca’s Argumentation and Moral Intuitionism.David Merry - 2021 - In Joseph Bjelde, Christopher Roser & David Merry (eds.), Essays on Argumentation in Antiquity. Springer. pp. 231-243.
    Walter Sinnott-Armstrong argues that moral disagreement and widespread moral bias pose a serious problem for moral intuitionism. Seneca’s view that we just recognise the good could be criticised using a similar argument. His approach to argumentation offers a way out, one that may serve as a model for a revisionary intuitionism.
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  32. Every Word is a Name: Autonymy and Quotation in Augustine.Tamer Nawar - 2021 - Mind 130 (518):595-616.
    Augustine famously claims every word is a name. Some readers take Augustine to thereby maintain a purely referentialist semantic account according to which every word is a referential expression whose meaning is its extension. Other readers think that Augustine is no referentialist and is merely claiming that every word has some meaning. In this paper, I clarify Augustine’s arguments to the effect that every word is a name and argue that ‘every word is a name’ amounts to the claim that (...)
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  33. Fate and Free Will in Stoicism: A Discussion of Susanne Bobzien, Determinism and Freedom in Stoic Philosophy.Tad Brennan - 2001 - In David Sedley (ed.), Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy Volume Xxi: Winter 2001. Clarendon Press.
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  34. In the Glance of the Logos.Robert M. Berchman - forthcoming - International Journal of the Platonic Tradition:1-33.
    Stoic concepts of ekpyrosis and diacosmesis are examined in light of later Platonic, Aristotelian and Epicurean critiques of Stoic determinism. Questions emerge out of this debate centered on the problem of evil. A series of theodicies are proposed ending in a later Stoic interpretation of the cosmic cycle that equates each phase of the cosmic cycle with an ethical one allegorized as periods of Satiety and Dearth.
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  35. Review of Scaltas and Mason, Eds., Philosophy of Epictetus. [REVIEW]Thornton Lockwood - 2008 - Bryn Mawr Classical Review 11:20.
    Epictetus, a former slave who lived in Rome during Nero’s reign but was exiled (along with all those who practiced philosophy in Rome) to Greece by Domitian’s decree in 93 CE, espoused an austere ethical philosophy which aimed at happiness (eudaimonia), or tranquility (ataraxia), through the delimitation of valuation to things within one’s control. Although Epictetus never set to writing his beliefs, his disciple Arrian recorded eight books of his sayings (entitled Discourses [ διατριβαί ] of which only four books (...)
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  36. Rethinking Augustine’s Misunderstanding of First Movements: the Moral Psychology of Preliminary Passions.Yuan Gao - 2019 - Sophia 60 (1):139-155.
    Augustine’s theory of first movements has provoked many controversies over the years. When discussing Augustine’s position in preliminary passions, some scholars maintain that he misunderstands the Stoics, whereas some others argue that he grasps their works rather well and his accounts are consistent with Stoic teaching. This article examines how Augustine transforms his predecessors’ conception of first movements into his own theory, with particular focus on whether Augustine misinterprets his predecessor’s doctrine in his approach. The first section introduces the recent (...)
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  37. Diogenes Laertius 7.134.†Michael Frede - forthcoming - Phronesis:1-22.
    In describing the Stoic principles, the manuscript tradition of DL 7.134 preserves readings which variously call them σώµατα, ‘bodies’, or ἀσώµατα, ‘incorporeals’; but the Suida quotes this passage with ἀσωµάτους, ‘incorporeal’. This paper shows that the Suida has the best reading. This is not the only, or the clearest, case where the Suida can correct our text: another example considered here concerns DL 7.74.
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  38. The Metaphysics of Stoic Corporealism.Vanessa de Harven - 2022 - Apeiron 55 (2):219-245.
