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Summary This section loosely corresponds to the Stoics' own subdivision of 'physics' and includes works on Stoic metaphysics and physics, including theology, determinism, and philosophy of mind.
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  1. The Physics of Stoic Cosmogony.Ian Hensley - 2021 - Apeiron 54 (2):161-187.
    According to the ancient Greek Stoics, the cosmos regularly transitions between periods of conflagration, during which only fire exists, and periods of cosmic order, during which the four elements exist. This paper examines the cosmogonic process by which conflagrations are extinguished and cosmic orders are restored, and it defends three main conclusions. First, I argue that not all the conflagration’s fire is extinguished during the cosmogony, against recent arguments by Ricardo Salles. Second, at least with respect to the cosmogony, it (...)
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  2. The Concept of Pneuma After Aristotle.Sean Michael Pead Coughlin, David Leith & Orly Lewis (eds.) - 2020 - Berlin: Edition Topoi.
    This volume explores the versatility of the concept of pneuma in philosophical and medical theories in the wake of Aristotle’s physics. It offers fourteen separate studies of how the concept of pneuma was used in a range of physical, physiological, psychological, cosmological and ethical inquiries. The focus is on individual thinkers or traditions and the specific questions they sought to address, including early Peripatetic sources, the Stoics, the major Hellenistic medical traditions, Galen, as well as Proclus in Late Antiquity and (...)
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  3. Pneuma and the Pneumatist School of Medicine.Sean Michael Pead Coughlin & Orly Lewis - 2020 - In Sean Michael Pead Coughlin, David Leith & Orly Lewis (eds.), The Concept of Pneuma after Aristotle. Berlin: pp. 203-236.
    The Pneumatist school of medicine has the distinction of being the only medical school in antiquity named for a belief in a part of a human being. Unlike the Herophileans or the Asclepiadeans, their name does not pick out the founder of the school. Unlike the Dogmatists, Empiricists, or Methodists, their name does not pick out a specific approach to medicine. Instead, the name picks out a belief: the fact that pneuma is of paramount importance, both for explaining health and (...)
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  4. Logos in Philo of Alexandria: Synthesis of two traditions.Aleksandar Djakovac - 2020 - Theoria 4 (63):5-15.
    In this paper, our intention is to present the main aspects of the understanding of the logos in Philo of Alexandria. Philo’s reception of this notion is especially important because his insights significantly influenced the development of patristic philosophy, and these influences, through the mediation of scholasticism, reached the modern age. Philo has a very important role in creating the Judeo-Christian heritage, and represents an important link for understanding the formation of the basic matrices of this worldview. For the first (...)
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  5. The Physics of Pneuma in Early Stoicism.Ian Hensley - 2020 - In Sean Michael Pead Coughlin, David Leith & Orly Lewis (eds.), The Concept of Pneuma after Aristotle. Edition Topoi. pp. 171-201.
    This chapter examines the ancient Stoic theory of the physical composition of pneuma, how its composition relates to pneuma’s many causal roles in Stoic philosophy, and to what extent each of the first three leaders of the Stoic school accepted the claim that pneuma pervades the cosmos. I argue that pneuma is a compound of fire and air. Furthermore, many functions of pneuma can be reduced to the functions of these elements. Finally, it is likely that each of the early (...)
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  6. A Theory of Evolution as a Process of Unfolding.Agustin Ostachuk - 2020 - Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 16 (1):347-379.
    In this work I propose a theory of evolution as a process of unfolding. This theory is based on four logically concatenated principles. The principle of evolutionary order establishes that the more complex cannot be generated from the simpler. The principle of origin establishes that there must be a maximum complexity that originates the others by logical deduction. Finally, the principle of unfolding and the principle of actualization guarantee the development of the evolutionary process from the simplest to the most (...)
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  7. Cosmic Spiritualism Among the Pythagoreans, Stoics, Jews, and Early Christians.Phillip Sidney Horky - 2019 - In Cosmos in the Ancient World. Cambridge, UK: pp. 270-94.
    This paper traces how the dualism of body and soul, cosmic and human, is bridged in philosophical and religious traditions through appeal to the notion of ‘breath’ (πνεῦμα). It pursues this project by way of a genealogy of pneumatic cosmology and anthropology, covering a wide range of sources, including the Pythagoreans of the fifth century BCE (in particular, Philolaus of Croton); the Stoics of the third and second centuries BCE (especially Posidonius); the Jews writing in Hellenistic Alexandria in the first (...)
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  8. Crisippo e l’ἐπελευστικὴ κίνησις: una tappa della polemica anti–accademica?Manuel Mazzetti - 2019 - Elenchos: Rivista di Studi Sul Pensiero Antico 40 (2):383-400.
