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  1. Frege Plagiarized the Stoics.Susanne Bobzien - 2021 - In Fiona Leigh (ed.), Themes in Plato, Aristotle, and Hellenistic Philosophy, Keeling Lectures 2011-2018. University of Chicago Press. pp. 149-206.
    In this essay, I argue that Frege plagiarized the Stoics --and I mean exactly that-- on a large scale in his work on the philosophy of logic and language as written mainly between 1890 and his death in 1925 (much of which published posthumously) and possibly earlier. I use ‘plagiarize' (or 'plagiarise’) merely as a descriptive term. The essay is not concerned with finger pointing or casting moral judgement. The point is rather to demonstrate carefully by means of detailed evidence (...)
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  2. Demonstration and the Indemonstrability of the Stoic Indemonstrables.Susanne Bobzien - 2020 - Phronesis 65 (3):355-378.
    Since Mates’ seminal Stoic Logic there has been uncertainty and debate about how to treat the term anapodeiktos when used of Stoic syllogisms. This paper argues that the customary translation of anapodeiktos by ‘indemonstrable’ is accurate, and it explains why this is so. At the heart of the explanation is an argument that, contrary to what is commonly assumed, indemonstrability is rooted in the generic account of the Stoic epistemic notion of demonstration. Some minor insights into Stoic logic ensue.
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  3. Stoic Logic and Multiple Generality.Susanne Bobzien & Simon Shogry - 2020 - Philosophers' Imprint 20 (31):1-36.
    We argue that the extant evidence for Stoic logic provides all the elements required for a variable-free theory of multiple generality, including a number of remarkably modern features that straddle logic and semantics, such as the understanding of one- and two-place predicates as functions, the canonical formulation of universals as quantified conditionals, a straightforward relation between elements of propositional and first-order logic, and the roles of anaphora and rigid order in the regimented sentences that express multiply general propositions. We consider (...)
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  4. What Do Our Impressions Say? The Stoic Theory of Perceptual Content and Belief Formation.Simon Shogry - 2019 - Apeiron 52 (1):29-63.
    Here I propose an interpretation of the ancient Stoic psychological theory on which (i) the concepts that an adult human possesses affect the content of the perceptual impressions (φαντασίαι αἰσθητικαί) she forms, and (ii) the content of such impressions is exhausted by an ‘assertible’ (ἀξίωμα) of suitable complexity. What leads the Stoics to accept (i) and (ii), I argue, is their theory of assent and belief formation, which requires that the perceptual impression communicate information suitable to serve as the content (...)
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  5. Necessity, Possibility and Determinism in Stoic Thought.Vanessa de Harven - 2016 - In Max Cresswel, Edwin Mares & Adriane Rini (eds.), Logical Modalities from Aristotle to Carnap: The Story of Necessity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 70-90.
    At the heart of the Stoic theory of modality is a strict commitment to bivalence, even for future contingents. A commitment to both future truth and contingency has often been thought paradoxical. This paper argues that the Stoic retreat from necessity is successful. it maintains that the Stoics recognized three distinct senses of necessity and possibility: logical, metaphysical and providential. Logical necessity consists of truths that are knowable a priori. Metaphysical necessity consists of truths that are knowable a posteriori, a (...)
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  6. Stoic Trichotomies.Daniel Nolan - 2016 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 51:207-230.
    Chrysippus often talks as if there is a third option when we might expect that two options in response to a question are exhaustive. Things are true, false or neither; equal, unequal, or neither; the same, different, or neither.. and so on. There seems to be a general pattern here that calls for a general explanation. This paper offers a general explanation of this pattern, preserving Stoic commitments to excluded middle and bivalence, arguing that Chrysippus employs this trichotomy move when (...)
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  7. La Structure Logique du Langage Ordinaire chez les Stoiciens.Ada Bronowski - 2014 - In Jean-Michel Counet (ed.), Philosophie et Langage Ordinaire de l'Antiquité à la Renaissance. Edition Peeters. pp. 83-96.
    Rather than considering ordinary language as deficient and incapable of grasping the structure of reality, the Stoics set out a theory, based on their notion of a lekton, by which ordinary language is a reflection of the structure of lekta which themselves are constitutive of reality.
