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  1. Against private surrogacy: a child-centred view.Anca Gheaus - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
    Surrogacy involves a private agreement whereby a woman who gestates a child attempts to surrender her (putative) moral right to become the parent of that child such that another person (or persons), of the woman’s choice, can acquire it. Since people lack the normative power to privately transfer custody, attempts to do so are illegitimate, and the law should reflect this fact.
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  2. Who should provide the uterus? The ethics of live donor recruitment for uterus transplantation.Ji Young Lee - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Uterus transplantation (UTx) is an experimental surgery likely to face the issue of organ shortage. In my article, I explore how this issue might be addressed by changing the prevailing practices around live uterus donor recruitment. Currently, women with children – often the mothers of recipients – tend to be overrepresented as donors. Yet, other potentially eligible groups who may have an interest in providing their uterus – such as transgender men, or cisgender women who do not wish to gestate (...)
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  3. Does ectogestation have oppressive potential?Ji-Young Lee, Ezio Di Nucci & Andrea Bidoli - forthcoming - Journal of Social Philosophy.
    In the future, full ectogestation – in which artificial placenta technology would be used to carry out the entirety of gestation – could be an alternative to human pregnancy. This article analyzes some underexplored objections to ectogestation which relate to the possibility for new and continuing forms of social oppression. In particular, we examine whether ectogestation could be linked to an unwarranted de-valuing of certain aspects of female reproductive embodiment, or exacerbate objectionable kinds of scrutiny over the reproductive choices of (...)
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  4. Bioethics of childbirth for another (surrogate motherhood) in the Civil Code of Kosovo.B. Bahtiri, Q. Maxhuni & R. Ferizi - 2023 - South African Journal of Bioethics and Law 16 (1):23-28.
    Transformations in the biological, medical and legal processes of infertility, substantial modifications in family structure and the advancement of methods and techniques of reproductive technology will affect the next step in both legal and medical terms to address the regulation of bioethics and law in Kosovo. There is a need to establish perspectives in both ethical and professional terms, since the Republic of Kosovo is in the process of drafting a Civil Code. Many of these issues have been raised and (...)
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  5. Is whole-body gestational donation without explicit consent a valid alternative to surrogate motherhood? An ethical analysis through analogy reasoning and principlist approach.Gianluca Montanari Vergallo & Matteo Gulino - 2023 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 44 (4):387-391.
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  6. Policy change without ethical analysis? Commentary on the publication of Smajdor.Elena Popa, Jakub Zawiła-Niedźwiecki & Michał Zabdyr-Jamróz - 2023 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 44 (4):379-385.
    This commentary addresses the proposal and argumentative line presented in the paper ‘Whole Body Gestational Donation’ (WBGD) by Anna Smajdor (2023), published as an intended ‘outrageous argument’ in a dedicated special issue of Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics. We believe that the paper is fatally flawed due to its lack of engagement with relevant approaches in ethics and essential sources in health sciences as well as its insufficient, superficial, and rash argumentation. Its critical weaknesses include, among others, that it does not (...)
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  7. Libertarianism, the Family, and Children.Andrew Jason Cohen & Lauren Hall - 2022 - In Matt Zwolinski & Benjamin Ferguson (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Libertarianism. Routledge. pp. 336-350.
    We explain libertarian thought about family and children, including controversial issues in need of serious attention. To begin our discussion of marriage, we distinguish between procedural and substantive contractarian approaches to marriage, each endorsed by various libertarians. Advocates of both approaches agree that it is a contract that makes a marriage, not a license, but disagree about whether there are moral limits to the substance of the contract with only advocates of the substantive approach accepting such. Either approach, though, offers (...)
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  8. The limitations of liberal reproductive autonomy.J. Y. Lee - 2022 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (3):523-529.
    The common liberal understanding of reproductive autonomy – characterized by free choice and a principle of non-interference – serves as a useful way to analyse the normative appeal of having certain choices open to people in the reproductive realm, especially for issues like abortion rights. However, this liberal reading of reproductive autonomy only offers us a limited ethical understanding of what is at stake in many kinds of reproductive choices, particularly when it comes to different uses of reproductive technologies and (...)
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  9. The complex case of Ellie Anderson.Joona Räsänen & Anna Smajdor - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (4):217-221.
