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Summary The Stoic school of philosophy was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium c. 300 BCE. He was succeeded as head by Cleanthes and then Chrysippus, who is widely held to be the most important of the early Athenian Stoics. Later Hellenistic Stoics of note included Panaetius and Posidonius. The most important Stoics during the Roman period were Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius; also noteworthy are Musonius Rufus, Hierocles, and Cleomedes. The Stoics divided their philosophy into three parts: logic, physics, and ethics.
Key works All of the works of the early Stoics are lost. Our earliest extended accounts of Stoic philosophy are in the philosophical works of Cicero from the first century BCE. Another important source is the extended account in Book 7 of Diogenes Laertius' Lives and Opinions of the Philosophers. The fragments for the early Athenian Stoics are gathered together in von Arnim 1903-24. A good selection is translated in Inwood & Gerson 2008, which is based on their earlier selection in Gerson & Inwood 1988. Another highly recommended selection is Long & Sedley 1987. The fragments for Posidonius are edited in Edelstein & Kidd 1972. The surviving works of the Roman Stoics Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius are widely available in a number of different editions and translations.
Introductions For a general introduction to Stoicism see Sellars 2006. The edited volume Inwood 2003 offers a fuller overview. Inwood 2005 brings out the philosophical importance of Seneca. For an introduction to Epictetus the best place to start is Long 2002. Marcus Aurelius is examined in Hadot 1998.
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  1. Francesco Ademollo (2012). The Platonic Origins of Stoic Theology. In Brad Inwood (ed.), Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 43--217.
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  2. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus & C. R. Haines (1918). The Communings with Himself of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Emperor of Rome, Together with His Speeches and Sayings. Journal of Hellenic Studies 38:201.
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  3. Elizabeth Asmis (1990). Seneca's On the Happy Life and Stoic Individualism. Apeiron 23 (4).
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  4. Iep Author (2016). Stoicism.
    Stoicism Stoicism originated as a Hellenistic philosophy, founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium, c. 300 B.C.E. It was influenced by Socrates and the Cynics, and it engaged in vigorous debates with the Skeptics, the Academics, and the Epicureans. It moved to Rome where it flourished during the period of the Empire, … Continue reading Stoicism →.
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  5. Barlow Barlow (1941). Seneca in the Middle Ages. Classical World: A Quarterly Journal on Antiquity 35:257.
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  6. Emily E. Batinski (2013). G.D. Williams The Cosmic Viewpoint. A Study of Seneca's Natural Questions. Pp. Xiv + 393, Fig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. Cased, £30, US$45. ISBN: 978-0-19-973158-9. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 63 (2):442-444.
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  7. Emily E. Batinski (1989). Seneca. Ancient Philosophy 9 (2):351 - 353.
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  8. Robert Bees (2011). Hachmann L. Annaeus Seneca: Epistulae Morales, Brief 66. Pp. Ii + 216. Frankfurt Am Main: Peter Lang, 2006. Paper, £28.80, €38.40, US$59.95. ISBN: 978-3-631-55262-9. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 61 (1):308.
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  9. David Blank & Catherine Atherton (1995). The Stoics on Ambiguity. Philosophical Review 104 (2):267.
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  10. Rodrigo Sebastián Braicovich (2015). The Approach to the Problem of Comprehension in Roman Stoicism. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 20 (1):43-63.
    Throughout the sources that have come down to us from the Roman period of the Stoic school, we find an important number of therapeutical practices that can be clearly linked to other schools and can be consequently seen to constitute the common ground that enables the idea that there is a general Hellenistic approach to the problem of philosophy as therapy. I will argue that a subset of those strategies, which I will refer to as repetition, ascetic and visualization practices, (...)
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  11. Charles Brittain, A. A. Long & Gisela Striker (2000). Stoic StudiesEssays on Hellenistic Epistemology and Ethics. Philosophical Review 109 (3):434.
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  12. Christopher Brooke (2012). Chapter Six. How the Stoics Became Atheists. In Philosophic Pride: Stoicism and Political Thought From Lipsius to Rousseau. Princeton University Press. pp. 127-148.
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  13. Timothy A. Brookins (2016). Corinthian Wisdom, Stoic Philosophy, and the Ancient Economy. Cambridge University Press.
