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Summary The Stoic school of philosophy was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium c. 300 BCE. He was succeeded as head by Cleanthes and then Chrysippus, who is widely held to be the most important of the early Athenian Stoics. Later Hellenistic Stoics of note included Panaetius and Posidonius. The most important Stoics during the Roman period were Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius; also noteworthy are Musonius Rufus, Hierocles, and Cleomedes. The Stoics divided their philosophy into three parts: logic, physics, and ethics.
Key works All of the works of the early Stoics are lost. Our earliest extended accounts of Stoic philosophy are in the philosophical works of Cicero from the first century BCE. Another important source is the extended account in Book 7 of Diogenes Laertius' Lives and Opinions of the Philosophers. The fragments for the early Athenian Stoics are gathered together in von Arnim 1903-24. A good selection is translated in Inwood & Gerson 2008, which is based on their earlier selection in Gerson & Inwood 1988. Another highly recommended selection is Long & Sedley 1987. The fragments for Posidonius are edited in Edelstein & Kidd 1972. The surviving works of the Roman Stoics Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius are widely available in a number of different editions and translations.
Introductions For a general introduction to Stoicism see Sellars 2006. The edited volume Inwood 2003 offers a fuller overview. Inwood 2005 brings out the philosophical importance of Seneca. For an introduction to Epictetus the best place to start is Long 2002. Marcus Aurelius is examined in Hadot 1998.
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  1. Cicero's Criticism Of Stoic Rhetoric.Diogo Luz - 2020 - Prometheus 13 (33):423-433.
    My goal with this article is to present the elements involved in Cicero's criticism of Stoic rhetoric. First, I will present the rhetoric of the Stoics based on the testimonies we have left on these philosophers. Soon after, I will expose Cicero's criticisms of the Stoics. Next, I will argue that Cicero's criticisms arise because his proposal with rhetoric is different from the Stoics' proposal. Due to this difference, it is necessary to understand that the Stoics, on the other hand, (...)
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  2. Seneca: Medea. Bloomsbury Companions to Greek and Roman Tragedy by Helen Slaney.Austin Busch - 2020 - Classical World: A Quarterly Journal on Antiquity 113 (3):361-363.
  3. The Correspondence of Fronto and Marcus Aurelius.Yasuko Taoka - 2013 - Classical Antiquity 32 (2):406-438.
    This paper seeks to bridge two aspects of Fronto's letters, erotics and rhetoric, by demonstrating that Fronto himself merges the two areas in his discourse with Marcus Aurelius about their relationship. Whereas some letters suggest an unequal relationship based on power, others encourage the identification of Fronto with Marcus. Fronto achieves this identification by structuring their relationship itself as a metaphor in which he and Marcus are equated and linked by epistolary bonds. I close by discussing why the epistolary genre (...)
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  4. Shakespeare and the Fall of the Roman Empire: Selfhood, Stoicism and Civil War. By Patrick Gray. Pp. Xii, 308, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 2019, £80.00. [REVIEW]Andrea Campana - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (3):546-546.
  5. On the Status of Natural Divination in Stoicism.Pavle Stojanovic - 2020 - Theoria: Beograd 63 (1):5-16.
    Cicero’s De divinatione portrays the Stoics as unanimous in advocating both natural and technical divination. I argue that, contrary to this, the earlier leaders of the school like Chrysippus had reasons to consider natural divination to be significantly epistemically inferior to its technical counterpart. The much more favorable treatment of natural divination in De divinatione is likely the result of changes introduced later, probably by Posidonius.
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  6. Commentary on The Stoic Conception of Mental Disorder.Ivy-Marie Blackburn - 1997 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 4 (4):293-294.
  7. la Philosophie du Mythe.Helen King - 1999 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 119:200.
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  8. T. Irwin, Plato: Gorgias. [REVIEW]Christopher Rowe - 1982 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 102:249.
    The Gorgias is a vivid introduction to the central problems of moral and political philosophy. In the notes to his translation, Professor Irwin discusses the historical and social context of the dialogue, expounds and criticises the arguments, and tries above all to suggest the questions a modern reader ought to raise about Plato's doctrines. No knowledge of Greek is necessary.
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  9. . Leiden: Brill. 1978. Pp. Xv.A. A. Long - 1981 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 101:163.
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  10. The Sceptics - Thorsrud Ancient Scepticism. Pp. Xvi + 248. Stocksfield: Acumen, 2009. Paper, £14.99 . ISBN: 978-1-84465-131-3. [REVIEW]Suzanne Obdrzalek - 2010 - The Classical Review 60 (2):376-378.
