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  1. The Mark of the Cognitive.Fred Adams & Rebecca Garrison - 2013 - Minds and Machines 23 (3):339-352.
    It is easy to give a list of cognitive processes. They are things like learning, memory, concept formation, reasoning, maybe emotion, and so on. It is not easy to say, of these things that are called cognitive, what makes them so? Knowing the answer is one very important reason to be interested in the mark of the cognitive. In this paper, consider some answers that we think do not work and then offer one of our own which ties cognition to (...)
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  2. Intentionality and Artificial Intelligence.Evandro Agazzi - 1981 - Epistemologia 4:195.
  3. Symptom, Symbol, and the Other of Language: A Jungian Interpretation of the Linguistic Turn.Bret Alderman - 2016 - Routledge.
    Every statement about language is also a statement by and about psyche. Guided by this primary assumption, and inspired by the works of Carl Jung, in _Symptom, Symbol, and the Other of Language_, Bret Alderman delves deep into the symbolic and symptomatic dimensions of a deconstructive postmodernism infatuated with semiotics and the workings of linguistic signs. This book offers an important exploration of linguistic reference and representation through a Jungian understanding of symptom and symbol, using techniques including amplification, dream interpretation, (...)
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  4. Symbolic Meaning and the Confederate Battle Flag.Torin Alter - 2000 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 7 (2/3):1-4.
    The Confederate Battle Flag (CBF) is in the news again. On January 16th, 2000, 46,000 people came to Columbia, South Carolina, to protest its display over the state’s capital dome. On July 1st, the CBF was removed. But on the same day, it was raised in front of the Statehouse steps. The controversy has received a great deal of media coverage and was a factor in the 2000 presidential primaries. CBF displays raise a philosophical question I wish to address: What (...)
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  5. The Religious Meaning of Myth and Symbol.Thomas J. J. Altizer - 1962 - In Truth, Myth, and Symbol. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.Prentice-Hall.
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  6. Symbol and Myth.Alexander Altmann - 1945 - Philosophy 20 (76):162 - 171.
    There are two ways in which Symbol and Myth are related to each other. Firstly, a certain class of symbols represents the remnant of myths. Such figures as, e.g. the Dragon, Leviathan, etc., which we find in Biblical literature, are not used in the full sense of the underlying mythological conception, but in a metaphorical sense. They are chosen by the author because of their mythical associations, but not in their mythical meaning. Ametaphor of this kind is, as H. J. (...)
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  7. Representations, Symbols and Embodiment.Dr Michael L. Anderson - 2003 - Philosophical Explorations.
    Response to "Embodied artificial intelligence", a commentary by Ron Chrisley.
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  8. Symbol Systems.Michael L. Anderson & Donald R. Perlis - 2002 - In L. Nagel (ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Macmillan.
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  9. From Symbol to Simulacrum.Edward G. Armstrong - 1994 - Semiotics:3-9.
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  10. Structure of Symbol Within Cultural Transitions.Din Aslamazishvili - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 12:3-7.
    Among such social-philosophic notions as society, culture, civilization, system, human, sense, sign, truth and others, concept “symbol” takes a special place. Most of the researchers meet the view, that symbol possesses an important place in the development of culture as a social phenomenon. The role of symbol in cultures birth and development is characterized by antipathy and polysemy. However revelation of the symbol role in spiritual processes of cultural transitions is beyond question one of the urgent philosophic issues. Symbol is (...)
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  11. Notes on Symbols.R. Assagiol - 1972 - Humanitas 8 (2):161-167.
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  12. Grounded Cognition: Past, Present, and Future.Lawrence W. Barsalou - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (4):716-724.
    Thirty years ago, grounded cognition had roots in philosophy, perception, cognitive linguistics, psycholinguistics, cognitive psychology, and cognitive neuropsychology. During the next 20 years, grounded cognition continued developing in these areas, and it also took new forms in robotics, cognitive ecology, cognitive neuroscience, and developmental psychology. In the past 10 years, research on grounded cognition has grown rapidly, especially in cognitive neuroscience, social neuroscience, cognitive psychology, social psychology, and developmental psychology. Currently, grounded cognition appears to be achieving increased acceptance throughout cognitive (...)