    This work re-examines the divisive wisdom that Paul addresses in 1 Corinthians. Challenging the recent consensus that the Corinthians' wisdom was rooted primarily in the Greco-Roman rhetorical tradition, Timothy A. Brookins offers a revisionary thesis centered on discourse similarities between the perspective of the Corinthian 'wise' and the Stoic system of thought. Brookins argues that several members of the church, after hearing Paul's initial gospel message, construed that message in terms of Stoic philosophy and began promoting a kind of 'Stoic-Christian' (...)
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  14. Daniel Collette, Stoicism in Descartes, Pascal, and Spinoza: Examining Neostoicism’s Influence in the Seventeenth Century.
    There are many misinterpretations that exist concerning the moral philosophy of Descartes, Pascal, and Spinoza that are due to a lack of proper awareness of Stoicism in the 17th century. My dissertation addresses that by highlighting understated Stoic themes in their texts, subsequently offering new clarity to their ethical theories. I argue that though Descartes’ first ethics mimics Montaigne’s neo-Stoicism, his later moral theory attempts to synthesize a variety of ancient, and seemingly contradictory, ethical traditions: Stoicism, Epicureanism, and Aristotelianism. Pascal (...)
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  15. John M. Cooper (2012). 4. Stoicism as a Way of Life. In Pursuits of Wisdom: Six Ways of Life in Ancient Philosophy From Socrates to Plotinus. Princeton University Press. pp. 144-225.
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  16. John M. Cooper & Julia Annas (1994). Hellenistic Philosophy of Mind. Philosophical Review 103 (1):182.
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  17. Damian Cox, Overcoming Victimhood: Stoicism, Anti-Stoicism and Le Fils.
    In this chapter I use a film by the Belgian filmmakers Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne, Le Fils, to explore the difference between Stoic and Anti-Stoic approaches to overcoming victimhood. The Stoic approach to overcoming victimhood emphasizes the inner-strength and resourcefulness of victims. It sets up an ideal of Stoic independence in which a person responds to becoming a victim by marshalling inner resources to overcome destructive and painful emotions. An Anti-Stoic approach to overcoming victimhood rejects such an appeal to independence (...)
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  18. Daniel Drucker (2016). Neo-Stoicism and What It Can Do. Ergo, an Open Access Journal of Philosophy 3.
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  19. Troels Engberg-Pedersen (ed.) (2017). From Stoicism to Platonism: The Development of Philosophy, 100 Bce–100 Ce. Cambridge University Press.
    From Stoicism to Platonism describes the change in philosophy from around 100 BCE, when monistic Stoicism was the strongest dogmatic school in philosophy, to around 100 CE, when dualistic Platonism began to gain the upper hand - with huge consequences for all later Western philosophy and for Christianity. It is distinguished by querying traditional categories like 'eclecticism' and 'harmonization' as means of describing the period. Instead, it highlights different strategies of 'appropriation' of one school's doctrines by philosophers from the other (...)
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  20. Robert F. Dobbin (ed.) (2007). Disclosures, Book 1. Oxford University Press UK.
    The Discourses are a key source for ancient Stoicism, one of the richest and most influential schools of thought in Western philosophy. They not only represent the Stoicism of Epictetus' own time, but also reflect the teachings of such early Stoics as Zeno and Chrysippus, whose writings are largely lost. The first of the four books of the Discourses is philosophically the richest: it focuses primarily on ethics and moral psychology, but also touches on issues of logic, epistemology, science, and (...)
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  21. Attila Fáj (1971). Platonic Anticipations of Stoic Logic. Apeiron 5 (2):1-19.
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  22. P. T. Geach & Benson Mates (1955). Stoic Logic. Philosophical Review 64 (1):143.
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  23. Miriam Griffin & Alison Samuels (eds.) (2013). Studies in Stoicism. Oxford University Press.
    Studies in Stoicism contains six unpublished and seven republished essays, the latter incorporating additions and changes which Brunt wished to be made. The papers have been integrated and arranged in chronological order by subject matter, with an accessible lecture to the Oxford Philological Society serving as Brunt's own introduction.
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  24. David E. Hahm (1990). The Ethical Doxography of Arius Didymus. In Wolfgang Haase (ed.), Philosophie, Wissenschaften, Technik. Philosophie. De Gruyter. pp. 2935-3055.
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  25. Wm A. Hammond & William L. Davidson (1909). The Stoic Creed. Philosophical Review 18 (4):458.