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  8. Which 'Athenodorus' Commented on Aristotle's Categories?Michael J. Griffin - 2013 - Classical Quarterly 63 (1):199-208.
    The principate of Augustus coincided with a surge of interest in the short Aristotelian treatise which we now entitle Categories, contributing to its later installation at the outset of the philosophical curriculum and its traditional function as an introduction to logic. Thanks in part to remarks made by Plutarch and Porphyry , the origin of this interest has often been traced to Andronicus of Rhodes: his catalogue and publication of the Aristotelian corpus began with the Categories and may have drawn (...)
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  9. Some Sketchy Notes on the Reaper Argument.Vladimir Marko - 2012 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 19 (3):361-387.
    The paper deals with the possible readings of The Reaper Argument premisses. Some conjectures related to the Stoics’ alleged proof of the argument are discussed.
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  10. The Combinatorics of Stoic Conjunction.Susanne Bobzien - 2011 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 40:157-188.
    ABSTRACT: The 3rd BCE Stoic logician "Chrysippus says that the number of conjunctions constructible from ten propositions exceeds one million. Hipparchus refuted this, demonstrating that the affirmative encompasses 103,049 conjunctions and the negative 310,952." After laying dormant for over 2000 years, the numbers in this Plutarch passage were recently identified as the 10th (and a derivative of the 11th) Schröder number, and F. Acerbi showed how the 2nd BCE astronomer Hipparchus could have calculated them. What remained unexplained is why Hipparchus’ (...)
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  11. Looking for the Lazy Argument Candidates.Vladimir Marko - 2011 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 18 (3 & 4):363-383; 447-474.
    The Lazy Argument, as it is preserved in historical testimonies, is not logically conclusive. In this form, it appears to have been proposed in favor of part-time fatalism (including past time fatalism). The argument assumes that free will assumption is unacceptable from the standpoint of the logical fatalist but plausible for some of the nonuniversal or part-time fatalists. There are indications that the layout of argument is not genuine, but taken over from a Megarian source and later transformed. The genuine (...)
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  12. Praebebam Enim Me Facilem Opinionibus Magnorum Uirorum: The Reception of Plato in Seneca, Epistulae Morales 102.Jula Wildberger - 2010 - Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 54:205-232.
    Argues that Seneca distinguishes two modes of philosophical learning understood as concept formation: fortifying accretion and critical weeding. Progress is achieved by alternating between the two modes. A reading of Epistula moralis 102 illustrates the two types of philosophical discourse Seneca employs for each of the two modes: dialectical argumentation and high-minded “big talk,” very often in a style alluding to and evocative of Plato.
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  13. The Stoics on Fallacies of Equivocation.Susanne Bobzien - 2006 - In D. Frede & B. Inwood (eds.), Language and Learning, Proceedings of the 9th Symposium Hellenisticum. Cambridge University Press.
    ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the Stoic treatment of fallacies that are based on lexical ambiguities. It provides a detailed analysis of the relevant passages, lays bare textual and interpretative difficulties, explores what the Stoic view on the matter implies for their theory of language, and compares their view with Aristotle’s. In the paper I aim to show that, for the Stoics, fallacies of ambiguity are complexes of propositions and sentences and thus straddle the realms of meaning (which is the domain (...)
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  14. Seneca und die Stoa: Der Platz des Menschen in der Welt.Jula Wildberger - 2006 - Berln; New York: De Gruyter.
    Demonstrates the sophistication of Seneca’s Stoicism by setting his contributions within the context of his school. Seneca’s contributions to physics, metaphysics, logic, determinism, theodicy and eschatology are set within a systematic reconstructions of Stoic positions. Ample documentation of sources and scholarship as well as the thematic, handbook-like structure allow for this book to be used as a look-up tool and introduction to the Stoic cosmos and the place of humans within it. -/- There are a number of new readings and (...)