    Ellie Anderson had always known that she wanted to have children. Her mother, Louise, was aware of this wish. Ellie was designated male at birth, but according to news sources, identified as a girl from the age of three. She was hoping to undergo gender reassignment surgery at 18, but died unexpectedly at only 16, leaving Louise grappling not only with the grief of losing her daughter, but with a complex legal problem. Ellie had had her sperm frozen before starting (...)
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  10. Evaluating Ectogenesis via the Metaphysics of Pregnancy.Suki Finn & Sasha Isaac - 2021 - In Robbie Davis-Floyd (ed.), Birthing Techno-Sapiens: Human-Technology, Co-Evolution, and the Future of Reproduction. E-Book: Routledge: Taylor & Francis. pp. Chapter 8.
    Ectogenesis, or “artificial womb technology,” has been heralded by some, such as prominent feminist Shulamith Firestone, as a way to liberate women. In this chapter, we challenge this view by offering an alternative analysis of the technology as relying upon and perpetuating a problematic model of pregnancy which, rather than liberating women, serves to devalue them. We look to metaphysics as the abstract study of reality to elucidate how the entities in a pregnancy are related to one another. We consider (...)
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  11. The Best Available Parent.Anca Gheaus - 2021 - Ethics 131 (3):431-459.
    There is a broad philosophical consensus that both children’s and prospective parents’ interests are relevant to the justification of a right to parent. Against this view, I argue that it is impermissible to sacrifice children’s interests for the sake of advancing adults’ interest in childrearing. Therefore, the allocation of the moral right to parent should track the child’s, and not the potential parent’s, interest. This revisionary thesis is moderated by two additional qualifications. First, parents lack the moral right to exclude (...)
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  12. Naturalizing parenthood: Lessons from (some forms of) non‐traditional family‐making.Daniel Groll - 2021 - Journal of Social Philosophy 53 (3):356-370.
    Cases of non-traditional family-making offer a rich seam for thinking about normative parenthood. Gamete donors are genetically related to the resulting offspring but are not thought to be normative parents. Gestational surrogates are also typically not thought to be normative parents, despite having gestated a child. Adoptive parents are typically thought to be normative parents even though they are neither genetically nor gestationally related to their child. Philosophers have paid attention to these kinds of cases. But they have not paid (...)
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  13. A Transnational Feminist View of Surrogacy Biomarkets in India.Donna Dickenson - 2020 - The New Bioethics 26 (4):374-377.
    Review of Sheela Saravanan's 2018 book .
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  14. Surrogacy: New Challenges to Law and Ethics.Donna Dickenson & Britta van Beers - 2020 - The New Bioethics 26 (4):293-297.
    In the case of surrogacy, it is not new biotechnologies themselves that have challenged well-established principles in law and ethics, but rather political and social phenomena such as commodification of women’s reproductive tissue and labour, demands to allow new ways of forming families and (before Covid-19, at least) the comparative ease of international travel that enabled cross-border surrogacy to develop into a market valued at up to $2 billion annually in India alone as of 2016 (Dickenson 2016, citing an estimate (...)
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  15. Transhumanism, in vitro fertilization and woman dignity.Carlos Alberto Rosas Jimenez - 2020 - In Diana Stephania Muñoz-Gomez (ed.), La persona: on-off Desafíos de la familia en la cuarta revolución industrial. Bogotá, Colombia: pp. 304-317.
    Transhumanism is a movement that seeks to transcend certain limitations inherent in the human condition as we know it. But does it justify overriding the dignity of current human beings in order to satisfy the desire to increase human potential and improve human beings as such, in order to obtain other human beings? Does it justify disregarding the dignity of women in order to obtain new human beings through fertilization? To answer these questions, we have made a sweep over the (...)
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  16. Surrogacy relationships: a critical interpretative review.Jenny Gunnarsson Payne, Elzbieta Korolczuk & Signe Mezinska - 2020 - Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences 1:1-9.
    Based on a critical interpretative review of existing qualitative research investigating accounts of ‘lived experience’ of surrogates and intended parents from a relational perspective, this article proposes a typology of surrogacy arrangements. The review is based on the analysis of 39 articles, which belong to a range of different disciplines (mostly sociology, social psychology, anthropology, ethnology, and gender studies). The number of interviews in each study range from as few as seven to over one hundred. Countries covered include Australia, Canada, (...)
