Synesthesia

Edited by Ophelia Deroy (School of Advanced Study, University of London, Ludwig Maximilians Universität, München)
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  1. Visual Music: Synaesthesia in Art and Music Since 1900 Edited by Brougher, Kerry, Olivia Mattis, Jeremy Strick, Ari Wiseman and Judith Zilczer.Thomas Adajian - 2006 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 64 (4):488–489.
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  2. Synesthesia.Sean Allen-Hermanson & Jennifer Matey - 2012 - In J. Feiser & B. Dowden (eds.), Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    This is an encyclopedia entry on Synesthesia. It provides a summary of our current knowledge about the condition and it reviews the philosophical implications that have been drawn from considerations about synesthesia. It's import for debates about consciousness, perception, modular theories of mind, creativity and aesthetics are discussed.
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  3. Does Synesthesia Undermine Representationalism?Torin Alter - 2006 - Psyche 12 (5).
    Does synesthesia undermine representationalism? Gregg Rosenberg (2004) argues that it does. On his view, synesthesia illustrates how phenomenal properties can vary independently of representational properties. So, for example, he argues that sound/color synesthetic experiences show that visual experiences do not always represent spatial properties. I will argue that the representationalist can plausibly answer Rosenberg.
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  4. Synesthesia and Binding.Bryan D. Alvarez & Lynn C. Robertson - 2013 - In Julia Simner & Edward Hubbard (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Synesthesia. Oxford University Press. pp. 317.
    Synaesthesia is an excellent model for understanding perceptual binding in the human brain. Current evidence suggests that if synaesthetic colour is bound, it is through the same attention-dependent integration of feature maps that occurs in other forms of binding. synaesthetic colour arises after the point that separate wavelengths blend in normal colour vision, which creates a perceptual paradox where synaesthetic and print colour can appear bound to a single location without blending. If a letter is printed in a colour that (...)
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  5. Can Grapheme-Color Synesthesia Be Induced by Hypnosis?Hazel P. Anderson, Anil K. Seth, Zoltan Dienes & Jamie Ward - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
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  6. A Conceptual Mediation Hypothesis of Synaesthesia: What Can Yellow Tuesdays Tell Us About How We Represent Objects?Rich Anina & Chiou Rocco - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
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  7. Synesthetic Colors for Japanese Late Acquired Graphemes.Michiko Asano & Kazuhiko Yokosawa - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):983-993.
    Determinants of synesthetic color choice for the Japanese logographic script, Kanji, were studied. The study investigated how synesthetic colors for Kanji characters, which are usually acquired later in life than other types of graphemes in Japanese language , are influenced by linguistic properties such as phonology, orthography, and meaning. Of central interest was a hypothesized generalization process from synesthetic colors for graphemes, learned prior to acquisition of Kanji, to Kanji characters learned later. Results revealed that color choices for Kanji characters (...)
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  8. Synesthetic Colors Are Elicited by Sound Quality in Japanese Synesthetes.Michiko Asano & Kazuhiko Yokosawa - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1816-1823.
    Determinants of synesthetic color choice for Japanese phonetic characters were studied in six Japanese synesthetes. The study used Hiragana and Katakana characters, which represent the same set of syllables although their visual forms are dissimilar. From a palette of 138 colors, synesthetes selected a color corresponding to each character. Results revealed that synesthetic color choices for Hiragana characters and those for their Katakana counterparts were remarkably consistent, indicating that color selection depended on character-related sounds and not visual form. This Hiragana–Katakana (...)
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  9. The Genetics and Inheritance of Synesthesia.Julian E. Asher & Duncan A. Carmichael - 2013 - In Julia Simner & Edward Hubbard (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Synesthesia. Oxford University Press. pp. 23.
    Synaesthesia is a neurodevelopmental condition characterised by anomalous sensory perceptions and associated alterations in cognitive function. This chapter summarises what is known about the familial transmission of synaesthesia and its genetic underpinnings. Early familiality studies showed evidence for a strong genetic predisposition, a highly skewed female: male ratio, and an absence of male-to-male transmission. These patterns supported an early hypothesis of a single-gene X-linked dominant mode of inheritance with male lethality. Subsequent analyses in larger samples indicated that the mode of (...)
