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  1. added 2020-05-01
    The Nature of Symbols in the Language of Thought.Susan Schneider - 2009 - Mind and Language 24 (5):523-553.
    The core of the language of thought program is the claim that thinking is the manipulation of symbols according to rules. Yet LOT has said little about symbol natures, and existing accounts are highly controversial. This is a major flaw at the heart of the LOT program: LOT requires an account of symbol natures to naturalize intentionality, to determine whether the brain even engages in symbol manipulations, and to understand how symbols relate to lower-level neurocomputational states. This paper provides the (...)
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  2. added 2019-11-25
    Searle, Syntax, and Observer Relativity.Ronald P. Endicott - 1996 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 26 (1):101-22.
    I critically examine some provocative arguments that John Searle presents in his book The Rediscovery of Mind to support the claim that the syntactic states of a classical computational system are "observer relative" or "mind dependent" or otherwise less than fully and objectively real. I begin by explaining how this claim differs from Searle's earlier and more well-known claim that the physical states of a machine, including the syntactic states, are insufficient to determine its semantics. In contrast, his more recent (...)
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  3. added 2019-11-21
    Searle, Syntax, and Observer Relativity.Ronald P. Endicott - 1996 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 26 (1):101-122.
    I focus on and criticize John Searle's argument against a classical computational view of the mind according to which the attribution of syntax is observer relative (in Searle, Rediscovery of Mind, MIT Press, 1992). Searle's argument is interesting inasmuch as it differs from his previous and more well-known argument that syntax is not sufficient for semantics. This argument aims to undercut even the syntax as something that exists only in the eye of the beholder. I show that Searle's argument rests (...)
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  4. added 2019-09-09
    Refounding of the Activity Concept? Towards a Federative Paradigm for Modeling and Simulation.Alexandre Muzy, Franck Varenne, Bernard P. Zeigler, Jonathan Caux, Patrick Coquillard, Luc Touraille, Dominique Prunetti, Philippe Caillou, Olivier Michel & David R. C. Hill - 2013 - Simulation - Transactions of the Society for Modeling and Simulation International 89 (2):156-177.
    Currently, the widely used notion of activity is increasingly present in computer science. However, because this notion is used in specific contexts, it becomes vague. Here, the notion of activity is scrutinized in various contexts and, accordingly, put in perspective. It is discussed through four scientific disciplines: computer science, biology, economics, and epistemology. The definition of activity usually used in simulation is extended to new qualitative and quantitative definitions. In computer science, biology and economics disciplines, the new simulation activity definition (...)
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  5. added 2019-08-13
    A Description Logic Framework for Commonsense Conceptual Combination Integrating Typicality, Probabilities and Cognitive Heuristics.Antonio Lieto & Gian Luca Pozzato - 2019 - Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence:1-39.
    We propose a nonmonotonic Description Logic of typicality able to account for the phenomenon of the combination of prototypical concepts. The proposed logic relies on the logic of typicality ALC + TR, whose semantics is based on the notion of rational closure, as well as on the distributed semantics of probabilistic Description Logics, and is equipped with a cognitive heuristic used by humans for concept composition. We first extend the logic of typicality ALC + TR by typicality inclusions of the (...)
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  6. added 2019-08-01
    Wernaer on Die Einfuhlung Und Das Symbol.Adam Leroy Jones - 1905 - Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 2 (23):639.
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  7. added 2019-07-05
    Символіка образу пса у прозі Сергія Жадана.Snizhana Umanets - 2018 - NaUKMA Researh Papers. Literary Studies 1:110-113.
  8. added 2019-07-04
    Compiled Labelled Deductive Systems a Uniform Presentation of Non-Classical Logics.Krysia Broda, Dov Gabbay, Luis Lamb & Alessandra Russo - 2004 - Hertfordshire: Institute of Physics/Research Studies Press.