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  17. Reproduktionstechnologien und Bionormative Familienkonzeptionen.Ezio Di Nucci - 2019 - In Johannes Drerup & Gottfried Schweiger (eds.), Handbuch Philosophie der Kindheit. Berlin: J.B. Metzler.
  18. I love my children: am I racist? On the wish to be biologically related to one’s children.Ezio Di Nucci - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (12):814-816.
    Is the wish to be biologically related to your children legitimate? Here, I respond to an argument in support of a negative answer to this question according to which a preference towards having children one is biologically related to is analogous to a preference towards associating with members of one’s own race. I reject this analogy, mainly on the grounds that only the latter constitutes discrimination; still, I conclude that indeed a preference towards children one is biologically related to is (...)
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  19. The Metaphysics of Surrogacy.Suki Finn - 2018 - In David Boonin (ed.), Palgrave Handbook of Philosophy and Public Policy. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 649-659.
    As with most other areas of reproduction, surrogacy is highly regulated. But the legislation and policies on surrogacy are written in such ways that make large (and possibly mistaken) assumptions about the metaphysical relationship between the mother and the fetus – whether the fetus is a part of, or contained by, the mother. It is the purpose of this chapter to highlight these assumptions, and to demonstrate the impact that alternative metaphysical views can have on our conceptualization of surrogacy. With (...)
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  20. Biological Parenthood: Gestational, Not Genetic.Anca Gheaus - 2018 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 96 (2):225-240.
    Common sense morality and legislations around the world ascribe normative relevance to biological connections between parents and children. Procreators who meet a modest standard of parental competence are believed to have a right to rear the children they brought into the world. I explore various attempts to justify this belief and find most of these attempts lacking. I distinguish between two kinds of biological connections between parents and children: the genetic link and the gestational link. I argue that the second (...)
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  21. A Bioethic of Communion: Beyond Care and the Four Principles with Regard to Reproduction.Thaddeus Metz - 2018 - In Marta Soniewicka (ed.), The Ethics of Reproductive Genetics - Between Utility, Principles, and Virtues. Cham: Springer Verlag. pp. 49-66.
    English-speaking research on morally right decisions in a healthcare context over the past three decades has been dominated by two major perspectives, namely, the Four Principles, of which the principle of respect for autonomy has been most salient, and the ethic of care, often presented as a rival to not only a focus on autonomy but also a reliance on principles more generally. In my contribution, I present a novel ethic applicable to bioethics, particularly as it concerns human procreation, that (...)
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  22. Invisible women in reproductive technologies: Critical reflections.Piyali Mitra - 2018 - Indian Journal of Medical Ethics 3 (2):NS: 113-9.
    The recent spectacular progress in assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) has resulted in new ethical dilemmas. Though women occupy a central role in the reproductive process, within the ART paradigm, the importance accorded to the embryo commonly surpasses that given to the mother. This commentary questions the increasing tendency to position the embryonic subject in an antagonistic relation with the mother. I examine how the mother’s reproductive autonomy is compromised in relation to that of her embryo and argue in favour of (...)
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  23. Review of Françoise Baylis and Carolyn McLeod, eds.: Family-making: contemporary ethical challenges: Oxford University Press, New York, 2014. [REVIEW]Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2017 - Monash Bioethics Review 34 (3-4):239-242.
  24. Surrogate Motherhood Families.Olga B. A. Van den Akker - 2017 - Cham: Imprint: Palgrave Macmillan.
    This comprehensive book covers the research, theory, policy and practice context of unusual reproduction using third parties. Olga Van den Akker details the psychological adaptation required to continuing changes in public opinion, advances in technologies and new legislations in surrogate motherhood and discusses their impact at an individual, societal and global level. She describes the competing interests and interactions between legal, organisational, personal, social, psychological and cultural issues in relation to biological and genetic surrogate and commissioning parenthood. This book is (...)
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  25. Towards a professional model for surrogate motherhood.Ruth Walker & Liezl van Zyl - 2017 - Palgrave Macmillan.