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  10. How Do Synesthetes Experience the World.Malika Auvray & Ophelia Deroy - forthcoming - In Mohan Matthen (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Perception. Oxford University Press.
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  11. Synaesthesia is Associated with Enhanced, Self-Rated Visual Imagery.K. Barnett & F. Newell - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):1032-1039.
    Although the condition known as synaesthesia is currently undergoing a scientific resurgence, to date the literature has largely focused on the heterogeneous nature of synaesthesia across individuals. In order to provide a better understanding of synaesthesia, however, general characteristics need to be investigated. Synaesthetic experiences are often described as occurring ‘internally’ or in the ‘mind’s eye’, which is remarkably similar to how we would describe our experience of visual mental imagery. We assessed the role of visual imagery in synaesthesia by (...)
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  12. Savant Memory in a Man with Colour Form-Number Synaesthesia and Asperger.Simon Baron-Cohen, D. Bor, J. Billington, J. Asher, S. Wheelwright & C. Ashwin - 2007 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (s 9-10):237-251.
    Extreme conditions like savantism, autism or synaesthesia, which have a neurological 2AH, UK basis, challenge the idea that other minds are similar to our own. In this paper we report a single case study of a man in whom all three of these conditions co-occur. We suggest, on the basis of this single case, that when savantism and synaesthesia co- occur, it is worthwhile testing for an undiagnosed Autism Spectrum Condition (ASC). This is because savantism has an established association with (...)
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  13. Synesthetic Grapheme-Color Percepts Exist for Newly Encountered Hebrew, Devanagari, Armenian and Cyrillic Graphemes.Christopher David Blair & Marian E. Berryhill - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):944-954.
    Grapheme-color synesthetes experience color, not physically present, when viewing symbols. Synesthetes cannot remember learning these associations. Must synesthetic percepts be formed during a sensitive period? Can they form later and be consistent? What determines their nature? We tested grapheme-color synesthete, MC2, before, during and after she studied Hindi abroad. We investigated whether novel graphemes elicited synesthetic percepts, changed with familiarity, and/or benefited from phonemic information. MC2 reported color percepts to novel Devanagari and Hebrew graphemes. MC2 monitored these percepts over 6 (...)
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  14. On the Perceptual Reality of Synesthetic Color.Randolph Blake, Thomas J. Palmeri, Rene Marois & Chai-Youn Kim - 2005 - In Robertson, C. L. & N. Sagiv (eds.), Synesthesia: Perspectives From Cognitive Neuroscience. Oxford University Press.
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  15. Temporal Sequences, Synesthetic Mappings, and Cultural Biases: The Geography of Time.David Brang, Ursina Teuscher, V. S. Ramachandran & Seana Coulson - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):311-320.
    Time–space synesthetes report that they experience the months of the year as having a spatial layout. In Study 1, we characterize the phenomenology of calendar sequences produced by synesthetes and non-synesthetes, and show a conservative estimate of time–space synesthesia at 2.2% of the population. We demonstrate that synesthetes most commonly experience the months in a circular path, while non-synesthetes default to linear rows or rectangles. Study 2 compared synesthetes’ and non-synesthetes’ ability to memorize a novel spatial calendar, and revealed better (...)
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  16. Synesthetic Binding and the Reactivation Model of Memory.Berit Brogaard - forthcoming - In Ophelia Deroy (ed.), Sensory Blendings: New essays on synaesthesia. Oxford University Press.
    Despite the recent surge in research on, and interest in, synesthesia, the mechanism underlying this condition is still unknown. Feedforward mechanisms involving overlapping receptive fields of sensory neurons as well as feedback mechanisms involving a lack of signal disinhibition have been proposed. Here I show that a broad range of studies of developmental synesthesia indicate that the mechanism underlying the phenomenon may involve reinstatement of brain activity in different sensory or cognitive streams in a way that is similar to what (...)
