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Summary The Stoic school of philosophy was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium c. 300 BCE. He was succeeded as head by Cleanthes and then Chrysippus, who is widely held to be the most important of the early Athenian Stoics. Later Hellenistic Stoics of note included Panaetius and Posidonius. The most important Stoics during the Roman period were Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius; also noteworthy are Musonius Rufus, Hierocles, and Cleomedes. The Stoics divided their philosophy into three parts: logic, physics, and ethics.
Key works All of the works of the early Stoics are lost. Our earliest extended accounts of Stoic philosophy are in the philosophical works of Cicero from the first century BCE. Another important source is the extended account in Book 7 of Diogenes Laertius' Lives and Opinions of the Philosophers. The fragments for the early Athenian Stoics are gathered together in von Arnim 1903-24. A good selection is translated in Inwood & Gerson 2008, which is based on their earlier selection in Gerson & Inwood 1988. Another highly recommended selection is Long & Sedley 1987. The fragments for Posidonius are edited in Edelstein & Kidd 1972. The surviving works of the Roman Stoics Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius are widely available in a number of different editions and translations.
Introductions For a general introduction to Stoicism see Sellars 2006. The edited volume Inwood 2003 offers a fuller overview. Inwood 2005 brings out the philosophical importance of Seneca. For an introduction to Epictetus the best place to start is Long 2002. Marcus Aurelius is examined in Hadot 1998.
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  1. Review of Scaltas and Mason, Eds., Philosophy of Epictetus. [REVIEW]Thornton Lockwood - 2008 - Bryn Mawr Classical Review 11:20.
    Epictetus, a former slave who lived in Rome during Nero’s reign but was exiled (along with all those who practiced philosophy in Rome) to Greece by Domitian’s decree in 93 CE, espoused an austere ethical philosophy which aimed at happiness (eudaimonia), or tranquility (ataraxia), through the delimitation of valuation to things within one’s control. Although Epictetus never set to writing his beliefs, his disciple Arrian recorded eight books of his sayings (entitled Discourses [ διατριβαί ] of which only four books (...)
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  2. Rethinking Augustine’s Misunderstanding of First Movements: the Moral Psychology of Preliminary Passions.Yuan Gao - 2021 - Sophia 60 (1):139-155.
    Augustine’s theory of first movements has provoked many controversies over the years. When discussing Augustine’s position in preliminary passions, some scholars maintain that he misunderstands the Stoics, whereas some others argue that he grasps their works rather well and his accounts are consistent with Stoic teaching. This article examines how Augustine transforms his predecessors’ conception of first movements into his own theory, with particular focus on whether Augustine misinterprets his predecessor’s doctrine in his approach. The first section introduces the recent (...)
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  3. The Metaphysics of Stoic Corporealism.Vanessa de Harven - forthcoming - Apeiron:1-27.
    The Stoics are famously committed to the thesis that only bodies are, and for this reason they are rightly called “corporealists.” They are also famously compared to Plato’s earthborn Giants in the Sophist, and rightly so given their steadfast commitment to body as being. But the Stoics also notoriously turn the tables on Plato and coopt his “dunamis proposal” that being is whatever can act or be acted upon to underwrite their commitment to body rather than shrink from it as (...)
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  4. Epistemic Luck in Stoicism.Pavle Stojanovic - forthcoming - Ancient Philosophy.
    The Stoics thought that knowledge depends on a special kind of appearances which they called ‘apprehensive’, which are by definition true. Interestingly, Sextus Empiricus reports in M 7.247 that they held that there are appearances that are true but that are not apprehensive because they are true merely by chance and thus cannot constitute knowledge. I believe that this suggests that the Stoics were aware of what is in modern literature known as the problem of epistemic luck. Unfortunately, Sextus’ report (...)
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  5. Notions of the Stoic Value Theory in Contemporary Debates: Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide.Evangelos D. Protopapadakis - 2009 - Journal of Classical Studies MS 11:213-221.
    Arguments concerning central issues of contemporary Medical Ethics often not only bear similarities, but also derive their sheer essence from notions which belong to the celebrated history of Ethics. Thus, argumentation pro euthanasia and assisted suicide which focus on the detainment of dignity and the ensuring of posthumous reputation on behalf of the moral agent is shown to echo stoic views on arête and the subordination of life to the primary human goal, namely the achievement of virtue. The progress made (...)
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  6. Why Children, Parrots, and Actors Cannot Speak: The Stoics on Genuine and Superficial Speech.Sosseh Assaturian - forthcoming - Apeiron.