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  13. Perceptions of Perceptual Symbols.Lawrence W. Barsalou - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):637-660.
    Various defenses of amodal symbol systems are addressed, including amodal symbols in sensory-motor areas, the causal theory of concepts, supramodal concepts, latent semantic analysis, and abstracted amodal symbols. Various aspects of perceptual symbol systems are clarified and developed, including perception, features, simulators, category structure, frames, analogy, introspection, situated action, and development. Particular attention is given to abstract concepts, language, and computational mechanisms.
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  14. The Social Functions of Symbols.F. C. Bartlett - 1925 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 3 (1):1 – 11.
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  15. Bedeutungsverstehen AlS Kennzeichen Des Mentalen.Ansgar Beckermann - 1989 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 20 (1):132-145.
    In his paper "Machines and the Mental" Fred Dretske claims that there is a difference on principle between men on the one and animals and machines on the other side which arises from the fact that men are able to respond to the meaning of symbols whereas animals and machines can only respond to the symbols that have the meaning. In this paper it is argued that this claim does not bear closer scrutiny. Mainly for two reasons: 1. The mere (...)
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  16. Symbol Grounding: Special Issue Of.T. Belpaeme, S. Cowley & K. F. MacDorman - 2007 - Interaction Studies 8 (1).
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  17. Extending Symbol Grounding.Tony Belpaeme & Stephen J. Cowley - 2007 - Interaction Studies 8 (1):1-16.
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  18. Foreword: Extending Symbol Grounding.Tony Belpaeme & Stephen J. Cowley - 2007 - Interaction Studiesinteraction Studies Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems 8 (1):1-6.
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  19. What the <0.70, 1.17, 0.99, 1.07> is a Symbol?Istvan S. Berkeley - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (1):93-105.
    The notion of a ‘symbol’ plays an important role in the disciplines of Philosophy, Psychology, Computer Science, and Cognitive Science. However, there is comparatively little agreement on how this notion is to be understood, either between disciplines, or even within particular disciplines. This paper does not attempt to defend some putatively ‘correct’ version of the concept of a ‘symbol.’ Rather, some terminological conventions are suggested, some constraints are proposed and a taxonomy of the kinds of issue that give rise to (...)
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  20. What the is a Symbol?Istvan S. N. Berkeley - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (1):93-105.
    The notion of a ‘ symbol ’ plays an important role in the disciplines of Philosophy, Psychology, Computer Science, and Cognitive Science. However, there is comparatively little agreement on how this notion is to be understood, either between disciplines, or even within particular disciplines. This paper does not attempt to defend some putatively ‘correct’ version of the concept of a ‘ symbol.’ Rather, some terminological conventions are suggested, some constraints are proposed and a taxonomy of the kinds of issue that (...)
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  21. Peter Novak, Mental Symbols: A Defence of the Classical Theory of Mind. Studies in Cognitive Systems 19, Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997, XXII + 266 Pp., $114.00, ISBN 0-7923-4370-. [REVIEW]Istvan S. N. Berkeley - 2001 - Minds and Machines 11 (1):148-150.
  22. La Pointure du Symbole.Jean-Yves Beziau (ed.) - 2014 - Petra.
    Dans un texte désormais célèbre, Ferdinand de Saussure insiste sur l’arbitraire du signe dont il vante les qualités. Toutefois il s’avère que le symbole, signe non arbitraire, dans la mesure où il existe un rapport entre ce qui représente et ce qui est représenté, joue un rôle fondamental dans la plupart des activités humaines, qu’elles soient scientifiques, artistiques ou religieuses. C’est cette dimension symbolique, sa portée, son fonctionnement et sa signification dans des domaines aussi variés que la chimie, la théologie, (...)
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  23. Organizations as Cognitive Systems is Knowledge an Emergent Property of Information Networks?Lucio Biggiero - unknown
    The substitution of knowledge to information as the entity that organizations process and deliver raises a number of questions concerning the nature of knowledge. The dispute on the codifiability of tacit knowledge and that juxtaposing the epistemology of practice vs. the epistemology of possession can be better faced by revisiting two crucial debates. One concerns the nature of cognition and the other the famous mind-body problem. Cognition can be associated with the capability of manipulating symbols, like in the traditional computational (...)