    This book delves deeply into modern surrogacy arrangements, responding to both practical and ethical critiques by offering a radically new model for surrogate motherhood. Current practice distinguishes between two models of surrogacy – the altruistic model and the commercial model, both of which present social, ethical, and conceptual challenges. This book proposes a novel arrangement for surrogate motherhood – the professional model. Inspired by professions, such as nursing, teaching, and social work, the professional model acknowledges the caring motives that surrogate (...)
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  26. IVF, same-sex couples and the value of biological ties.Ezio Di Nucci - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (12):784-787.
    Ought parents, in general, to value being biologically tied to their children? Is it important, in particular, that both parents be biologically tied to their children? I will address these fundamental questions by looking at a fairly new practice within IVF treatments, so-called IVF-with-ROPA ( Reception of Oocytes from Partner ), which allows lesbian couples to „share motherhood‟ with one partner providing the eggs while the other becomes pregnant. I believe that IVF-with-ROPA is, just like other IVF treatments, morally permissible; (...)
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  27. Replik till Lisa Furberg: ‘Feminism, perfektionism och surrogatmoderskap’.Simon Rosenqvist - 2015 - Tidskrift För Politisk Filosofi 19 (2):44-51.
    Lisa Furberg har argumenterat för att altruistiskt surrogatmödraskap kan anses moraliskt problematiskt utifrån en perfektionistisk teori om det goda livet. I följande svar riktar jag ett antal invändningar mot Furbergs resonemang.
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  28. Surrogacy, Compensation, and Legal Parentage: Against the Adoption Model.Liezl van Zyl & Ruth Walker - 2015 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (3):383-387.
    Surrogate motherhood is treated as a form of adoption in many countries: the birth mother and her partner are presumed to be the parents of the child, while the intended parents have to adopt the baby once it is born. Other than compensation for expenses related to the pregnancy, payment to surrogates is not permitted. We believe that the failure to compensate surrogate mothers for their labour as well as the significant risks they undertake is both unfair and exploitative. We (...)
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  29. Surrogate Motherhood and Abortion for Fetal Abnormality.Ruth Walker & Liezl van Zyl - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (8):529-535.
    A diagnosis of fetal abnormality presents parents with a difficult – even tragic – moral dilemma. Where this diagnosis is made in the context of surrogate motherhood there is an added difficulty, namely that it is not obvious who should be involved in making decisions about abortion, for the person who would normally have the right to decide – the pregnant woman – does not intend to raise the child. This raises the question: To what extent, if at all, should (...)
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  30. The harm argument against surrogacy revisited: two versions not to forget.Marcus Agnafors - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (3):357-363.
    It has been a common claim that surrogacy is morally problematic since it involves harm to the child or the surrogate—the harm argument. Due to a growing body of empirical research, the harm argument has seen a decrease in popularity, as there seems to be little evidence of harmful consequences of surrogacy. In this article, two revised versions of the harm argument are developed. It is argued that the two suggested versions of the harm argument survive the current criticism against (...)
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  31. On the Value of Intimacy in Procreation.Luara Ferracioli - 2014 - Journal of Value Inquiry 48 (3):349-369.
    What is wrong with anonymous surrogacy and gamete donation? Many feminists have argued that these practices are inherently exploitative or alienating. Yet, one can easily conceive of a world where donating a sperm or egg, and getting pregnant on behalf of someone else are considered highly valuable professional services, which are highly-paid and part of well regulated industries. In this ideal world, no one becomes a gamete donor or a surrogate out of economic necessity or desperation, but because there is (...)
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  32. Breeders: A Subclass of Women?L. Syd M. Johnson - 2014 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 7 (2):248-253.
  33. Új szülők, új gyermekek: Miképpen változtatja meg szülői felelősségünket a reprodukciós medicina.Gusztáv Kovács - 2014 - PPHF.
    The book discusses the development of reproductive medicine from the perspective of the parent-child relationship. -/- A könyv a reprodukciós medicina fejlődését vizsgálja a szülői felelősség szempontjából.
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  34. Questioning South Africa’s ‘Genetic Link’ Requirement for Surrogacy.Thaddeus Metz - 2014 - South African Journal of Bioethics and Law 7 (1):34-39.