  11. Living in AgreementThe Cambridge Companion to the Stoics. [REVIEW]Edward P. Butler - 2003 - Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 24 (2):147-160.
    The latest entry in the long-running series of Companions will hopefully raise the profile of Stoicism in philosophical curricula—hope, however, being a sentiment condemned by the Stoics. There is not a single area of philosophical reflection that could not be advanced by an intensive reexamination of Stoic positions and polemics. The school’s long duration in diverse habitats, molded by a succession of powerful intellects with differing facilities and preoccupations, and represented by a panoply of sources, none of which, however, constitutes (...)
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  12. Von der Erkenntnistheorie der Natur Zur Idee der Praxis — Eine Marxsche Auseinandersetzung MIT der Naturphilosophie Demokrits Und Epikurs.Guli-Sanam Karimova - 2018 - In Dominik Novkovic & Alexander Akel (eds.), Karl Marx – Philosophie, Pädagogik, Gesellschaftstheorie und Politik. Kassel, Deutschland: pp. 141-157.
    Eine der frühesten Schriften des jungen Karl Marx — die Dissertationsschrift „Differenz der demokritischen und epikureischen Naturphilosophie“ — legt wichtige Fundamente für das gesamte Marx’sche Denken. In der Dissertationsschrift versucht Marx anhand des Vergleichs der antiken Naturphilosophien Demokrits und Epikurs grundlegende Erkenntnisse der theoretischen und praktischen Philosophie in einem komplexen, von Hegel inspirierten ontologischen System zu verbinden. Aus dieser kritischen Synthese antiker Naturphilosophien entsteht so eine auf Hegelschen Begriffen basierende, aber gleichzeitig reformierte Idee der Praxis. Auf diesen Grundlagen sowie mit (...)
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  13. Hellenistic Cosmopolitanism.Eric Brown - 2006 - In Mary Louise Gill & Pierre Pellegrin (eds.), A Companion to Ancient Philosophy. Oxford, UK: pp. 549-558.
    This chapter surveys the origins and development in Greek philosophy of the thought that living well requires living as a citizen of the world.
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  14. Providencia divina y valor ontológico de los singulares: la polémica filosófica tardoantigua y la posición de Orígenes y de Nemesio de Émesa.Francisco Bastitta-Harriet - 2012 - Patristica Et Medievalia 33:37-50.
    El presente trabajo se concentra en el debate acerca de los alcances de la providencia que tuvo lugar entre las escuelas estoica, platónica y peripatética entre las siglos I y III de nuestra era. En ese contexto, analiza el problema del status ontológico de los singulares en Orígenes de Alejandría y Nemesio de Émesa. Influidos primariamente por la síntesis filoniana entre las distintas teorías griegas de providencia y la de las Escrituras, estos autores fundan la consistencia de los singulares en (...)
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  15. Boethius and Stoicism.Matthew Walz - 2016 - In John Sellars (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of the Stoic Tradition. London: pp. 70-84.
    In this chapter from a collection on the Stoici tradition, I explore Boethius’s works chronologically in order to elucidate his overall evaluation of Stoicism as a philosophy. It turns out that Boethius offers a "mixed review"' of Stoicism. Beginning with references to the Stoics in his logical works and then turning to the 'Consolation', I delineate the intelligible contours of Stoicism as Boethius sees it, including the positive impetus Stoicism provides toward a philosophical apprehension of reality as well as its (...)
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  16. Deleuze and Ancient Greek Physics: The Image of Nature.Michael James Bennett - 2017 - London, UK: Bloomsbury Academic.
    In 1988 the philosopher Gilles Deleuze remarked that throughout his career he had always been 'circling around' a concept of nature. Showing how Deleuze weaves original readings of Plato, the Stoics, Aristotle, and Epicurus into some of his most famous arguments about event, difference, and problem, Michael James Bennett argues that these interpretations of ancient Greek physics provide vital clues for understanding Deleuze's own conception of nature. -/- "Deleuze and Ancient Greek Physics" delves into the original Greek and Latin texts (...)
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  17. Corinth. Results of Excavations Conducted by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. Vol. I, Part IV. The South Stoa and its Roman Successors. By O. Broneer. Pp. Xix + 167, with 54 Plates, 22 Plans and 67 Text Figures. Princeton: American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 1954. $15. [REVIEW]R. E. Wycherley - 1956 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 76:134-134.
  18. Second Leroy E. Loemker Conference: «Stoicism: Traditions and Transformations».Oliver Baum - 2000 - Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch Fur Antike Und Mittelalter 4 (1):236-236.