    At Varro LL VI.56 and SE M 8.275-276, we find reports of the Stoic view that children and articulate non-rational animals such as parrots cannot genuinely speak. Absent from these testimonia is the peculiar case of the superficiality of the actor’s speech, which appears in one edition of the unstable text of PHerc 307.9 containing fragments of Chrysippus’ Logical Investigations. Commentators who include this edition of the text in their discussions of the Stoic theory of speech do not offer a (...)
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  7. Modernity in Antiquity: Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy in Heidegger and Arendt.Jussi M. Backman - 2020 - Symposium: Canadian Journal of Continental Philosophy/Revue canadienne de philosophie continentale 24 (2):5-29.
    This article looks at the role of Hellenistic thought in the historical narratives of Martin Heidegger and Hannah Arendt. To a certain extent, both see—with G. W. F. Hegel, J. G. Droysen, and Eduard Zeller—Hellenistic and Roman philosophy as a “modernity in antiquity,” but with important differences. Heidegger is generally dismissive of Hellenistic thought and comes to see it as a decisive historical turning point at which a protomodern element of subjective willing and domination is injected into the classical heritage (...)
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  8. Del Alma y el individuo particularmente cualificado en el pensamiento estoico.Nicolás Antonio Rojas Cortés - 2019 - Mutatis Mutandis: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 14.
    Dado el particular modo de explicar la realidad que tienen los estoicos, existe una categorı́a especı́fica para referir a la descripción de una realidad que podrı́amos considerar individualy diferentea otras; me refiero a lo que ellos mentaban con las palabras ἰδίως ποιός, que traducimos como individuo particularmente cualificado. Esta categorı́a cualifica a una entidad en cuanto especı́fica y particular. Sin embargo, en un contexto donde lo corpóreo refiere a todo lo que es, es fácil identificar apresuradamente lo corpóreo con lo (...)
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  9. Stoic Logic and the Text of Sextus Empiricus.Benson Mates - 1949 - American Journal of Philology 70 (3):290.
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  10. The Stoic Concept of Quality.Margaret E. Reesor - 1954 - American Journal of Philology 75 (1):40.
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  11. The Stoic Categories.Margaret E. Reesor - 1957 - American Journal of Philology 78 (1):63.
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  12. Stoicisme Et Pedagogie: De Zenon a Marc-Aurele; De Seneque a Montaigne Et a J.-J. Rousseau.Phillip de Lacy & G. Pire - 1959 - American Journal of Philology 80 (3):333.
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  13. Askhsis. Notes on Epictetus' Educational System.Phillip de Lacy & B. L. Hijmans - 1961 - American Journal of Philology 82 (2):208.
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  14. Stoic Philosophy.Herbert S. Long & J. M. Rist - 1971 - American Journal of Philology 92 (4):748.
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  15. Problems in Stoicism.Heinrich von Staden & A. A. Long - 1975 - American Journal of Philology 96 (2):232.
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  16. The Origins of Stoic Cosmology.Margaret E. Reesor & David E. Hahm - 1978 - American Journal of Philology 99 (4):534.
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  17. The Stoic Idion and Prodicus' Near-Synonyms.Margaret E. Reesor - 1983 - American Journal of Philology 104 (2):124.
  18. ON CICERO's FABIUS ARGUMENT.Vladimir Marko - 2020 - Filozofia 75 (8):677 – 692.
    This article aims to show that it is impossible to put Cicero’s testimonies regarding The Fabius Argument in a consistent inferential order. Either we must suppose that additional premises are tacitly assumed in the text or we must com-pare it with other sources, which leads to inconsistencies in the proof’s reconstruction. Cicero’s reconstruction of the progression of the argument has formal shortcomings, and the paper draws attention to some of these deficiencies. He interpreted sources in a revised and intentionally simplified (...)
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  19. Beyond Hellenistic Epistemology: Arcesilaus and the Destruction of Stoic Metaphysics.Charles E. Snyder - forthcoming - Bloomsbury.
  20. Every Word is a Name: Autonymy and Quotation in Augustine.Tamer Nawar - forthcoming - Mind.
    Augustine famously claims every word is a name. Some readers take Augustine to thereby maintain a purely referentialist semantic account according to which every word is a referential expression whose meaning is its extension. Other readers think that Augustine is no referentialist and is merely claiming that every word has some meaning. In this paper, I clarify Augustine’s arguments to the effect that every word is a name and argue that ‘every word is a name’ amounts to the claim that (...)
