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  1. The Harm Argument Against Surrogacy Revisited: Two Versions Not to Forget.Marcus Agnafors - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (3):357-363.
    It has been a common claim that surrogacy is morally problematic since it involves harm to the child or the surrogate—the harm argument. Due to a growing body of empirical research, the harm argument has seen a decrease in popularity, as there seems to be little evidence of harmful consequences of surrogacy. In this article, two revised versions of the harm argument are developed. It is argued that the two suggested versions of the harm argument survive the current criticism against (...)
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  2. Why Commercial Surrogate Motherhood Unethically Commodifies Women and Children: Reply to McLachlan and Swales. [REVIEW]Elizabeth S. Anderson - unknown
    McLachlan and Swales dispute my arguments against commercial surrogatemotherhood. In reply, I argue that commercial surrogate contractsobjectionably commodify children because they regardparental rights over children not as trusts, to be allocated in the bestinterests of the child, but as like property rights, to be allocatedat the will o the parents. They also express disrespect for mothers, bycompromising their inalienable right to act in the best interest of theirchildren, when this interest calls for mothers to assert a custody rightin their children.
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  3. Surrogate Motherhood: The Challenge for Feminists.Lori B. Andrews - 1988 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 16 (1-2):72-80.
  4. Iran's Experience with Surrogate Motherhood: An Islamic View and Ethical Concerns.K. Aramesh - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (5):320-322.
    Gestational surrogacy as a treatment for infertility is being practised in some well-known medical institutions in Tehran and some other cities in Iran. While the majority of Muslims in the world are Sunni, the majority of Iranians are Shiite. Most Sunni scholars do not permit surrogate motherhood, since it involves introducing the sperm of a man into the uterus of a woman to whom he is not married. Most Shiite scholars, however, have issued jurisprudential decrees (fatwas) that allow surrogate motherhood (...)
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  5. Reproblematising Relations of Agency and Coercion: Surrogacy.S. Ashenden - 2013 - In Sumi Madhok, Anne Phillips & Kalpana Wilson (eds.), Gender, Agency, and Coercion. Palgrave-Macmillan.
  6. Reconceiving Surrogacy: Toward a Reproductive Justice Account of Indian Surrogacy.Alison Bailey - 2011 - Hypatia 26 (4):715-741.
    My project here is to argue for situating moral judgments about Indian surrogacy in the context of Reproductive Justice. I begin by crafting the best picture of Indian surrogacy available to me while marking some worries I have about discursive colonialism and epistemic honesty. Western feminists' responses to contract pregnancy fall loosely into two interrelated moments: post-Baby M discussions that focus on the morality of surrogacy work in Western contexts, and feminist biomedical ethnographies that focus on the lived dimensions of (...)
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  7. Reorienting the Ethics of Transnational Surrogacy as a Feminist Pragmatist.Amrita Banerjee - 2010 - The Pluralist 5 (3):107-127.
    The issue of surrogacy has received a great deal of attention in the West ever since the famous Baby M case in the latter part of the 1980s. Ethicists, psychologists, and legal experts have struggled with the meanings and implications of this practice, especially in its commercial form. In contemporary times, however, the phenomenon of surrogacy has assumed new dimensions as it travels across national borders in the context of globalization. As a transnational phenomenon, it is now marketed as an (...)
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  8. Interpreting Surrogate Consent Using Counterfactuals.Deborah Barnbaum - 1999 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 16 (2):167–172.
    Philosophers such as Dan Brock believe that surrogates who make health care decisions on behalf of previously competent patients, in the absence of an advance directive, should make these decisions based upon a substituted judgment principle. Brock favours substituted judgment over a best interests standard. However, Edward Wierenga claims that the substituted judgment principle ought to be abandoned in favour of a best interests standard, because of an inherent problem with the substituted judgment principle. Wierenga's version of the substituted judgment (...)
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  9. Ethical Issues in Gestational Surrogacy.Rosalie Ber - 2000 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21 (2):153-169.
    The introduction of contraceptive technologies hasresulted in the separation of sex and procreation. Theintroduction of new reproductive technologies (mainlyIVF and embryo transfer) has led not only to theseparation of procreation and sex, but also to there-definition of the terms mother and family.For the purpose of this essay, I will distinguishbetween:1. the genetic mother – the donor of the egg;2. the gestational mother – she who bears and gives birth to the baby;3. the social mother – the woman who raises the (...)
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  10. The Ethics of Surrogate Motherhood: Biology, Freedom, and Moral Obligation.Lisa Sowle Cahill - 1988 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 16 (1-2):65-71.
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  11. The Ethics of Surrogate Motherhood: Biology, Freedom, and Moral Obligation.Lisa Sowle Cahill - 1988 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 16 (1-2):65-71.