    South African law currently forbids those seeking to arrange a surrogate motherhood agreement from creating a child that will not be genetically related to at least one of them. For a surrogacy contract to be legally valid, there must be a ‘genetic link’ between the child created through a surrogate and the parents who will raise it. Currently, this law is being challenged in the High Court of South Africa, and in this article I critically explore salient ethical facets of (...)
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  35. Reproblematising Relations of Agency and Coercion: Surrogacy.S. Ashenden - 2013 - In Sumi Madhok, Anne Phillips & Kalpana Wilson (eds.), Gender, Agency, and Coercion. Palgrave-Macmillan.
  36. Intersectionality and the Ethics of Transnational Commercial Surrogacy.Serene J. Khader - 2013 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 6 (1):68-90.
    Critics of transnational commercial surrogacy frequently call our attention to the race, class, and cultural background of surrogates in the global South. Consider the following sampling from the critics: "the women having babies for rich Westerners have been pimped by their husbands and are powerless to resist" (Bindel 2011); our "rules of decency seem to differ when the women in question are living in abject poverty half a world away" (Warner 2008); and we should worry that "women of color are (...)
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  37. Surrogate Tourism and Reproductive Rights.Vida Panitch - 2013 - Hypatia 28 (2):274-289.
    Commercial surrogacy arrangements now cross borders; this paper aims to reevaluate the traditional moral concerns regarding the practice against the added ethical dimension of global injustice. I begin by considering the claim that global surrogacy serves to satisfy the positive reproductive rights of infertile first-world women. I then go on to consider three powerful challenges to this claim. The first holds that commercial surrogacy involves the commodification of a good that should not be valued in market terms, the second that (...)
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  38. Inequality and Markets.Anne Phillips - 2013 - Political Theory 41 (1):151-155.
  39. Families – Beyond the Nuclear Ideal.Daniela Cutas & Sarah Chan - 2012 - Bloomsbury Academic.
    This book examines, through a multi-disciplinary lens, the possibilities offered by relationships and family forms that challenge the nuclear family ideal, and some of the arguments that recommend or disqualify these as legitimate units in our societies. That children should be conceived naturally, born to and raised by their two young, heterosexual, married to each other, genetic parents; that this relationship between parents is also the ideal relationship between romantic or sexual partners; and that romance and sexual intimacy ought to (...)
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  40. Antinatalism, Asymmetry, and an Ethic of Prima Facie Duties.Gerald Harrison - 2012 - South African Journal of Philosophy 31 (1):94-103.
    Benatar’s central argument for antinatalism develops an asymmetry between the pain and pleasure in a potential life. I am going to present an alternative route to the antinatalist conclusion. I argue that duties require victims and that as a result there is no duty to create the pleasures contained within a prospective life but a duty not to create any of its sufferings. My argument can supplement Benatar’s, but it also enjoys some advantages: it achieves a better fit with our (...)
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  41. Transnational Comercial Surrogacy in India: Gifts for Global Sisters?Amrita Pande - 2012 - Reproductive Biomedicine 23 (5):618-625.
    In this ethnography of transnational commercial surrogacy In a small clinic In India, the narratives of two sets of womenInvolved In this new form of reproductive travel - the transnational clients and the surrogates themselves - are evaluated. How do these women negotiate the culturally anomalous nature of transnational surrogacy within the unusual setting of India? It Is demonstrated that while both sets of women downplay the economic aspect of surrogacy by drawing on predictable cultural tools like 'gift', 'sisterhood' and (...)
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  42. Beyond altruistic and commercial contract motherhood: The professional model.Liezl van Zyl & Ruth Walker - 2012 - Bioethics 27 (7):373-381.
    It has become common to distinguish between altruistic and commercial contract motherhood (or ‘surrogacy’). Altruistic arrangements are based on the ‘gift relationship’: a woman is motivated by altruism to have a baby for an infertile couple, who are free to reciprocate as they see fit. By contrast, in commercial arrangements both parties are motivated by personal gain to enter a legally enforceable agreement, which stipulates that the contract mother or ‘surrogate’ is to bear a child for the intending parents in (...)
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  43. Reconceiving Surrogacy: Toward a Reproductive Justice Account of Indian Surrogacy.Alison Bailey - 2011 - Hypatia 26 (4):715-741.