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  21. Lekta in Stoic Thought - (A.) Bronowski the Stoics on Lekta. All There is to Say. Pp. XIV + 478. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019. Cased, £100, Us$130. Isbn: 978-0-19-884288-0. [REVIEW]Marion Durand - 2020 - The Classical Review 70 (2):347-349.
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  22. Two Stoic Accounts of Conflict Between Reason and Passion.David Machek - 2020 - Ancient Philosophy 40 (2):389-409.
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  23. Systém kategorií u stoiků.Miroslav Vacura - 2014 - E-Logos 21 (1):1-28.
    Stoická koncepce kategorií představuje ve výzkumu stoické filosofie relativně méně probádanou oblast. Řada textů, které se stoicismu věnují, se zabývá stoickými kategoriemi jen okrajově nebo vůbec. U raných stoiků, kteří se metafyzikou, jak z pozdějších zpráv víme, intenzivně zabývali, máme dochovány pouze zlomky jejich děl, a i v těch je odkazů na problematiku kategorií velmi málo. Přesně vyjmenovaný seznam stoických kategorií, jak nám jej předala pozdější tradice, u nich nenajdeme, a i míst, kde jsou explicitně diskutovány jednotlivé kategorie, je poměrně (...)
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  24. Tertullian on Divine Sovereignty and Free Will.David Clark - 2019 - Philosophy and Theology 31 (1):3-19.
    Christian thinkers in the patristic era were not reluctant to integrate classical philosophy with biblical theology as they addressed the seeming incompatibility of free will and determinism. This paper compares and contrasts Tertullian and the Stoics as they explain three issues relating to freedom and fate: 1) The operation of the Logos, 2) Theological Anthropology, and 3) Teleology. While in agreement with the Stoics on several key points, Tertullian crucially departs from them as he argues it is not by necessity—but (...)
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  25. Stoics and the State: Theory – Practice – Context, Written by Jula Wildberger.René Brouwer - 2020 - Polis 37 (1):177-180.
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  26. Adam Smith and the Stoic Principle of Suicide.Getty L. Lustila - 2020 - European Journal of Philosophy 28 (2):350-363.
    A substantial portion of Adam Smith's discussion of Stoicism in TMS VII is dedicated to the Stoic “principle of suicide,” according to which suicide is sometimes morally required. While scholars agree that Stoicism exercised considerable influence over Smith, no recent work has explored his views on suicide, despite the central role it plays in his treatment of Stoicism. I argue that Smith opposes the principle of suicide on both epistemic and moral grounds, providing an important critique of Stoicism. I also (...)
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  27. Cicero's Criticism Of Stoic Rhetoric.Diogo Luz - 2020 - Prometheus 13 (33):423-433.
    My goal with this article is to present the elements involved in Cicero's criticism of Stoic rhetoric. First, I will present the rhetoric of the Stoics based on the testimonies we have left on these philosophers. Soon after, I will expose Cicero's criticisms of the Stoics. Next, I will argue that Cicero's criticisms arise because his proposal with rhetoric is different from the Stoics' proposal. Due to this difference, it is necessary to understand that the Stoics, on the other hand, (...)
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  28. The Correspondence of Fronto and Marcus Aurelius.Yasuko Taoka - 2013 - Classical Antiquity 32 (2):406-438.
    This paper seeks to bridge two aspects of Fronto's letters, erotics and rhetoric, by demonstrating that Fronto himself merges the two areas in his discourse with Marcus Aurelius about their relationship. Whereas some letters suggest an unequal relationship based on power, others encourage the identification of Fronto with Marcus. Fronto achieves this identification by structuring their relationship itself as a metaphor in which he and Marcus are equated and linked by epistolary bonds. I close by discussing why the epistolary genre (...)
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  29. Shakespeare and the Fall of the Roman Empire: Selfhood, Stoicism and Civil War. By Patrick Gray. Pp. Xii, 308, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 2019, £80.00. [REVIEW]Andrea Campana - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (3):546-546.
  30. On the Status of Natural Divination in Stoicism.Pavle Stojanovic - 2020 - Theoria: Beograd 63 (1):5-16.
    Cicero’s De divinatione portrays the Stoics as unanimous in advocating both natural and technical divination. I argue that, contrary to this, the earlier leaders of the school like Chrysippus had reasons to consider natural divination to be significantly epistemically inferior to its technical counterpart. The much more favorable treatment of natural divination in De divinatione is likely the result of changes introduced later, probably by Posidonius.
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  31. Commentary on The Stoic Conception of Mental Disorder.Ivy-Marie Blackburn - 1997 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 4 (4):293-294.