    The purpose of this paper is to identify the upholders of the thesis reported by Plutarch, De Stoicorum repugnantiis 23, aimed to reject Stoic determinism. A brief introduction will be devoted to the relationship between this text and the more general context of the Stoic philosophy. Then, I will take into account the objection against Stoic determinism raised by some anonymous philosophers: according to it, causal determinism would be inconsistent with the choice among indistinguishables. Chrysippus replied that if that choice (...)
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  9. More or Less Within My Power: Nature, Virtue, and the Modern Stoic.Christian Coseru - 2018 - Reason Papers 40 (2):8-18.
    Can the Stoic conception of what is within our power be adapted to fit our scientifically informed view of nature in general and of human nature in particular? This paper argues that it can, but not without a revision of the Stoic’s classical dichotomy of power principle, namely that some things are up to us, while others are beyond our control. Given the extent to which the Stoic way of life flows from a certain conception of what is real, a (...)
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  10. The Resistance to Stoic Blending.Vanessa de Harven - 2018 - Rhizomata 6 (1):1-23.
    This paper rehabilitates the Stoic conception of blending from the ground up, by freeing the Stoic conception of body from three interpretive presuppositions. First, the twin hylomorphic presuppositions that where there is body there is matter, and that where there is reason or quality there is an incorporeal. Then, the atomistic presupposition that body is absolutely full and rigid, and the attendant notion that resistance (antitupia) must be ricochet. I argue that once we clear away these presuppositions about body, the (...)
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  11. On the Separability and Inseparability of the Stoic Principles.Ian Hensley - 2018 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 56 (2):187-214.
    Sources for Stoicism present conflicting accounts of the Stoic principles. Some suggest that the principles are inseparable from each other. Others suggest that they are separable. To resolve this apparent interpretive dilemma, I distinguish between the functions of the principles and the bodies that realize those functions. Although the principles cannot separate when realizing their roles, the Stoic theory of blending entails that the bodies that realize those roles are physically separable. I present a strategy for further work on the (...)
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  12. Chrysippus’s Elemental Theory.Ian Hensley - 2017 - Ancient Philosophy 37 (2):361-385.
  13. The Stoics on Identity, Identification, and Peculiar Qualities.Tamer Nawar - 2017 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 32 (1):113-159.
    In this paper, I clarify some central aspects of Stoic thought concerning identity, identification, and so-called peculiar qualities (qualities which were seemingly meant to ground an individual’s identity and enable identification). I offer a precise account of Stoic theses concerning the identity and discernibility of individuals and carefully examine the evidence concerning the function and nature of peculiar qualities. I argue that the leading proposal concerning the nature of peculiar qualities, put forward by Eric Lewis, faces a number of objections, (...)
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  14. The Apokatastasis Essays in Context: Leibniz and Thomas Burnet on the Kingdom of Grace and the Stoic/Platonic Revolutions.David Forman - 2016 - In Wenchao Li (ed.), Für unser Glück oder das Glück anderer. G. Olms. pp. Bd. IV, 125-137.
    One of Leibniz’s more unusual philosophical projects is his presentation (in a series of unpublished drafts) of an argument for the conclusion that a time will necessarily come when “nothing would happen that had not happened before." Leibniz’s presentations of the argument for such a cyclical cosmology are all too brief, and his discussion of its implications is obscure. Moreover, the conclusion itself seems to be at odds with the main thrust of Leibniz’s own metaphysics. Despite this, we can discern (...)
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  15. Stoic Trichotomies.Daniel Nolan - 2016 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 51:207-230.
    Chrysippus often talks as if there is a third option when we might expect that two options in response to a question are exhaustive. Things are true, false or neither; equal, unequal, or neither; the same, different, or neither.. and so on. There seems to be a general pattern here that calls for a general explanation. This paper offers a general explanation of this pattern, preserving Stoic commitments to excluded middle and bivalence, arguing that Chrysippus employs this trichotomy move when (...)
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  16. How Nothing Can Be Something: The Stoic Theory of Void.Vanessa de Harven - 2015 - Ancient Philosophy 35 (2):405-429.
    Void is at the heart of Stoic metaphysics. As the incorporeal par excellence, being defined purely in terms of lacking body, it brings into sharp focus the Stoic commitment to non-existent Somethings. This article argues that Stoic void, far from rendering the Stoic system incoherent or merely ad hoc, in fact reflects a principled and coherent physicalism that sets the Stoics apart from their materialist predecessors and atomist neighbors.
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  17. The Structure of Stoic Metaphysics.D. T. J. Bailey - 2014 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 46:253–309.