    My project here is to argue for situating moral judgments about Indian surrogacy in the context of Reproductive Justice. I begin by crafting the best picture of Indian surrogacy available to me while marking some worries I have about discursive colonialism and epistemic honesty. Western feminists' responses to contract pregnancy fall loosely into two interrelated moments: post-Baby M discussions that focus on the morality of surrogacy work in Western contexts, and feminist biomedical ethnographies that focus on the lived dimensions of (...)
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  44. Better Not to Have Children.Gerald K. Harrison & Julia Tanner - 2011 - Think, 10(27), 113-121 (27):113-121.
    Most people take it for granted that it's morally permissible to have children. They may raise questions about the number of children it's responsible to have or whether it's permissible to reproduce when there's a strong risk of serious disability. But in general, having children is considered a good thing to do, something that's morally permissible in most cases (perhaps even obligatory).
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  45. Reorienting the Ethics of Transnational Surrogacy as a Feminist Pragmatist.Amrita Banerjee - 2010 - The Pluralist 5 (3):107-127.
    The issue of surrogacy has received a great deal of attention in the West ever since the famous Baby M case in the latter part of the 1980s. Ethicists, psychologists, and legal experts have struggled with the meanings and implications of this practice, especially in its commercial form. In contemporary times, however, the phenomenon of surrogacy has assumed new dimensions as it travels across national borders in the context of globalization. As a transnational phenomenon, it is now marketed as an (...)
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  46. Revisiting Child‐Based Objections to Commercial Surrogacy.Jason K. M. Hanna - 2010 - Bioethics 24 (7):341-347.
    Many critics of commercial surrogate motherhood argue that it violates the rights of children. In this paper, I respond to several versions of this objection. The most common version claims that surrogacy involves child‐selling. I argue that while proponents of surrogacy have generally failed to provide an adequate response to this objection, it can be overcome. After showing that the two most prominent arguments for the child‐selling objection fail, I explain how the commissioning couple can acquire parental rights by paying (...)
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  47. Iran's experience with surrogate motherhood: an Islamic view and ethical concerns.K. Aramesh - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (5):320-322.
    Gestational surrogacy as a treatment for infertility is being practised in some well-known medical institutions in Tehran and some other cities in Iran. While the majority of Muslims in the world are Sunni, the majority of Iranians are Shiite. Most Sunni scholars do not permit surrogate motherhood, since it involves introducing the sperm of a man into the uterus of a woman to whom he is not married. Most Shiite scholars, however, have issued jurisprudential decrees (fatwas) that allow surrogate motherhood (...)
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  48. Ethics, Law, and Commercial Surrogacy: A Call for Uniformity.Katherine Drabiak, Carole Wegner, Valita Fredland & Paul R. Helft - 2007 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 35 (2):300-309.
    In the United States at this time, no uniform federal law exists regarding commercial surrogacy, and state statutory schemes vary vastly, ranging from criminalization to legal recognition with contract enforcement. The authors examine how commercial surrogacy agencies utilize the Internet as a means for attracting parents and surrogates by employing emotional cultural rhetoric. By inducing both parents and surrogates to their jurisdiction, agencies circumvent vast discrepancies in state statutory regulative schemes and create a distinct interstate business, absent an efficient regulatory (...)
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  49. For Dignity or Money: Feminists on the Commodification of Women’s Reproductive Labour.Carolyn McLeod - 2007 - In Bonnie Steinbock (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Bioethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 258-281.
    This article aims to lay out the ‘for money’ and ‘for dignity’ arguments that feminist ethicists have given about the reproductive labour women perform in providing oocytes or in getting pregnant for others. Feminist arguments about the morality of these two practices overlap significantly because, from a feminist perspective, the morally relevant facts about them are quite similar. Still, there are dissimilarities, stemming from the obvious fact that one practice involves giving up oocytes while the other involves giving up a (...)
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  50. Surrogate Motherhood.Rosemarie Tong - 2005 - In R. G. Frey & Christopher Heath Wellman (eds.), A Companion to Applied Ethics. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. pp. 369–381.
    This chapter contains sections titled: Moral Arguments against and for Surrogate Motherhood Legal Remedies for Surrogate Motherhood Perspectives of Health‐care Practitioners on Surrogate Motherhood Perspectives of Society on Surrogate Motherhood Conclusion.
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