    The Stoics are famously committed to the thesis that only bodies are, and for this reason they are rightly called “corporealists.” They are also famously compared to Plato’s earthborn Giants in the Sophist, and rightly so given their steadfast commitment to body as being. But the Stoics also notoriously turn the tables on Plato and coopt his “dunamis proposal” that being is whatever can act or be acted upon to underwrite their commitment to body rather than shrink from it as (...)
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  39. Epistemic Luck in Stoicism.Pavle Stojanović - 2022 - Ancient Philosophy 42 (1):273-289.
    The Stoics thought that knowledge depends on a special kind of appearances which they called ‘apprehensive’, which are by definition true. Interestingly, Sextus Empiricus reports in M 7.247 that they held that there are appearances that are true but that are not apprehensive because they are true merely by chance and thus cannot constitute knowledge. I believe that this suggests that the Stoics were aware of what is in modern literature known as the problem of epistemic luck. Unfortunately, Sextus’ report (...)
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  40. Notions of the Stoic Value Theory in Contemporary Debates: Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide.Evangelos D. Protopapadakis - 2009 - Journal of Classical Studies MS 11:213-221.
    Arguments concerning central issues of contemporary Medical Ethics often not only bear similarities, but also derive their sheer essence from notions which belong to the celebrated history of Ethics. Thus, argumentation pro euthanasia and assisted suicide which focus on the detainment of dignity and the ensuring of posthumous reputation on behalf of the moral agent is shown to echo stoic views on arête and the subordination of life to the primary human goal, namely the achievement of virtue. The progress made (...)
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  41. Why Children, Parrots, and Actors Cannot Speak: The Stoics on Genuine and Superficial Speech.Sosseh Assaturian - 2022 - Apeiron 55 (1):1-34.
    At Varro LL VI.56 and SE M 8.275-276, we find reports of the Stoic view that children and articulate non-rational animals such as parrots cannot genuinely speak. Absent from these testimonia is the peculiar case of the superficiality of the actor’s speech, which appears in one edition of the unstable text of PHerc 307.9 containing fragments of Chrysippus’ Logical Investigations. Commentators who include this edition of the text in their discussions of the Stoic theory of speech do not offer a (...)
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  42. Del Alma y el individuo particularmente cualificado en el pensamiento estoico.Nicolás Antonio Rojas Cortés - 2019 - Mutatis Mutandis: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 14.
    Dado el particular modo de explicar la realidad que tienen los estoicos, existe una categorı́a especı́fica para referir a la descripción de una realidad que podrı́amos considerar individualy diferentea otras; me refiero a lo que ellos mentaban con las palabras ἰδίως ποιός, que traducimos como individuo particularmente cualificado. Esta categorı́a cualifica a una entidad en cuanto especı́fica y particular. Sin embargo, en un contexto donde lo corpóreo refiere a todo lo que es, es fácil identificar apresuradamente lo corpóreo con lo (...)
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  43. Stoic Logic and the Text of Sextus Empiricus.Benson Mates - 1949 - American Journal of Philology 70 (3):290.
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  44. The Stoic Concept of Quality.Margaret E. Reesor - 1954 - American Journal of Philology 75 (1):40.
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  45. The Stoic Categories.Margaret E. Reesor - 1957 - American Journal of Philology 78 (1):63.
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  46. Stoicisme Et Pedagogie: De Zenon a Marc-Aurele; De Seneque a Montaigne Et a J.-J. Rousseau.Phillip de Lacy & G. Pire - 1959 - American Journal of Philology 80 (3):333.
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  47. Askhsis. Notes on Epictetus' Educational System.Phillip de Lacy & B. L. Hijmans - 1961 - American Journal of Philology 82 (2):208.
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  48. Stoic Philosophy.Herbert S. Long & J. M. Rist - 1971 - American Journal of Philology 92 (4):748.
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  49. Problems in Stoicism.Heinrich von Staden & A. A. Long - 1975 - American Journal of Philology 96 (2):232.
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  50. The Origins of Stoic Cosmology.Margaret E. Reesor & David E. Hahm - 1978 - American Journal of Philology 99 (4):534.
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