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  18. Bodies, Predicates, and Fated Truths: Ontological Distinctions and the Terminology of Causation in Defenses of Stoic Determinism by Chrysippus and Seneca.Jula Wildberger - 2013 - In Francesca Guadelupe Masi & Stefano Maso (eds.), Fate, Chance, Fortune in Ancient Thought. Amsterdam: Hakkert. pp. 103-123.
    Reconstructs the original Greek version of the confatalia-argument that Cicero attributes to Chrysippus in De fato and misrepresent in crucial ways. Compares this argument with Seneca's discussion of determinism in the Naturales quaestiones. Clarifies that Seneca makes a different distinction from that attested in Cicero's De fato. Argues that problems with interpreting both accounts derive from disregarding terminological distinctions harder to spot in the Latin versions and, related to this, insufficient attention to the ontological distinction between bodies (such as Fate) (...)
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  19. Stoic Cosmology And Theology Salles God and Cosmos in Stoicism. Pp. X + 274. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Cased, £45, US$85. ISBN: 978-0-19-955614-4. [REVIEW]Alex Long - 2012 - The Classical Review 62 (2):425-426.
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  20. Základní struktura stoické metafyziky.Miroslav Vacura - 2012 - E-Logos 19 (1):1-23.
    Záměr zkoumat metafyziku stoické filosofické školy naráží na řadu problémů. Předně se metafyzikou zabývali zejména nejstarší stoičtí filosofové, především Zénón, Chrýsippos a Kleanthés, ovšem bohužel právě od nich se plně nedochoval žádný spis a tak o jejich filosofických postojích získáváme informace z druhotných zdrojů, jejichž autoři měli často ke stoické filosofii odmítavý postoj. Zároveň se názory těchto myslitelů v určitých bodech rozcházely a stoická filosofie sama procházela vývojem a proměnami, které zprostředkovány jen druhotnými zdroji působí značné interpretační potíže. Přes tyto (...)
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  21. Dio, anima e intelligibili nella Stoa.Francesca Alesse - 2011 - Chôra 9:365-381.
    L’article analyse les témoignages stoïciens qui définissent la divinité comme «intellect» et comme «âme du monde», et qui permettent de déterminer les contenus de la pensée divine comme logoi, c’est-à-dire certains «discours» ou «raisonnements». En premier lieu, on examine les mots νοερόν, et νοητόν pour établir à quelles réalités les Stoïciens confèrent les caractères d’intelligence et d’intelligibilité et comment ils décrivent la pensée scientifique à laquelle ils comparent la pensée divine. En second lieu, on examine la théorie des raisons séminales (...)
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  22. From Etymology to Ethnology. On the Development of Stoic Allegorism.Mikołaj Domaradzki - 2011 - Archiwum Historii Filozofii I Myśli Społecznej 56.
    The purpose of the present article is to show that there is a clear line of continuity between the early Stoics’ and Cornutus’ works, as all of them assumed that the ancient mythmakers had transformed their original cosmological conceptions into anthropomorphic deities. Hence, the Stoics from Zeno to Cornutus believed that the names of the gods reflected the mode of perceiving the world that was characteristic of the people who named the gods in this way. Accordingly, the major thesis advanced (...)
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  23. Two Points Regarding Chrysippean Theology.Rory Goggins - 2011 - Ancient Philosophy 31 (2):339-350.
  24. God and Cosmos in Stoicism. [REVIEW]Daniel Vázquez - 2011 - Dianoia 56 (66):200-210.
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  25. Naturalistic Psychology in Galen and Stoicism.Christopher Gill - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    This is a study of the psychological ideas of Galen (AD 129-c.210, the most important medical writer in antiquity) and Stoicism (a major philosophical theory in ...
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  26. Particulars, Selves, and Individuals in Stoic Philosophy.Christopher Gill - 2010 - In R. W. Sharples (ed.), Particulars in Greek Philosophy: The Seventh S.V. Keeling Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy. Brill.
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  27. On Christopher Gill on Particulars, Selves, and Individuals in Stoic Philosophy.Angela Hobbs - 2010 - In R. W. Sharples (ed.), Particulars in Greek Philosophy: The Seventh S.V. Keeling Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy. Brill.
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  28. Ancient Models of Mind: Studies in Human and Divine Rationality.Andrea Nightingale & David Sedley (eds.) - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    How does God think? How, ideally, does a human mind function? Must a gap remain between these two paradigms of rationality? Such questions exercised the greatest ancient philosophers, including those featured in this book: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, the Stoics and Plotinus. This volume encompasses a series of studies by leading scholars, revisiting key moments of ancient philosophy and highlighting the theme of human and divine rationality in both moral and cognitive psychology. It is a tribute to Professor A. A. Long, (...)