    K. Broda, Dov M. Gabbay, Alessandra Russo (all computing or computer science, Imperial College, London) and LuÍs C. Lamb (Informatics, UFRGS, Brazil) argue that though the many families of logic may seem to differ in their logical nature, it is possible to provide them with a unifying logical framework whenever their semantics is axiomatizable in first-order logic. They provide such a framework based on the labeled deductive system methodology, and demonstrate how it works in such families as normal modal logics, (...)
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  9. added 2019-06-06
    Symbols as Constraints: The Structuring Role of Dynamics and Self-Organization in Natural Language.Joanna Raczaszek-Leonardi - 2009 - Radical Philosophy Review of Books 17 (3):653-676.
    The paper draws a parallel between natural language symbols and the symbolic mode in living systems. The inextricability of symbols and the dynamics with which they are functionally related shows that much of their structuring is due to dynamics and self-organization. It is also stressed that important factors that determine the shape of language structure lie outside individual mind/brains and they draw on time-scales quite different from those of phenomenological experience. Analysis of language into units and subsystems is thus not (...)
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  10. added 2019-06-06
    The Grounding and Sharing of Symbols.Angelo Cangelosi - 2006 - Pragmatics and Cognition 14 (2):275-285.
    The double function of language, as a social/communicative means, and as an individual/cognitive capability, derives from its fundamental property that allows us to internally re-represent the world we live in. This is possible through the mechanism of symbol grounding, i.e., the ability to associate entities and states in the external and internal world with internal categorical representations. The symbol grounding mechanism, as language, has both an individual and a social component. The individual component, called the “Physical Symbol Grounding“, refers to (...)
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  11. added 2019-06-06
    Peter Novak, Mental Symbols: A Defence of the Classical Theory of Mind. Studies in Cognitive Systems 19, Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997, Xxii + 266 Pp., $114.00, ISBN 0-7923-4370-0. [REVIEW]Istvan S. N. Berkeley - 2001 - Minds and Machines 11 (1):148-150.
  12. added 2019-06-06
    Review Essay: From Cognitive Science to Folk Psychology: Computation, Mental Representation, and Belief.Terence Horgan - 1992 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 52 (2):449-484.
  13. added 2019-06-06
    Symbol and Interpretation. [REVIEW]A. J. O. - 1976 - Review of Metaphysics 29 (3):558-558.
    This book is an exercise in hermeneutics, or interpretation. In it Professor Rasmussen is concerned with an explanation of symbols and the myths in which they occur. Using the methods of phenomenology and taking advantage of the results of earlier interpreters of myths and symbols, particularly Eliade and Ricoeur, he develops and defends a view of symbolic language whose main theses include the following. Symbols and, thus, myths are authentic representations of a unique dimension of human consciousness, which can be (...)
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  14. added 2019-06-06
    Symbol und Mythus im altfranzösischen Rolandslied. Raimund Rütten.Douglas Kelly - 1972 - Speculum 47 (1):142-144.
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  15. added 2019-05-06
    Tools, Symbols and Other Selves: II.Alfred Duhrssen - 1958 - Review of Metaphysics 11 (3):411 - 425.
    Apart from these reservations, however, the child sacrifices certain immediate ends of satisfaction for ends which by their very transcendence elude him. The consequence of his new attitude on his interpretation of the actions of other individuals will he striking; for, inasmuch as their acts and gestures no longer signify as means to his immediate and tangible ends within his life-space, their behavior will be problematic, and the child will attempt to interrogate its meaning. Under the old dispensation he could (...)
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  16. added 2019-04-26
    Between Physicality and Symbolism: Kyiv as a Contested Territory in Russian and Ukrainian Émigré Letters, 1920–1939.Mykola Iv Soroka - 2018 - Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal 5:143-159.
    The paper deals with visions of Kyiv in the writings of Russian and Ukrainian émigré writers during the interwar period. The city became a focal point of intensive intellectual debate whose participants regarded Kyiv not only as a place of a recent battleground but also as a sacral place and a highly symbolic image. Within the methodological framework of ethnic symbolism, this study attempts to explain how this physical/symbolic dichotomy was used to reinforce continuing claims for historical origin and cultural (...)