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  12. Choosing Family Law Over Contract Law as a Paradigm for Surrogate Motherhood.A. M. Capron & M. J. Radin - 1988 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 16 (1-2):34-43.
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  13. Choosing Family Law Over Contract Law as a Paradigm for Surrogate Motherhood.A. M. Capron & M. J. Radin - 1988 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 16 (1-2):34-43.
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  14. Legislative Approaches to Surrogate Motherhood.R. Alta Charo - 1988 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 16 (1-2):96-112.
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  15. Families – Beyond the Nuclear Ideal.Daniela Cutas & Sarah Chan - 2012 - Bloomsbury Academic.
    This book examines, through a multi-disciplinary lens, the possibilities offered by relationships and family forms that challenge the nuclear family ideal, and some of the arguments that recommend or disqualify these as legitimate units in our societies. That children should be conceived naturally, born to and raised by their two young, heterosexual, married to each other, genetic parents; that this relationship between parents is also the ideal relationship between romantic or sexual partners; and that romance and sexual intimacy ought to (...)
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  16. IVF, Same-Sex Couples and the Value of Biological Ties.Ezio Di Nucci - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (12):784-787.
    Ought parents, in general, to value being biologically tied to their children? Is it important, in particular, that both parents be biologically tied to their children? I will address these fundamental questions by looking at a fairly new practice within IVF treatments, so-called IVF-with-ROPA ( Reception of Oocytes from Partner ), which allows lesbian couples to „share motherhood‟ with one partner providing the eggs while the other becomes pregnant. I believe that IVF-with-ROPA is, just like other IVF treatments, morally permissible; (...)
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  17. Ethics, Law, and Commercial Surrogacy: A Call for Uniformity.Katherine Drabiak, Carole Wegner, Valita Fredland & Paul R. Helft - 2007 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 35 (2):300-309.
    In the United States at this time, no uniform federal law exists regarding commercial surrogacy, and state statutory schemes vary vastly, ranging from criminalization to legal recognition with contract enforcement. The authors examine how commercial surrogacy agencies utilize the Internet as a means for attracting parents and surrogates by employing emotional cultural rhetoric. By inducing both parents and surrogates to their jurisdiction, agencies circumvent vast discrepancies in state statutory regulative schemes and create a distinct interstate business, absent an efficient regulatory (...)
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  18. Currents in Contemporary Bioethics: Waiving Informed Consent to Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis? Problems with Paradoxical Negotiation in Surrogacy Contracts.Katherine Drabiak-Syed - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 39 (3):559-564.
  19. On the Value of Intimacy in Procreation.Luara Ferracioli - 2014 - Journal of Value Inquiry 48 (3):349-369.
    What is wrong with anonymous surrogacy and gamete donation? Many feminists have argued that these practices are inherently exploitative or alienating. Yet, one can easily conceive of a world where donating a sperm or egg, and getting pregnant on behalf of someone else are considered highly valuable professional services, which are highly-paid and part of well regulated industries. In this ideal world, no one becomes a gamete donor or a surrogate out of economic necessity or desperation, but because there is (...)
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  20. Surrogate Motherhood: A New Option for Parenting?Barry R. Furrow - 1984 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 12 (3):106-106.
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  21. The Contract in Surrogate Motherhood: A Review of the Issues. [REVIEW]Steven R. Gersz - 1984 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 12 (3):107-114.
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  22. Biological Parenthood: Gestational Not Genetic.Anca Gheaus - forthcoming - Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-16.
    Common sense morality and legislations around the world ascribe normative relevance to biological connections between parents and children. Procreators who meet a modest standard of parental competence are believed to have a right to rear the children they brought into the world. I explore various attempts to justify this belief and find most of these attempts lacking. I distinguish between two kinds of biological connections between parents and children: the genetic link and the gestational link. I argue that the second (...)
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  23. Antinatalism, Asymmetry, and an Ethic of Prima Facie Duties.Gerald K. Harrison - 2012 - South African Journal of Philosophy 31 (1):94-103.
    Benatar’s central argument for antinatalism develops an asymmetry between the pain and pleasure in a potential life. I am going to present an alternative route to the antinatalist conclusion. I argue that duties require victims and that as a result there is no duty to create the pleasures contained within a prospective life but a duty not to create any of its sufferings. My argument can supplement Benatar’s, but it also enjoys some advantages: it achieves a better fit with our (...)
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  24. Better Not to Have Children.Gerald K. Harrison & Julia Tanner - 2011 - Think, 10(27), 113-121 (27):113-121.
    Most people take it for granted that it's morally permissible to have children. They may raise questions about the number of children it's responsible to have or whether it's permissible to reproduce when there's a strong risk of serious disability. But in general, having children is considered a good thing to do, something that's morally permissible in most cases (perhaps even obligatory).