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  29. Alexander of Aphrodisias on Particulars and the Stoic Criterion of Identity.Marwan Rashed - 2010 - In R. W. Sharples (ed.), Particulars in Greek Philosophy: The Seventh S.V. Keeling Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy. Brill.
  30. Stoic Ontology and Plato’s Sophist.John Sellars - 2010 - Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 107:185-203.
    Book synopsis: Plato is perhaps the most readable of all philosophers. Recent scholarship on Plato has focused attention on the dramatic and literary form through which Plato presents his philosophy, an integral part of that philosophy. The papers in this volume for the first time consider Aristotle and the Stoics as readers of Plato. That these successors were influenced by the thought of Plato is a commonplace: the ‘whole of western philosophy is a series of footnotes to Plato’. Arising from (...)
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  31. Stoic Philosophical Theology and Graeco-Roman Religion.Keimpe Algra - 2009 - In Ricardo Salles (ed.), God and Cosmos in Stoicism. Oxford University Press.
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  32. Philosophy (P.A.) Meijer Stoic Theology. Proofs for the Existence of the Cosmic God and of the Traditional Gods. Including a Commentary of Cleanthes' Hymn on Zeus. Delft: Uitgeverij Eburon, 2007. Pp. Xii + 256. €39. 9789059722026. [REVIEW]G. R. Boys-Stones - 2009 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 129:242.
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  33. Stoic Philosophy of Religion.Tad Brennan - 2009 - In Graham Robert Oppy & Nick Trakakis (eds.), The History of Western Philosophy of Religion. Oxford University Press. pp. 3--105.
    A survey of Stoic views on religion, with an emphasis on their proofs of the existence and nature of Zeus.
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  34. Stoic Souls in Stoic Corpses.Tad Brennan - 2009 - In Dorothea Frede & Burkhard Reis (eds.), Body and Soul in Ancient Philosophy. de Gruyter. pp. 389-408.
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  35. The Stoics on Matter and Prime Matter : Corporealism and Theimprint of Plato's Timaeus.Jean-Baptiste Gourinat - 2009 - In Ricardo Salles (ed.), God and Cosmos in Stoicism. Oxford University Press. pp. 46--70.
  36. The Stoic Ontology of Geometrical Limits.Anna Eunyoung Ju - 2009 - Phronesis 54 (4-5):371-389.
    Scholars have long recognised the interest of the Stoics' thought on geometrical limits, both as a specific topic in their physics and within the context of the school's ontological taxonomy. Unfortunately, insufficient textual evidence remains for us to reconstruct their discussion fully. The sources we do have on Stoic geometrical themes are highly polemical, tending to reveal a disagreement as to whether limit is to be understood as a mere concept, as a body or as an incorporeal. In my view, (...)
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  37. Stoic Themes in Peripatetic Physics?Inna Kupreeva - 2009 - In Ricardo Salles (ed.), God and Cosmos in Stoicism. Oxford University Press.
  38. Stoic Themes in Peripatetic Sources?Inna Kupreeva - 2009 - In Ricardo Salles (ed.), God and Cosmos in Stoicism. Oxford University Press. pp. 135--170.
  39. The Active Principle in Stoic Philosophy.Havard Lokke - 2009 - In Juhani Pietarinen & Valtteri Viljanen (eds.), The World as Active Power: Studies in the History of European Reason. Brill.
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  40. Chain of Causes : What is Stoic Fate?Susan Sauvé Meyer - 2009 - In Ricardo Salles (ed.), God and Cosmos in Stoicism. Oxford University Press.
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  41. Stoic Theology: Proofs for the Existence of the Cosmic God and of the Traditional Gods (Review).Michael Papazian - 2009 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (3):pp. 467-468.
    Meijer's book, a comprehensive study of Stoic theological arguments, defends the thesis that the Stoics were not narrowly interested in proving the existence of a god. The theology of the Stoa began with its founder, Zeno of Citium, presenting arguments that the cosmos is an intelligent being, though Zeno himself seems not to have explicitly identified that intelligent being as god. A clear statement equating the cosmos with god had to wait until the rise of the third head of the (...)
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  42. God and Cosmos in Stoicism.Ricardo Salles (ed.) - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    This is a collective study, in nine new essays, of the close connection between theology and cosmology in Stoic philosophy.
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  43. Sons of the Earth: Are the Stoics Metaphysical Brutes?Katja Maria Vogt - 2009 - Phronesis 54 (2):136-154.