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  15. Language and Learning: Philosophy of Language in the Hellenistic Age.Dorothea Frede & Brad Inwood (eds.) - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    The philosophers and scholars of the Hellenistic world laid the foundations upon which the Western tradition based analytical grammar, linguistics, philosophy of language, and other disciplines probing the nature and origin of human communication. Building on the pioneering work of Plato and Aristotle, these thinkers developed a wide range of theories about the nature and origin of language which reflected broader philosophical commitments. In this collection of nine essays, a team of distinguished scholars examines the philosophies of language developed by, (...)
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  16. Stoic Logic.Susanne Bobzien - 2003 - In Brad Inwood (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Stoic Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    ABSTRACT: An introduction to Stoic logic. Stoic logic can in many respects be regarded as a fore-runner of modern propositional logic. I discuss: 1. the Stoic notion of sayables or meanings (lekta); the Stoic assertibles (axiomata) and their similarities and differences to modern propositions; the time-dependency of their truth; 2.-3. assertibles with demonstratives and quantified assertibles and their truth-conditions; truth-functionality of negations and conjunctions; non-truth-functionality of disjunctions and conditionals; language regimentation and ‘bracketing’ devices; Stoic basic principles of propositional logic; 4. (...)
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  17. Stoic dialectic J. -b. gourinat: La dialectique Des stoïciens . Pp. 386. Paris: Librairie philosophique J. vrin, 2000. Paper, €38.11/frs. 250. isbn: 2-7116-1322-. [REVIEW]James Warren - 2003 - The Classical Review 53 (01):63-.
  18. The Development of Modus Ponens in Antiquity: From Aristotle to the 2nd Century AD.Susanne Bobzien - 2002 - Phronesis 47 (4):359-394.
    ABSTRACT: This paper traces the earliest development of the most basic principle of deduction, i.e. modus ponens (or Law of Detachment). ‘Aristotelian logic’, as it was taught from late antiquity until the 20th century, commonly included a short presentation of the argument forms modus (ponendo) ponens, modus (tollendo) tollens, modus ponendo tollens, and modus tollendo ponens. In late antiquity, arguments of these forms were generally classified as ‘hypothetical syllogisms’. However, Aristotle did not discuss such arguments, nor did he call any (...)
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  19. Modalities by Perspective: Aristotle, the Stoics and a Modern Reconstruction.Christoph Jedan - 2002 - Academia.
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  20. Hast Du aufgehoert, Deinen Vater zu schlagen? (Diogenes Laertius, Vitae philosophorum II.135) - Was wir von einer Fangfrage lernen koennen.Daniel Schulthess - 2002 - In Helmut Linneweber & Georg Mohr (eds.), Interpretation und Argument: Festschrift Gerhard Seel zum 60. Geburtstag. Wuerzburg: Koenigshausen und Neumann. pp. p.93-102.
    The article confronts one of the ἄποpοι λόγοι discussed in ancient Eristic-Stoic logic: the famous “cuckold” (κερατίνης), where an interrogator has his respondent to admit to have been or still be cuckolded. The source of the problem is a principle of dialectics related to the principle of the excluded-middle according to which a question admits only a positive or a negative answer. To the question “Have you ceased to be cuckolded?” both answers seem to presuppose that the respondent has been (...)
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  21. Hypothetical Syllogistic and Stoic Logic.Anthony Speca - 2001 - Brill.
    This book uncovers and examines the confusion in antiquity between Aristotle's hypothetical syllogistic and Stoic logic, and offers a fresh perspective on the ...
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  22. On the Origin of Syntactical Description in Stoic Logic.Anneli Luhtala - 2000 - Nodus.
  23. Logic: The Stoics (Part One).Susanne Bobzien - 1999 - In Keimpe Algra & et al (eds.), The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    ABSTRACT: A detailed presentation of Stoic logic, part one, including their theories of propositions (or assertibles, Greek: axiomata), demonstratives, temporal truth, simple propositions, non-simple propositions(conjunction, disjunction, conditional), quantified propositions, logical truths, modal logic, and general theory of arguments (including definition, validity, soundness, classification of invalid arguments).