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  17. added 2019-02-11
    Metacognition and Abstract Concepts.Nicholas Shea - 2018 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 373.
    The problem of how concepts can refer to or be about the non-mental world is particularly puzzling for abstract concepts. There is growing evidence that many characteristics beyond the perceptual are involved in grounding different kinds of abstract concept. A resource that has been suggested, but little explored, is introspection. This paper develops that suggestion by focusing specifically on metacognition—on the thoughts and feelings that thinkers have about a concept. One example of metacognition about concepts is the judgement that we (...)
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  18. added 2018-09-23
    What an Entangled Web We Weave: An Information-Centric Approach to Time-Evolving Socio-Technical Systems.Markus Luczak-Roesch, Kieron O’Hara, Jesse David Dinneen & Ramine Tinati - 2018 - Minds and Machines 28 (4):709-733.
    A new layer of complexity, constituted of networks of information token recurrence, has been identified in socio-technical systems such as the Wikipedia online community and the Zooniverse citizen science platform. The identification of this complexity reveals that our current understanding of the actual structure of those systems, and consequently the structure of the entire World Wide Web, is incomplete, which raises novel questions for data science research but also from the perspective of social epistemology. Here we establish the principled foundations (...)
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  19. added 2018-09-06
    Semantics and the Computational Paradigm in Cognitive Psychology.Eric Dietrich - 1989 - Synthese 79 (1):119-141.
    There is a prevalent notion among cognitive scientists and philosophers of mind that computers are merely formal symbol manipulators, performing the actions they do solely on the basis of the syntactic properties of the symbols they manipulate. This view of computers has allowed some philosophers to divorce semantics from computational explanations. Semantic content, then, becomes something one adds to computational explanations to get psychological explanations. Other philosophers, such as Stephen Stich, have taken a stronger view, advocating doing away with semantics (...)
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  20. added 2018-06-29
    Heterogeneous Proxytypes Extended: Integrating Theory-Like Representations and Mechanisms with Prototypes and Exemplars.Antonio Lieto - 2018 - In Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing: Proceedings of BICA. Springer.
    The paper introduces an extension of the proposal according to which conceptual representations in cognitive agents should be intended as heterogeneous proxytypes. The main contribution of this paper is in that it details how to reconcile, under a heterogeneous representational perspective, different theories of typicality about conceptual representation and reasoning. In particular, it provides a novel theoretical hypothesis - as well as a novel categorization algorithm called DELTA - showing how to integrate the representational and reasoning assumptions of the theory-theory (...)
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  21. added 2018-04-12
    The Symbol Between Ethics and Communication in Alfred Schütz.Massimo Vittorio - 2018 - Journal of Philosophical Criticism 1 (1):71-88.
    This paper focuses on the concept of symbol and tries to outline its function as a means of communication. In order to describe the communicative qualities of symbol, it is necessary to show its ethical nature. The paper analyses the role symbols play in intersubjective relations, in the construction of the individual’s reality, and in the human ability to attribute meanings and assign functions.The conceptual frame- work for the understanding of what symbol is, how it works, and how it is (...)
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  22. added 2018-02-09
    Cognitive Robot Architectures: Proceedings of EUCognition 2016.Ron Chrisley, Vincent C. Müller, Yulia Sandamirskaya & Markus Vincze (eds.) - 2017 - Hamburg: CEUR-WS.
    The European Association for Cognitive Systems is the association resulting from the EUCog network, which has been active since 2006. It has ca. 1000 members and is currently chaired by Vincent C. Müller. We ran our annual conference on December 08-09 2016, kindly hosted by the Technical University of Vienna with Markus Vincze as local chair. The invited speakers were David Vernon and Paul F.M.J. Verschure. Out of the 49 submissions for the meeting, we accepted 18 a papers and 25 (...)
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  23. added 2018-01-19
    Symbols Are Not Uniquely Human.Sidarta Ribeiro, Angelo Loula, Ivan Araújo, Ricardo Gudwin & Joao Queiroz - 2006 - Biosystems 90 (1):263-272.