    In this paper, it is argued the Stoics develop an account of corporeals that allows their theory of bodies to be, at the same time, a theory of causation, agency, and reason. The paper aims to shed new light on the Stoics' engagement with Plato's Sophist . It is argued that the Stoics are Sons of the Earth insofar as, for them, the study of corporeals - rather than the study of being - is the most fundamental study of reality. (...)
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  44. The Stoics on Time, Eternity and the Actions of God.Jula Wildberger - 2009 - In Reinhard Kratz & Hermann Spieckermann (eds.), Zeit und Ewigkeit als Raum göttlichen Handelns: Religionsgeschichtliche, theologische und philosophische Perspektiven. Berlin; New York: De Gruyter. pp. 123-152.
    Relates Stoic changing conceptions of time to these philosophers’ theology. Roughly speaking, we can distinguish a first phase in which the original definition by Zeno was developed and refined, and a second phase, beginning with Posidonius at the latest, in which new concepts of both objective and subjective time were introduced that turned out to be incompatible with the strictly "corporealist" ontology into which the original definitions had been embedded. The early Stoics defined time in dependence of moving bodies in (...)
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  45. Beast or God? – The Intermediate Status of Humans and the Physical Basis of the Stoic Scala Naturae.Jula Wildberger - 2008 - In Annetta Alexandridis, Lorenz Winkler-Horacek & Markus Wild (eds.), Mensch und Tier in der Antike. Wiesbaden: Reichert. pp. 47-70.
    Argues that the demarcation between humans and animals in Stoicism is made in functional terms, by their different capacities, but also quantitative terms, as smaller or larger shares of pneuma and thus the active principle Gods. Discusses how they Stoics may have related these two categories and makes a case for the possibility to formulate a non-exploitative animal ethic in Stoic terms.
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  46. Lucretius Venus and Stoic Zeus.Elizabeth Asmis - 2007 - In Monica Gale (ed.), Hermes. Oxford University Press. pp. 458-470.
  47. Necesidad, lo que depende de nosotros y posibilidades alternativas en los estoicos. Réplica a Ricardo Salles.Marcelo D. Boeri - 2007 - Critica 39 (115):97-111.
    Ésta es la respuesta a la crítica hecha por Ricardo Salles a mi interpretación del compatibilismo estoico. Aunque en parte admito sus objeciones, intento mostrar que algunos textos nos permiten pensar que, aunque lo que depende de nosotros no implique necesariamente acciones alternativas, eso no significa que no pueda implicarlas. También trato de mostrar que un reexamen de la noción crisipea de posibilidad que tenga en cuenta el deseo y la creencia permite explicar por qué no es posible llevar a (...)
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  48. Stoic Theology: Proofs for the Existence of the Cosmic God and of the Traditional Gods: Including a Commentary on Cleanthes' Hymn on Zeus.P. A. Meijer - 2007 - Eburon.
    Zeno's so-called proofs of divine existence -- Zeno and the traditional gods: a serious problem -- Cleanthes' proofs -- Cleanthes and the traditional gods -- Chrysippus' contribution -- Chrysippus and the traditional gods -- Other Stoic proofs -- Other (Stoic?) arguments in Sextus -- Polemics against the arguments pro the existence of God(s) -- Abolishing the gods leads to odd consequence: the atopical arguments pro the existence of the gods -- The counter-arguments -- Carneades and the data of Sextus and (...)
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  49. The Stoics on Determinism and Compatibilism (Review).Maykʻl Papazian - 2007 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 45 (3):488-490.
    Maykʻl Papazian - The Stoics on Determinism and Compatibilism - Journal of the History of Philosophy 45:3 Journal of the History of Philosophy 45.3 488-490 Muse Search Journals This Journal Contents Reviewed by Michael Papazian Berry College Ricardo Salles. The Stoics on Determinism and Compatibilism. Ashgate New Critical Thinking in Philosophy. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2005. Pp. xxii +132. Cloth, $79.95. Stoic determinism has been the object of important work recently, most notably Susanne Bobzien's monumental work, Determinism and Freedom in (...)
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  50. The Ontological Argument of Diogenes of Babylon.Michael Papazian - 2007 - Phronesis 52 (2):188-209.
    An argument for the existence of gods given by the Stoic Diogenes of Babylon and reported by Sextus Empiricus appears to be an ancient version of the ontological argument. In this paper I present a new reconstruction of Diogenes' argument that differs in certain important respects from the reconstruction presented by Jacques Brunschwig. I argue that my reconstruction makes better sense of how Diogenes' argument emerged as a response to an attack on an earlier Stoic argument presented by Zeno of (...)
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