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  24. Logic: The Stoics (Part Two).Susanne Bobzien - 1999 - In Keimpe Algra, Jonathan Barnes & et al (eds.), The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    ABSTRACT: A detailed presentation of Stoic theory of arguments, including truth-value changes of arguments, Stoic syllogistic, Stoic indemonstrable arguments, Stoic inference rules (themata), including cut rules and antilogism, argumental deduction, elements of relevance logic in Stoic syllogistic, the question of completeness of Stoic logic, Stoic arguments valid in the specific sense, e.g. "Dio says it is day. But Dio speaks truly. Therefore it is day." A more formal and more detailed account of the Stoic theory of deduction can be found (...)
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  25. Logic and the Imperial Stoa.Tad Brennan - 1999 - Ancient Philosophy 19 (1):192-195.
  26. Determinism and Freedom in Stoic Philosophy.Susanne Bobzien - 1998 - Oxford University Press.
    Bobzien presents the definitive study of one of the most interesting intellectual legacies of the ancient Greeks: the Stoic theory of causal determinism. She explains what it was, how the Stoics justified it, and how it relates to their views on possibility, action, freedom, moral responsibility, moral character, fatalism, logical determinism and many other topics. She demonstrates the considerable philosophical richness and power that these ideas retain today.
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  27. The Stoics on Hypotheses and Hypothetical Arguments.Susanne Bobzien - 1997 - Phronesis 42 (3):299-312.
    ABSTRACT: In this paper I argue (i) that the hypothetical arguments about which the Stoic Chrysippus wrote numerous books (DL 7.196) are not to be confused with the so-called hypothetical syllogisms" but are the same hypothetical arguments as those mentioned five times in Epictetus (e.g. Diss. 1.25.11-12); and (ii) that these hypothetical arguments are formed by replacing in a non-hypothetical argument one (or more) of the premisses by a Stoic "hypothesis" or supposition. Such "hypotheses" or suppositions differ from propositions in (...)
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  28. The Stoics on Ambiguity.A. A. Long - 1997 - Ancient Philosophy 17 (2):484-488.
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  29. Stoic Syllogistic.Susanne Bobzien - 1996 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 14:133-92.
    ABSTRACT: For the Stoics, a syllogism is a formally valid argument; the primary function of their syllogistic is to establish such formal validity. Stoic syllogistic is a system of formal logic that relies on two types of argumental rules: (i) 5 rules (the accounts of the indemonstrables) which determine whether any given argument is an indemonstrable argument, i.e. an elementary syllogism the validity of which is not in need of further demonstration; (ii) one unary and three binary argumental rules which (...)
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  30. Le 'cornu': Notes sur un problème de logique éristico-stoïcienne.Daniel Schulthess - 1996 - Recherches sur la Philosophie et le Language (Grenoble) 18:201-228.
    The article confronts one of the ἄποpοι λόγοι discussed in ancient Eristic-Stoic logic: the famous “cuckold” (κερατίνης), where an interrogator has his respondent to admit to have been or still be cuckolded. The source of the problem is a principle of dialectics related to the principle of the excluded-middle according to which a question admits only a positive or a negative answer. To the question “Have you ceased to be cuckolded?” both answers seem to presuppose that the respondent has been (...)
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  31. Catherine Atherton the Stoics on Ambiguity, Cambridge Classical Studies, Cambridge University Press, 1993, XIX + 563 Pp. ISBN 0 521 44139 0 (Hardback). [REVIEW]Sten Ebbesen - 1995 - Vivarium 33 (2):242-246.
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  32. Stoics and Meaning A. Schubert: Untersuchungen Zur Stoischen Bedeutungslehre. Pp. 284. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1994.Richard Gaskin - 1995 - The Classical Review 45 (02):292-293.
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  33. On the Completeness of Non-Philonian Stoic Logic.Peter Milne - 1995 - History and Philosophy of Logic 16 (1):39-64.
  34. Indefinite Propositions and Anaphora in Stoic Logic.Paolo Crivelli - 1994 - Phronesis 39 (2):187 - 206.
  35. The Stoic Notion of a Lekton.Michael Frede - 1994 - In Stephen Everson (ed.), Language. Cambridge University Press. pp. 109--128.