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  25. Surrogate Motherhood and the Best Interests of Children.Angela R. Holder - 1988 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 16 (1-2):51-56.
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  26. Surrogate Motherhood and the Best Interests of Children.Angela R. Holder - 1988 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 16 (1-2):51-56.
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  27. Surrogate Motherhood: Babies for Fun and Profit.Angela R. Holder - 1984 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 12 (3):115-117.
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  28. Breeders: A Subclass of Women?Breeders: A Subclass of Women? Directed by Jennifer Lahl and Matthew Eppinette. San Ramon, CA: Center for Bioethics and Culture Network, 2014.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2014 - Ijfab: International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 7 (2):248-253.
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  29. Selling Babies and Selling Bodies.Sara Ann Ketchum - 1989 - Hypatia 4 (3):116 - 127.
    I will argue the free market in babies or in women's bodies created by an institution of paid surrogate motherhood is contrary to Kantian principles of personhood and to the feminist principle that men do not have-and cannot gain through contract, marriage, or payment of money-a right to the sexual or reproductive use of women's bodies.
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  30. Intersectionality and the Ethics of Transnational Commercial Surrogacy.Serene J. Khader - 2013 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 6 (1):68-90.
    Critics of transnational commercial surrogacy frequently call our attention to the race, class, and cultural background of surrogates in the global South. Consider the following sampling from the critics: "the women having babies for rich Westerners have been pimped by their husbands and are powerless to resist" (Bindel 2011); our "rules of decency seem to differ when the women in question are living in abject poverty half a world away" (Warner 2008); and we should worry that "women of color are (...)
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  31. Ethics in Reproductive Medicine in the German Democratic Republic.Hannelore Koerner - 1989 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (3):335-341.
    The paper discusses the practice of genetic counseling and elective abortion in the German Democratic Republic. Keywords: elective abortion, embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, protection of human life, reproductive ethics, German Democratic Republic, bioethics CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us What's this?
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  32. Új szülők, új gyermekek: Miképpen változtatja meg szülői felelősségünket a reprodukciós medicina.Gusztáv Kovács - 2014 - PPHF.
    The book discusses the development of reproductive medicine from the perspective of the parent-child relationship. -/- A könyv a reprodukciós medicina fejlődését vizsgálja a szülői felelősség szempontjából.
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  33. The Morality of Surrogate Mothering.Lenore Kuo - 1989 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 27 (3):361-380.
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  34. Is There Anything Wrong with Surrogate Motherhood? An Ethical Analysis.Ruth Macklin - 1988 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 16 (1-2):57-64.
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  35. Is There Anything Wrong with Surrogate Motherhood? An Ethical Analysis.Ruth Macklin - 1988 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 16 (1-2):57-64.
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  36. Defending Commercial Surrogate Motherhood Against Van Niekerk and Van Zyl.H. V. McLachlan - 1997 - Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (6):344-348.
    The arguments of Van Niekerk and Van Zyl that, on the grounds that it involves an inappropriate commodification and alienation of women's labour, commercial surrogate motherhood (CSM) is morally suspect are discussed and considered to be defective. In addition, doubt is cast on the notion that CSM should be illegal.
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  37. Exploitation and Commercial Surrogate Motherhood.Hugh V. McLachlan & J. K. Swales - 2001 - Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 7 (1):8--14.
    Various authors, for instance Elizabeth Anderson, Rosemary Tong, Mary Warnock and Margaret Brazier have argued that commercial surrogate motherhood is exploitative and that it should be prohibited. Their arguments are unconvincing. Exploitation is a more complex notion than it is usually presented as being. Unequal bargaining power can be a cause of exploitation but the exercise of unequal bargaining power is not inevitably or inherently exploitative. Exploitation concerns unfair and/or unjust strategies - rather than the exercise of power as such. (...)
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  38. A Bioethic of Communion: Beyond Care and the Four Principles with Regard to Reproduction.Thaddeus Metz - 2017 - In Marta Soniewicka (ed.), The Ethics of Reproductive Genetics - Between Utility, Principles, and Virtues. Springer. pp. ch. 4.
    English-speaking research on morally right decisions in a healthcare context over the past three decades has been dominated by two major perspectives, namely, the Four Principles, of which the principle of respect for autonomy has been most salient, and the ethic of care, often presented as a rival to not only a focus on autonomy but also a reliance on principles more generally. In my contribution, I present a novel ethic applicable to bioethics, particularly as it concerns human procreation, that (...)
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  39. Questioning South Africa’s ‘Genetic Link’ Requirement for Surrogacy.Thaddeus Metz - 2014 - South African Journal of Bioethics and Law 7 (1):34-39.