    Modern semiotics is a branch of logics that formally defines symbol-based communication. In recent years, the semiotic classification of signs has been invoked to support the notion that symbols are uniquely human. Here we show that alarm-calls such as those used by African vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), logically satisfy the semiotic definition of symbol. We also show that the acquisition of vocal symbols in vervet monkeys can be successfully simulated by a computer program based on minimal semiotic and neurobiological constraints. (...)
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  24. added 2017-08-07
    Turing Machines and Semantic Symbol Processing: Why Real Computers Don’T Mind Chinese Emperors.Richard Yee - 1993 - Lyceum 5 (1):37-59.
    Philosophical questions about minds and computation need to focus squarely on the mathematical theory of Turing machines (TM's). Surrogate TM's such as computers or formal systems lack abilities that make Turing machines promising candidates for possessors of minds. Computers are only universal Turing machines (UTM's)—a conspicuous but unrepresentative subclass of TM. Formal systems are only static TM's, which do not receive inputs from external sources. The theory of TM computation clearly exposes the failings of two prominent critiques, Searle's Chinese room (...)
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  25. added 2017-05-14
    The Knowledge Level in Cognitive Architectures: Current Limitations and Possible Developments.Antonio Lieto, Christian Lebiere & Alessandro Oltramari - 2017 - Cognitive Systems Research:1-42.
    In this paper we identify and characterize an analysis of two problematic aspects affecting the representational level of cognitive architectures (CAs), namely: the limited size and the homogeneous typology of the encoded and processed knowledge. We argue that such aspects may constitute not only a technological problem that, in our opinion, should be addressed in order to build arti cial agents able to exhibit intelligent behaviours in general scenarios, but also an epistemological one, since they limit the plausibility of the (...)
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  26. added 2017-02-15
    Ronald W. Langacker, Concept, Image, and Symbol: The Cognitive Basis of Grammar.A. Herskovits - 1996 - Minds and Machines 6:242-248.
  27. added 2017-02-15
    Brooklyn Bridge: Fact and Symbol.Alan Trachtenberg - 1979 - University of Chicago Press.
    Investigates the continuing impact of the Brooklyn Bridge upon the American imagination, exploring both its symbolic significance as reflected in the works of Hart Crane and others and its importance as an engineering accomplishment 'This ...
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  28. added 2017-02-14
    Pushing Symbols.D. Landy & R. L. Goldstone - 2009 - In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.
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  29. added 2017-02-14
    Grounding Word Learning in Multimodal Sensorimotor Interaction.Chen Yu, Linda B. Smith & Alfredo F. Pereira - 2008 - In B. C. Love, K. McRae & V. M. Sloutsky (eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society. pp. 1017--1022.
  30. added 2017-02-14
    Symbols and Embodiment From the Perspective of a Neural Modeller.Andreas Knoblauch - 2008 - In Manuel de Vega, Arthur Glenberg & Arthur Graesser (eds.), Symbols and Embodiment: Debates on Meaning and Cognition. Oxford University Press. pp. 117.
  31. added 2017-02-14
    Symbols: Integrated Cognition and Language.Leonid I. Perlovsky - 2007 - In R. Gudwin & J. Queiroz (eds.), Semiotics and Intelligent Systems Development. Idea Group. pp. 121--151.
  32. added 2017-02-14
    Symbols Symbols Everywhere, and Not a Thought to Think.W. C. Watt - 2000 - Semiotica 131 (3-4):317-325.
  33. added 2017-02-14
    Meaning of the Symbols in Adolescence.Svetomir Bojanin, Ivona Milačić & Petar Opalić - 2000 - Theoria 43 (1-2):117-127.
  34. added 2017-02-14
    John Stewart, Ed., Beyond the Symbol Model: Reflections on the Representational Nature of Language Reviewed By.Katya Mandoki - 1997 - Philosophy in Review 17 (6):441-443.
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  35. added 2017-02-14
    The Image V. Language: Transmitting Symbols.R. Debray - 1995 - Common Knowledge 4:51-69.