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  19. Andrew Erskine, "The Hellenistic Stoa: Political Thought and Action". [REVIEW]Stephen A. White - 1992 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 30 (2):294.
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  20. Jacques Brunschwig and Martha C. Nussbaum, Eds., "Passions and Perceptions: Studies in Hellenistic Philosophy of Mind". [REVIEW]Lloyd P. Gerson - 1995 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 33 (1):165.
  21. Gerard Verbeke, "The Presence of Stoicism in Medieval Thought". [REVIEW]Armand A. Maurer - 1986 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 24 (2):264.
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  22. Platonic Anticipation of Stoic Logic [Corrected Title: Platonic Anticipations of Stoic Logic].Attila Fáj - 1972 - Apeiron 6 (1):1-24.
  23. "Cicero On Stoic Good and Evil: De Finibus 3 and Paradoxa a Stoicorum", Edited with Introduction, Translation, and Commentary by M.R. Wright. [REVIEW]Paul MacKendrick - 1994 - Ancient Philosophy 14 (2):463.
  24. "Hellenistic Philosophy: Introductory Readings". Translated with Introduction and Notes, by Brad Inwood and L.P. Gerson. [REVIEW]Robert J. Rabel - 1991 - Ancient Philosophy 11 (1):225.
  25. Chrysippus' Definition of Cause in Arius Didymus.Jaap Mansfeld - 2001 - Elenchos 22 (1):99-110.
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  26. Stoic and Epicurean.Paul Shorey - 1911 - Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 8 (2):50-52.
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  27. Duality and Structure in the Iliad and Odyssey. [REVIEW]M. M. Willcock - 1998 - The Classical Review 48 (2):467-468.
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  28. Untersuchungen Zum Vokabular Und Zur Metrik in den Hymnen des Synesios. [REVIEW]Mary Whitby - 1998 - The Classical Review 48 (2):479-479.
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  29. Dio, anima e intelligibili nella Stoa.Francesca Alesse - 2011 - Chôra 9:365-381.
    L’article analyse les témoignages stoïciens qui définissent la divinité comme «intellect» et comme «âme du monde», et qui permettent de déterminer les contenus de la pensée divine comme logoi, c’est-à-dire certains «discours» ou «raisonnements». En premier lieu, on examine les mots νοερόν, et νοητόν pour établir à quelles réalités les Stoïciens confèrent les caractères d’intelligence et d’intelligibilité et comment ils décrivent la pensée scientifique à laquelle ils comparent la pensée divine. En second lieu, on examine la théorie des raisons séminales (...)
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  30. Alcuni aspetti del concetto stoico di sostanza e identità dell'individuo.Francesca Alesse - 2008 - Chôra 6:127-142.
    Les Stoïciens formulent une conception de la «substance», ou ousia, qui tient un rôle très important dans différentes parties de leur système, parmi lesquelles la cosmologie, la psychologie et l'éthique. Au concept de substance est liée ce qu.on appelle la table des quatre 'catégories'. Cette dernière est considéréepar certains interprètes récents comme l'issue d'un processus historique relativement long, qui trouve sa formulation achevée seulement avec Chrysippe. Les sources relatives à la théorie des quatre catégories forment, comme on le sait, une (...)
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  31. Os componentes da Filosofia estóica.Edson Oriolo - 2008 - Lumen Veritatis 1 (3):73-89.
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  32. "Matter and Metaphysics". Fourth Symposium Hellenisticum, Edited by J. Barnes and M. Mignucci. [REVIEW]Stephen A. White - 1995 - Ancient Philosophy 15 (1):289-300.
  33. Psychophysical Holism in Stoicism and Epicureanism.Christopher Gill - 2006 - In R. A. H. King (ed.), Common to Body and Soul: Philosophical Approaches to Explaining Living Behaviour in Greco-Roman Antiquity. Walter de Gruyter.
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  34. Chapter 9. The Stoics.Panayiotis Tzamalikos - 2016 - In Anaxagoras, Origen, and Neoplatonism: The Legacy of Anaxagoras to Classical and Late Antiquity. De Gruyter. pp. 607-701.
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  35. Neo-Stoicism and What It Can Do.Daniel Drucker - 2016 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 3.
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  36. Stoics on Souls and Demons: Reconstructing Stoic Demonology.Burkhard Reis & Dorothea Frede - 2009 - In Burkhard Reis & Dorothea Frede (eds.), Body and Soul in Ancient Philosophy. Walter de Gruyter.