  36. The Stoics on Ambiguity.Catherine Atherton - 1993 - Cambridge University Press.
    Stoic work on ambiguity represents one of the most innovative, sophisticated and rigorous contributions to philosophy and the study of language in western antiquity. This book is both a comprehensive survey of the often difficult and scattered sources, and an attempt to locate Stoic material in the rich array of contexts, ancient and modern, which alone can guarantee full appreciation of its subtlety, scope and complexity. The comparisons and contrasts which this book constructs will intrigue not just classical scholars, and (...)
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  37. A Big, Big D? Theodor Ebert: Dialektiker und frühe Stoiker bei Sextus Empiricus: Untersuchungen zur Entstehung der Aussagenlogik. (Hypomnemata, 95.) Pp. 347. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1991. DM 85. [REVIEW]Jonathan Barnes - 1993 - The Classical Review 43 (02):304-306.
  38. Determinism and Free Will in Stoic Philosophy.Susanne Bobzien - 1993 - Dissertation,
  39. Zur Frühgeschichte der Aussagenlogik. [REVIEW]Karlheinz Hülser - 1993 - Phronesis 38 (3):337-344.
  40. The Stoic Analysis of the Sorites.Mario Mignucci - 1993 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 93:231 - 245.
  41. The Truth Evaluability of Stoic Phantasiai : Adversus Mathematicos VII 242-46.Christopher John Shields - 1993 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 31 (3):325-347.
  42. Dialektiker und fruehe Stoiker bei Sextus Empiricus. Untersuchungen zur Entstehung der Aussagenlogik.Theodor Ebert - 1991 - Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
    This monograph discusses the sources for ancient propositional logic, mainly in Sextus Empiricus and Diogenes Laertius bk. VII. It is argued that most of the sources in Sextus which have hitherto been taken to be sources for Stoic logic either do not report Stoic logic at all or report pre-Chrysippean Stoic logic. These texts report (in the first case) a group labelled the Dialecticians whose most prominent members were Diodorus Cronus and Philo or else (in the second case) early Stoic (...)
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  43. FDS Karlheinz Hülser: Die Fragmente zur Dialektik der Stoiker. Neue Sammlung der Texte mit deutscher Übersetzung und Kommentaren, Vols. 2, 3, 4. Pp. 405–912, 913–1415, 1416–1919 (numbered continuously with vol. 1). Stuttgart/Bad Canstatt: Frommann–Holzboog, 1987, 1987, 1988. DM 450 each vol. [REVIEW]Jonathan Barnes - 1989 - The Classical Review 39 (02):263-264.
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  44. Relation in Stoic Philosophy.Ingeborg Seifert - 1989 - Philosophy and History 22 (1):27-28.
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  45. The Logic of the Gods.Jonathan Barnes - 1988 - The Classical Review 38 (01):65-.
  46. La Logica Stoica: Testimonianze E Frammenti – Testi Originali Con Introduzione E Traduzione Commentata. [REVIEW]Jonathan Barnes - 1988 - The Classical Review 38 (2):426-427.
  47. The Logic of the Gods Karlheinz Hülser: Die Fragmente zur Dialektik der Stoiker. Neue Sammlung der Texte mit deutscher Übersetzung und Kommentaren, I. Pp. ci + 403. Stuttgart/Bad Cannstatt: frommannholzboog, 1987. DM 450. [REVIEW]Jonathan Barnes - 1988 - The Classical Review 38 (01):65-67.
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  48. Stoic Dialectic. Fragments. A New Collection of Texts with German Translation and Commentaries.Karlheinz Hülser - 1988 - Philosophy and History 21 (2):156-158.
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  49. La Logica Stoica: Testimonianze E Frammenti – Testi Originali Con Introduzione E Traduzione Commentata. Vols. II, III, IV, VA, VI, VIIA. [REVIEW]Jonathan Barnes - 1987 - The Classical Review 37 (2):311-312.
  50. Die Fragmente Zur Dialektik der Stoiker Neue Sammlung der Texte Mit Deutscher Übersetzung Und Kommentaren.Karlheinz Hülser - 1987
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