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  36. added 2017-02-14
    The Approach Through Symbols.Allen Newell, Richard Young & Thad Polk - 1993 - In Donald E. Broadbent (ed.), The Simulation of Human Intelligence. Blackwell. pp. 62.
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  37. added 2017-02-13
    Totalitarian Language: Creating Symbols to Destroy Words.Juan Francisco Fuentes - 2013 - Contributions to the History of Concepts 8 (2):45-66.
    This article deals with totalitarianism and its language, conceived as both the denial and to some extent the reversal of liberalism and its conceptual framework. Overcoming liberal language meant not only setting up new political terminology, but also replacing words with symbols, ideas with sensations. This is why the standard political lexicon of totalitarianism became hardly more than a slang vocabulary for domestic consumption and, by contrast, under those regimes—mainly Italian fascism, Nazism, and Stalinism—a amboyant universe of images, sounds, and (...)
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  38. added 2017-02-13
    Symbol Index.J. J. O. Vv - 2009 - In Ondrej Majer, Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen & Tero Tulenheimo (eds.), Games: Unifying Logic, Language, and Philosophy. Springer Verlag. pp. 15--372.
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  39. added 2017-02-13
    Symbol Before Concept: Material Engagement and the Early Development of Society.Colin Renfrew - 2001 - In Ian Hodder (ed.), Archaeological Theory Today. Blackwell. pp. 122--40.
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  40. added 2017-02-13
    Review Article: “Beyond the Symbol Model: Reflections on the Representational Nature of Language” by John Stewart. [REVIEW]Madeleine Schechter - 2000 - Pragmatics and Cognition 8 (2):423-434.
  41. added 2017-02-13
    Patterns, Symbols, and Understanding.John R. Searle - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (4):742-743.
  42. added 2017-02-13
    At the Roots of the Modern Concept of Symbol.Umberto Eco - 1985 - Social Research 52.
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  43. added 2017-02-13
    Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols.B. C. O'Neill - 1971 - Philosophical Quarterly 21 (85):361.
  44. added 2017-02-12
    Symbols and Their Meaning in Analysis.Hartley Slater - 2013 - Logique Et Analyse 56 (222):211-225.
  45. added 2017-02-12
    Symbols as Constraints: The Structuring Role of Dynamics and Selforganization in Natural Langa.Joanna Raczaszek Leonardi - 2009 - Pragmatics and Cognition 17 (3):653-676.
  46. added 2017-02-12
    Life After the Symbol System Metaphor.Karl F. MacDorman - 2007 - Interaction Studies 8 (1):143-158.
    After reviewing the papers in this special issue, I must conclude that brains are not syntactic engines, but control systems that orient to biological, interindividual, and cultural norms. By themselves, syntactic constraints both underdetermine and overdetermine cognitive operations. So, rather than serving as the basis for general cognition, they are just another kind of empirically acquired constraint. In humans, symbols emerge from a particular sensorimotor activity through a process of contextual broadening that depends on the coordination of conscious and nonconscious (...)
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  47. added 2017-02-12
    Symbols and Icons In.Jay H. Boylan - 1987 - Semiotics:269-273.
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  48. added 2017-02-11
    Symbols Grow.Irmengard Rauch - 1984 - American Journal of Semiotics 3 (1):1-23.
  49. added 2017-02-11
    The Effects of Symbols, Shift, and Manipulation Upon the Number of Concepts Attained.Robert S. Davidon - 1952 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 44 (2):70.
  50. added 2017-02-10
    The Cognitive Legacy of Norm Simulation.Martin Neumann - 2012 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 20 (4):339-357.
    The comprehension of norms in complex social systems is one of the most active fields of research in agent-based modelling. This is faced with the challenge to comprehend the recursive interaction between inter- and intra-agent processes. In this article, a comparative analysis of selected cases of normative agent architectures will be given based on a review of theories of norms in the social sciences. This allows to identify the prerequisites for a representation of the cognitive processes of norm recognition. As (...)
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