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  26. J. Harward (1930). The Early Stoics. Australasian Journal of Psychology and Philosophy 8 (4):271-289.
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  27. H. K. Hunt (1967). The Importance of Zeno's Physics for an Understanding of Stoicism During the Late Roman Republic. Apeiron 1 (2):5 - 14.
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  28. Katerina Ierodiakonou (ed.) (1999). Topics in Stoic Philosophy. Oxford University Press UK.
    Stoicism is one of the richest and most influential intellectual traditions of antiquity. Leading scholars here contribute new studies of a set of topics which are the focus of current research in this area. They combine careful analytical attention to the original texts with historical sensitivity and philosophical acuity, to provide the basis for a better understanding of Stoic ethics, political theory, logic, and physics.
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  29. Brad Inwood & F. H. Sandbach (1986). Aristotle and the Stoics. Philosophical Review 95 (3):470.
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  30. Jessica S. Janneck, The Acceptance of the Stoic Thesis on Affections (Pathē).
    The Acceptance of the Stoic Thesis on Affections (Pathē) -/- In this paper, I argue that the Stoic claim that one should strive towards having no affections (pathē) is a plausible and, moreover, true claim given the context of the Stoic thesis on affections (pathē) in relationship to their philosophy of the ultimate goal (telos) of life. Given the conception of affections (pathē) that the Stoics intended, the irrefutability that one should strive towards having no affections (pathē) is found in (...)
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  31. Emily Jusuf (2015). Stoicism. Questions: Philosophy for Young People 15:3-5.
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  32. Milton R. Konvitz, American Ideals 24. The Stoics, Part 1.
    The importance of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and his Meditations in developing Stoic philosophy, religion, and a way of life are discussed. Understanding the true self, standing apart from the effect of society and the physical world—this is the essence of the Stoic philosophy. Man also has the responsibility of acting in a benign way to his neighbors regardless of how they respond. Stoic philosophy, notes Dr. Konvitz, dominated Western philosophic thought for five centuries until the rise of Christian (...)
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  33. Milton R. Konvitz, American Ideals 25. The Stoics, Part 2.
    For Stoics, the real man is the internal man. The real man must be indifferent to what is external to him. True Stoics, Professor Konvitz explains, acted in accordance with virtue and knowledge regardless of their personal circumstances and of the milieu in which they existed. Socrates is again the example.
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  34. Milton R. Konvitz, American Ideals 26. The Stoics, Part 3.
    The Stoics recognized that man is social by nature and extended the horizon of human obligations to all of humankind, where the earlier Greek philosophers as well as the Hebrews saw these obligations limited to their own societies. Stoic philosophy had a major impact on the early Church as it became a missionary religion spread by Hellenized Christians of Jewish origins, such as Stephen and Paul. The cosmopolitan and all-embracing way they presented Christ’s message was especially effective, Dr. Konvitz argues, (...)
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  35. Milton R. Konvitz, American Ideals 27. The Stoics, Part 4.
    The Stoics’ basic principles as explained by Dr. Konvitz are defined as including the obligations implied by the Stoic concept of self, the cosmopolitan idea of a single humanity, the existence of a common moral law, the necessity for moral courage in upholding the common moral law, and, a concept introduced by Epictetus, the dignity of all labor. This common law is the law to which all of humankind is subject, which is a product of reason and has its origin (...)
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  36. A. A. Long & L. Edelstein (1968). The Meaning of Stoicism. Journal of Hellenic Studies 88:196.
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  37. A. A. Long & D. N. Sedley (2012). The Hellenistic Philosophers: Volume 2, Greek and Latin Texts with Notes and Bibliography. Cambridge University Press.
    This comprehensive sourcebook makes available in the original Latin and Greek the principal extant texts required for the study of the Stoic, Epicurean and sceptical schools of philosophy. The material is organised by schools, and within each school topics are treated thematically. The volume presents the same texts as are translated in The Hellenistic Philosophers, Volume 1. The authors provide their own critical apparatus, and also supply detailed notes on the more difficult texts. This volume is equipped with a large (...)
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  38. A. A. Long & D. N. Sedley (1989). The Hellenistic Philosophers: Volume 2, Greek and Latin Texts with Notes and Bibliography. Cambridge University Press.