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  24. Symbol and Man.Engen Biser - 1960 - Philosophy Today 4 (4):238-249.
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  25. MICHAEL POLANYI: CAN THE MIND BE REPRESENTED BY A MACHINE?Paul Richard Blum - 2010 - Polanyiana 19 (1-2):35-60.
    In 1949, the Department of Philosophy at the University of Manchester organized a symposium “Mind and Machine” with Michael Polanyi, the mathematicians Alan Turing and Max Newman, the neurologists Geoff rey Jeff erson and J. Z. Young, and others as participants. Th is event is known among Turing scholars, because it laid the seed for Turing’s famous paper on “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”, but it is scarcely documented. Here, the transcript of this event, together with Polanyi’s original statement and his (...)
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  26. Meaning of the Symbols in Adolescence.Svetomir Bojanin, Ivona Milačić & Petar Opalić - 2000 - Theoria 43 (1-2):117-127.
  27. Symbol and Reality.M. Born - 1966 - Dialectica 20 (2):143-157.
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  28. Symbols and Icons in "On the Waterfront".Jay H. Boylan - 1987 - Semiotics:269-273.
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  29. Symbols and Icons In.Jay H. Boylan - 1987 - Semiotics:269-273.
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  30. Transduction and Degree of Grounding.C. Franklin Boyle - 2001 - Psycoloquy 12 (36).
    While I agree in general with Stevan Harnad's symbol grounding proposal, I do not believe "transduction" (or "analog process") PER SE is useful in distinguishing between what might best be described as different "degrees" of grounding and, hence, for determining whether a particular system might be capable of cognition. By 'degrees of grounding' I mean whether the effects of grounding go "all the way through" or not. Why is transduction limited in this regard? Because transduction is a physical process which (...)
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  31. Lefort and the Symbolic Dimension.Warren Breckman - 2012 - Constellations 19 (1):30-36.
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  32. People Are Infinitary Symbol Systems: No Sensorimotor Capacity Necessary.Selmer Bringsjord - manuscript
    Stevan Harnad and I seem to be thinking about many of the same issues. Sometimes we agree, sometimes we don't; but I always find his reasoning refreshing, his positions sensible, and the problems with which he's concerned to be of central importance to cognitive science. His "Grounding Symbols in the Analog World with Neural Nets" (= GS) is no exception. And GS not only exemplifies Harnad's virtues, it also provides a springboard for diving into Harnad- Bringsjord terrain.
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  33. Symbols.K. W. Britton - 1976 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 10:208-222.
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  34. Dispositional Versus Epistemic Causality.Paul Bohan Broderick, Johannes Lenhard & Arnold Silverberg - 2006 - Minds and Machines 16 (3).
    Noam Chomsky and Frances Egan argue that David Marr’s computational theory of vision is not intentional, claiming that the formal scientific theory does not include description of visual content. They also argue that the theory is internalist in the sense of not describing things physically external to the perceiver. They argue that these claims hold for computational theories of vision in general. Beyond theories of vision, they argue that representational content does not figure as a topic within formal computational theories (...)
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  35. Maps and Absent Symbols.Ben Bronner - 2015 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 93 (1):43-59.
    ABSENCE is the claim that, if a symbol appears on a map, then absence of the symbol from some map coordinate signifies absence of the corresponding property from the corresponding location. This claim is highly intuitive and widely endorsed. And if it is true, then cartographic representation is strikingly different from linguistic representation. I argue, however, that ABSENCE is false of various maps and that we have no reason to believe it is true of any maps. The intuition to the (...)
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  36. The Migration of Symbols. [REVIEW]M. C. - 1957 - Review of Metaphysics 10 (3):534-534.
  37. The Grounding and Sharing of Symbols.Angelo Cangelosi - 2006 - Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 14 (2):275-285.
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  38. Evolution of Communication and Language Using Signals, Symbols and Words.Angelo Cangelosi - 2001 - [Journal (on-Line/Unpaginated)].
    This paper describes different types of models for the evolution of communication and language. It uses the distinction between signals, symbols, and words for the analysis of evolutionary models of language. In particular, it show how evolutionary computation techniques, such as artificial life, can be used to study the emergence of syntax and symbols from simple communication signals. Initially, a computational model that evolves repertoires of isolated signals is presented. This study has simulated the emergence of signals for naming foods (...)