    South African law currently forbids those seeking to arrange a surrogate motherhood agreement from creating a child that will not be genetically related to at least one of them. For a surrogacy contract to be legally valid, there must be a ‘genetic link’ between the child created through a surrogate and the parents who will raise it. Currently, this law is being challenged in the High Court of South Africa, and in this article I critically explore salient ethical facets of (...)
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  40. Surrogate Motherhood.M. Mulholland - 1990 - Journal of Medical Ethics 16 (4):221-221.
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  41. Cutting Motherhood in Two: Some Suspicions Concerning Surrogacy.Hilde Lindemann Nelson & James Lindemann Nelson - 1989 - Hypatia 4 (3):85-94.
    Surrogate motherhood-at least if carefully structured to protect the interests of the women involved-seems defensible along standard liberal lines which place great stress on free agreements as moral bedrocks. But feminist theories have tended to be suspicious about the importance assigned to this notion by mainstream ethics, and in this paper, we develop implications of those suspicions for surrogacy. We argue that the practice is inconsistent with duties parents owe to children and that it compromises the freedom of surrogates to (...)
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  42. Transnational Comercial Surrogacy in India: Gifts for Global Sisters?Amrita Pande - 2012 - Reproductive Biomedicine 23 (5):618-625.
    In this ethnography of transnational commercial surrogacy In a small clinic In India, the narratives of two sets of womenInvolved In this new form of reproductive travel - the transnational clients and the surrogates themselves - are evaluated. How do these women negotiate the culturally anomalous nature of transnational surrogacy within the unusual setting of India? It Is demonstrated that while both sets of women downplay the economic aspect of surrogacy by drawing on predictable cultural tools like 'gift', 'sisterhood' and (...)
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  43. Surrogate Tourism and Reproductive Rights.Vida Panitch - 2013 - Hypatia 28 (2):274-289.
    Commercial surrogacy arrangements now cross borders; this paper aims to reevaluate the traditional moral concerns regarding the practice against the added ethical dimension of global injustice. I begin by considering the claim that global surrogacy serves to satisfy the positive reproductive rights of infertile first-world women. I then go on to consider three powerful challenges to this claim. The first holds that commercial surrogacy involves the commodification of a good that should not be valued in market terms, the second that (...)
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  44. Surrogate Motherhood.Miroslav Prokopijevic - 1990 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 7 (2):169-181.
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  45. Surrogate Mothering:Exploitation or Empowerment?Laura M. Purdy - 1989 - Bioethics 3 (1):18–34.
  46. Surrogacy and the Politics of Commodification.Elizabeth S. Scott - unknown
    This essay examines the changing social and political meaning of surrogacy contracts over the twenty years since this issue first attracted public attention in the context of the Baby M case in the 1980s. In the protracted course of the Baby M litigation, surrogacy was effectively framed as illegitimate commodification - baby selling and the exploitation of women. This framing can be attributed to a moral panic generated by the media, politicians and a coalition of interest groups opposing surrogacy - (...)
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  47. Surrogate Motherhood as Prenatal Adoption.Bonnie Steinbock - 1988 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 16 (1-2):44-50.
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  48. Feminist Bioethics: Toward Developing a "Feminist" Answer to the Surrogate Motherhood Question.Rosemarie Tong - 1996 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 6 (1):37-52.
    : Although a wide variety of feminist approaches to bioethics presently share a common feminist methodology (sometimes referred to as "raising the woman question"), they do not all share the same feminist politics, ontology, epistemology, and ethics. As a result of their philosophical differences, feminist bioethicists do not always agree on which biomedical principles, practices, and policies are best suited to serving women's interests. In other words, some feminist bioethicists insist that so-called "assisted reproduction" enhances women's procreative liberty, while others (...)
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  49. The Ethics of Surrogacy: Women's Reproductive Labour.Anton van Niekerk & Liezl van Zyl - 1995 - Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (6):345-349.
    The aim of this article is to establish whether there is anything intrinsically immoral about surrogacy arrangements from the perspective of the surrogate mother herself. Specific attention is paid to the claim that surrogacy is similar to prostitution in that it reduces women's reproductive labour to a form of alienated and/or dehumanized labour.
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  50. Intentional Parenthood and the Nuclear Family.Liezl van Zyl - 2002 - Journal of Medical Humanities 23 (2):107-118.
    Reproductive techniques and practices, ranging from ordinary birth-control measures and artificial insemination to embryo transfer and surrogate motherhood, have greatly enhanced our range of reproductive choices. As a consequence, they pose a number of difficult moral and legal questions with regard to the formation of a family and our conception of parenthood. A view that is becoming increasingly common is that parental rights and responsibilities should not be based on genetic relationships but should instead be seen as arising from agreements (...)
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