    This comprehensive sourcebook makes available in the original Latin and Greek the principal extant texts required for the study of the Stoic, Epicurean and sceptical schools of philosophy. The material is organised by schools, and within each school topics are treated thematically. The volume presents the same texts as are translated in The Hellenistic Philosophers, Volume 1. The authors provide their own critical apparatus, and also supply detailed notes on the more difficult texts. This volume is equipped with a large (...)
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  39. Miguel Lopez-Astorga, Chrysippus’ Indemonstrables and Mental Logic.
    Stoic logic assumes fi ve inference schemata attributed to Chrysippus of Soli. Those schemata are the well-known indemonstrables. A problem related to them can be that, according to standard propositional calculus, only one of them, modus ponens, is clearly indemonstrable. Nevertheless, I try to show in this paper that the mental logic theory enables to understand why the Stoics considered such schemata to be basic kinds of arguments. Following that theory, four of them can be linked to ‘Core Schemata’ of (...)
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  40. Miles McAvoy, Zeno of Citium's Philosophy of Stoicism.
    This essay covers the historical background of Zeno of Citium, the role of ethics in Zeno’s stoicism, an the specific aspects of Zeno’s ethics.
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  41. Mark Morford (2002). Roman Philosophers. Routledge.
    The philosophers of the Roman world were asking questions whose answers had practical effects on people's lives in antiquity, and which still influence our thinking to this day. In spite of being neglected in the modern era, this important age of philosophical thought is now undergoing a revival of interest. Mark Morford's lively survey makes these recent scholarly developments accessible to a wide audience, examining the writings and ideas of both famous and lesser known figures - from Cato the Censor (...)
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  42. O. K. P. (1941). The Stoic and Epicurean Philosophers. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophy 38 (16):446-447.
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  43. Burkhard Reis & Dorothea Frede (2009). Stoics on Souls and Demons: Reconstructing Stoic Demonology. In Burkhard Reis & Dorothea Frede (eds.), Body and Soul in Ancient Philosophy. Walter de Gruyter.
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  44. Gretchen Reydams-Schils (2006). The Roman Stoics: Self, Responsibility, and Affection. University of Chicago Press.
    Roman Stoics of the imperial period developed a distinctive model of social ethics, one which adapted the ideal philosophical life to existing communities and everyday societal values. Gretchen Reydams-Schils’s innovative book shows how these Romans—including such philosophers as Marcus Aurelius, Seneca, Hierocles, and Epictetus—applied their distinct brand of social ethics to daily relations and responsibilities, creating an effective model of involvement and ethical behavior in the classical world. _The Roman Stoics_ reexamines the philosophical basis that instructed social practice in friendship, (...)
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  45. J. M. Rist (1977). Stoic Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    Literature on the Stoa usually concentrates on historical accounts of the development of the school and on Stoicism as a social movement. In this 1977 text, Professor Rist's approach is to examine in detail a series of philosophical problems discussed by leading members of the Stoic school. He is not concerned with social history or with the influence of Stoicism on popular beliefs in the Ancient world, but with such questions as the relation between Stoicism and the thought of Aristotle, (...)
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  46. C. Kavin Rowe (2016). One True Life: The Stoics and Early Christians as Rival Traditions. Yale University Press.
    In this groundbreaking, cross-disciplinary work of philosophy and biblical studies, New Testament scholar C. Kavin Rowe explores the promise and problems inherent in engaging rival philosophical claims to what is true. Juxtaposing the Roman Stoics Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius with the Christian saints Paul, Luke, and Justin Martyr, and incorporating the contemporary views of Jeffrey Stout, Alasdair McIntyre, Charles Taylor, Martha Nussbaum, Pierre Hadot, and others, the author suggests that in a world of religious pluralism there is negligible gain (...)
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  47. Matthew S. Santirocco (1991). Senecan Drama and Stoic CosmologyThomas G. Rosenmeyer. Isis 82 (3):552-553.
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  48. Bohdan Wi Sniewski (1966). L'influence des Sophistes Sur Aristote, Épicure, Stoïciens Et Sceptiques. Zaklad Narodowy Im. Ossoli Nskich.
  49. Charlotte Stough & J. M. Rist (1971). Stoic Philosophy. Philosophical Review 80 (3):407.
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  50. Robert B. Todd (1989). The Stoics and Their Cosmology in the First and Second Centuries A. D. In Wolfgang Haase (ed.), Philosophie, Wissenschaften, Technik. Philosophie. De Gruyter. pp. 1365-1378.
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