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  39. Mind, a Machine? Review of “The Search for a Theory of Cognition: Early Mechanisms and New Ideas” Edited by Stefano Franchi and Francesco Bianchini.P. Cariani - 2012 - Constructivist Foundations 7 (3):222-227.
    Upshot: Written by recognized experts in their fields, the book is a set of essays that deals with the influences of early cybernetics, computational theory, artificial intelligence, and connectionist networks on the historical development of computational-representational theories of cognition. In this review, I question the relevance of computability arguments and Jonasian phenomenology, which has been extensively invoked in recent discussions of autopoiesis and Ashby’s homeostats. Although the book deals only indirectly with constructivist approaches to cognition, it is useful reading for (...)
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  40. Semantic Dispositionalism, Idealization, and Ceteris Paribus Clauses.Kai-Yuan Cheng - 2009 - Minds and Machines 19 (3):407-419.
    Kripke (Wittgenstein on rules and private language: an elementary exposition. Harvard University Press, Cambridge Mass, 1982 ) rejected a naturalistic dispositional account of meaning (hereafter semantic dispositionalism) in a skeptical argument about rule-following he attributes to Wittgenstein (Philosophical investigation. Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1958 ). Most philosophers who oppose Kripke’s criticisms of semantic dispositionalism take the stance that the argument proves too much: semantic dispositionalism is similar to much of our respected science in some important aspects, and hence to discard the (...)
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  41. Are Supersensibles Really Possible? The Evidential Role of Symbols.Andrew Chignell - 2009 - In V. Rhoden, T. Terra & G. Almeida (eds.), Recht und Frieden in der Philosophie Kants. DeGruyter.
    Kant on how certain experiences might give us considerations counting in favor of the real possibility of certain things. -/- .
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  42. Rules and Representations.Noam A. Chomsky - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (127):1-61.
    The book from which these sections are excerpted is concerned with the prospects for assimilating the study of human intelligence and its products to the natural sciences through the investigation of cognitive structures, understood as systems of rules and representations that can be regarded as These mental structui′es serve as the vehicles for the exercise of various capacities. They develop in the mind on the basis of an innate endowment that permits the growth of rich and highly articulated structures along (...)
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  43. Computation and the Brain.Patricia Smith Churchland, Rick Grush, Rob Wilson & Frank Keil - unknown
    Two very different insights motivate characterizing the brain as a computer. One depends on mathematical theory that defines computability in a highly abstract sense. Here the foundational idea is that of a Turing machine. Not an actual machine, the Turing machine is really a conceptual way of making the point that any well-defined function could be executed, step by step, according to simple 'if-you-are-in-state-P-and-have-input-Q-then-do-R' rules, given enough time (maybe infinite time) [see COMPUTATION]. Insofar as the brain is a device whose (...)
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  44. Connectionism in Context.A. Clark & Ronald Lutz (eds.) - 1992 - Springer Verlag.
  45. Material Symbols.Andy Clark - 2006 - Philosophical Psychology 19 (3):291-307.
    What is the relation between the material, conventional symbol structures that we encounter in the spoken and written word, and human thought? A common assumption, that structures a wide variety of otherwise competing views, is that the way in which these material, conventional symbol-structures do their work is by being translated into some kind of content-matching inner code. One alternative to this view is the tempting but thoroughly elusive idea that we somehow think in some natural language (such as English). (...)
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  46. Semiotic Symbols and the Missing Theory of Thinking.Robert Clowes - 2007 - Interaction Studies 8 (1):105-124.
  47. Semiotic Symbols and the Missing Theory of Thinking.Robert Clowes - 2007 - Interaction Studiesinteraction Studies Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems 8 (1):105-124.
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  48. Symbol in The Flying Inn.John D. Coates - 2014 - The Chesterton Review 40 (3):513-527.
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  49. Symbols and the Evolution of Mind.Vincent Colapietro - 1998 - Semiotics:61-70.
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  50. Philosophical Assumptions in Artificial Intelligence: A Tentative Criticism of a Criticism.Roberto Cordeschi - 1989 - In Proceedings of the 5th Osterreichische Artificial-Intelligence-Tagung. Springer.
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