  32. Ariston of Chios and the Sage as Actor.Brian Marrin - 2020 - Ancient Philosophy 40 (1):179-195.
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  33. Stoicism and its Influence. By R. M. Wenley. Pp. Xi + 194. London: G. C. Harrap & Co., 1925. 5s.J. R. H. - 1925 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 45 (1):140-140.
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  34. Poseidonios. By Karl Reinhardt. Pp. 474. Muenchen: Beck, 1921.L. S. J. - 1922 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 42 (1):120-120.
  35. Grundbegriffe der stoischen Ethik. By Otto Rieth. Pp. 209. Berlin: Weidmann, 1933. 14m.T. D. - 1935 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 55 (1):101-101.
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  36. Roman Stoicism. By E. V. Arnold. Pp. Ix., 468. Cambridge University Press, 1911.A. E. Taylor - 1912 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 32:411-415.
  37. la Philosophie du Mythe.Helen King - 1999 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 119:200.
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  38. Long Stoic Studies. Cambridge UP, 1996. Pp. Xvi + 309. £37.50. 0521482631.Catherine Atherton - 1998 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 118:230-231.
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  39. Sandbach Aristotle and the Stoics. Cambridge: Philological Society. 1985. Pp. Xi + 88. Price Not Stated.Harry M. Hine - 1987 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 107:212-213.
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  40. T. Irwin, Plato: Gorgias. [REVIEW]Christopher Rowe - 1982 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 102:249.
    The Gorgias is a vivid introduction to the central problems of moral and political philosophy. In the notes to his translation, Professor Irwin discusses the historical and social context of the dialogue, expounds and criticises the arguments, and tries above all to suggest the questions a modern reader ought to raise about Plato's doctrines. No knowledge of Greek is necessary.
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  41. Sandbach The Stoics. London: Chatto & Windus. 1975. Pp. 190. £3·25 , £1·75.R. W. Sharples - 1976 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 96:207-208.
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  42. Geschichte einer geistigen Bewegung.F. H. Sandbach - 1951 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 71 (3):262.
  43. Fritz Wehrli: Die Schule des Aristoteles: Texte und Kommentar. Heft ii: Aristoxenos; iii: Klearchos; iv: Demetrios von Phaleron; vi: Lykon und Ariston von Keos; viii: Eudemos von Rhodos. Zweite, ergänzte und verbesserte Aufl. 5 vols. Pp. 87, 85, 89, 67, 123. Basel: Schwabe1967–1969. Stiff Paper, 20, 20, 20, 18, 26 Sw. frs. [REVIEW]G. B. Kerferd - 1970 - The Classical Review 20 (3):400-400.
  44. Plutarch Against the Stoics - M. Baldassarri: Plutarco, Gli opuscoli contro gli Stoici. Traduzione, introduzione e commento con appendice critico-testuale. Vol. i, pp. 170, vol. ii, pp. 168. Trent: Pubblicazioni di Verifiche 2/1, 2/2, 1976. Paper, L. 5,500 , L. 6,500. [REVIEW]I. G. Kidd - 1979 - The Classical Review 29 (2):254-255.
  45. Book Review: The Reception of Aristotle’s Ethics, Written by Jon Miller. [REVIEW]S. J. Arthur Madigan - 2014 - Polis 31 (2):443-449.
  46. Margaret E. Reesor: The Nature of Man in Early Stoic Philosophy. Pp. Ix + 179. London: Duckworth, 1989. £24.00.John Rist - 1990 - The Classical Review 40 (2):500-500.
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  47. Mark Morford: Stoics and Neostoics: Rubens and the Circle of Lipsius. Pp. Xviii + 246; 44 Ills. Princeton University Press, 1991. $42.50. [REVIEW]Roland Mayer - 1992 - The Classical Review 42 (2):489-489.
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  48. Reydams-Schils The Roman Stoics. Self, Responsibility, and Affection. Pp. Xii + 210. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2005. Cased, £24.50, US $35. ISBN: 0-226-30837-5. [REVIEW]Helen Cullyer - 2006 - The Classical Review 56 (2):358-359.
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  49. The Sceptics - Thorsrud Ancient Scepticism. Pp. Xvi + 248. Stocksfield: Acumen, 2009. Paper, £14.99 . ISBN: 978-1-84465-131-3. [REVIEW]Suzanne Obdrzalek - 2010 - The Classical Review 60 (2):376-378.
  50. Annaeus Cornutus and the Stoic Allegorical Tradition: Meaning, Sources, and Impact.Ilaria L. E. Ramelli - 2019 - AITIA: Regards Sur la Culture Hellénistique 2 ( 8.2 (2018)).
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