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  37. Stoicism.Massimo Pigliucci - 2016 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Stoicism Stoicism originated as a Hellenistic philosophy, founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium, c. 300 B.C.E. It was influenced by Socrates and the Cynics, and it engaged in vigorous debates with the Skeptics, the Academics, and the Epicureans. It moved to Rome where it flourished during the period of the Empire, … Continue reading Stoicism →.
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  38. Chrysippus’ Indemonstrables and Mental Logic.Miguel López-Astorga - 2015 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 15 (1):1-15.
    Stoic logic assumes five inference schemata attributed to Chrysippus of Soli. Those schemata are the well-known indemonstrables. A problem related to them can be that, according to standard propositional calculus, only one of them, modus ponens, is clearly indemonstrable. Nevertheless, I try to show in this paper that the mental logic theory enables to understand why the Stoics considered such schemata to be basic kinds of arguments. Following that theory, four of them can be linked to ‘Core Schemata’ of mental (...)
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  39. Determinismus in der Stoa.Bernhard Zimmermann, Jochen Schmidt & Barbara Neymeyr - 2008 - In Bernhard Zimmermann, Jochen Schmidt & Barbara Neymeyr (eds.), Stoizismus in der Europäischen Philosophie, Literatur, Kunst Und Politikstoicism in European Philosophy, Literature, Art, and Politics. A Cultural History From Antiquity to Modernity: Eine Kulturgeschichte von der Antike Bis Zur Moderne. Walter de Gruyter.
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  40. The Stoics on Ambiguity.David Blank & Catherine Atherton - 1995 - Philosophical Review 104 (2):267.
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  41. Hellenistic Philosophy of Mind.John M. Cooper & Julia Annas - 1994 - Philosophical Review 103 (1):182.
  42. Aristotle and the Stoics.Brad Inwood & F. H. Sandbach - 1986 - Philosophical Review 95 (3):470.
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  43. Stoic Philosophy.Charlotte Stough - 1971 - Philosophical Review 80 (3):407.
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  44. Stoic Logic.P. T. Geach - 1955 - Philosophical Review 64 (1):143.
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  45. The Stoic Creed.Wm A. Hammond & William L. Davidson - 1909 - Philosophical Review 18 (4):458.
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  46. Stoic Studies; Essays on Hellenistic Epistemology and Ethics.Charles Brittain, A. A. Long & Gisela Striker - 2000 - Philosophical Review 109 (3):434.
    The rediscovery of Hellenistic philosophy in the English-speaking world over the last thirty years has rejuvenated the study of ancient philosophy, and reinforced its significance for contemporary philosophy. Rather than being dim reflections of Plato and Aristotle, the Stoics and skeptics—and perhaps less often, the Epicureans—have turned out to be brilliant critics, giving us, for example, nominalism, propostional logic, a cognitivist account of the emotions, a causal theory of knowledge, a sophisticated form of skepticism, and several more refined versions of (...)
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  47. Stoicism in Descartes, Pascal, and Spinoza: Examining Neostoicism’s Influence in the Seventeenth Century.Daniel Collette - unknown
    My dissertation focuses on the moral philosophy of Descartes, Pascal, and Spinoza in the context of the revival of Stoicism within the seventeenth century. There are many misinterpretations about early modern ethical theories due to a lack of proper awareness of Stoicism in the early modern period. My project rectifies this by highlighting understated Stoic themes in these early modern texts that offer new clarity to their morality. Although these three philosophers hold very different metaphysical commitments, each embraces a different (...)
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  48. The Stoics and Their Cosmology in the First and Second Centuries A. D.Robert B. Todd - 1987 - In Wolfgang Haase (ed.), Philosophie, Wissenschaften, Technik. Philosophie. De Gruyter. pp. 1365-1378.
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  49. The Hellenistic Philosophers: Volume 2, Greek and Latin Texts with Notes and Bibliography.A. A. Long & D. N. Sedley - 1989 - Cambridge University Press.
    This comprehensive sourcebook makes available in the original Latin and Greek the principal extant texts required for the study of the Stoic, Epicurean and sceptical schools of philosophy. The material is organised by schools, and within each school topics are treated thematically. The volume presents the same texts as are translated in The Hellenistic Philosophers, Volume 1. The authors provide their own critical apparatus, and also supply detailed notes on the more difficult texts. This volume is equipped with a large (...)
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  50. The Ethical Doxography of Arius Didymus.David E. Hahm - 1987 - In Wolfgang Haase (ed.), Philosophie, Wissenschaften, Technik. Philosophie. De Gruyter. pp. 2935-3055.
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