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  17. Varieties of Synesthetic Experience.Berit Brogaard - forthcoming - In Richard Brown (ed.), Consciousness Inside and Out: Phenomenology, Neuroscience, and the Nature of Experience. Neuroscience Series, Synthese Library.
    In her response to my "Seeing as a Non-Experiental Mental State: The Case from Synesthesia and Visual Imagery" Ophelia Deroy presents an argument for an interesting new account of synesthesia. On this account, synesthesia can be thought of as "a perceptual state (e.g. of a letter)" that is "changed or enriched by the incorporation of a conscious mental image (e.g. a color)." I reply that while this is a plausible account of some types of synesthesia, some forms cannot be accounted (...)
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  18. Color Synesthesia.Berit Brogaard - forthcoming - In Kimberly A. Jameson (ed.), Cognition & Language, Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology. Springer.
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  19. Seeing as a Non-Experiental Mental State: The Case From Synesthesia and Visual Imagery.Berit Brogaard - 2012 - In Richard Brown (ed.), Consciousness Inside and Out: Phenomenology, Neuroscience, and the Nature of Experience. Neuroscience Series, Synthese Library.
    The paper argues that the English verb ‘to see’ can denote three different kinds of conscious states of seeing, involving visual experiences, visual seeming states and introspective seeming states, respectively. The case for the claim that there are three kinds of seeing comes from synesthesia and visual imagery. Synesthesia is a relatively rare neurological condition in which stimulation in one sensory or cognitive stream involuntarily leads to associated experiences in a second unstimulated stream. Visual synesthesia is often considered a case (...)
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  20. The Long-Term Potentiation Model for Grapheme-Color Binding in Synesthesia.Berit Brogaard, Kristian Marlow & Kevin Rice - 2015 - In David Bennett & Chris Hill (eds.), Sensory Integration and the Unity of Consciousness. MIT Press.
    The phenomenon of synesthesia has undergone an invigoration of research interest and empirical progress over the past decade. Studies investigating the cognitive mechanisms underlying synesthesia have yielded insight into neural processes behind such cognitive operations as attention, memory, spatial phenomenology and inter-modal processes. However, the structural and functional mechanisms underlying synesthesia still remain contentious and hypothetical. The first section of the present paper reviews recent research on grapheme-color synesthesia, one of the most common forms of synesthesia, and addresses the ongoing (...)
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  21. Seeing Mathematics: Perception and Brain Activity in a Case of Acquired Synesthesia.Berit Brogaard, Simo Vanni & Juha Silvanto - forthcoming - Neurocase.
    We studied the patient JP who has exceptional abilities to draw complex geometrical images by hand and a form of acquired synesthesia for mathematical formulas and objects, which he perceives as geometrical figures. JP sees all smooth curvatures as discrete lines, similarly regardless of scale. We carried out two preliminary investigations to establish the perceptual nature of synesthetic experience and to investigate the neural basis of this phenomenon. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, image-inducing formulas produced larger fMRI (...)
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  22. Synesthesia, Incongruence, and Emotionality.Alicia Callejas & Juan Lupiáñez - 2013 - In Julia Simner & Edward Hubbard (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Synesthesia. Oxford University Press. pp. 347.
    Synaesthesia has an emotional side. Many synaesthetes have a sense of certainty about the reality and accuracy of their experiences. Consequently, when their synaesthesia is mimicked in real life these synaeshtetes report a positive emotion whereas when the opposite is true, they experience discomfort. Synaesthesia can also be induced by emotions, and emotions can also be the synaesthetic experience. Here we review the research on these types of synaesthesia and study the current evidence for the true nature of these emotions (...)
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  23. On the Need to Compare Anomalous Experiences Carefully: Commentary on Milán Et Al.'S Auras in Mysticism and Synaesthesia: A Comparison.Etzel Cardeña & David Marcusson-Clavertz - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):1068-1069.
  24. Validating a Standardised Test Battery for Synesthesia: Does the Synesthesia Battery Reliably Detect Synesthesia?D. A. Carmichael, M. P. Down, R. C. Shillcock, D. M. Eagleman & J. Simner - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:375-385.
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  25. Synaesthesia and Epistemology in Abstract Painting.Clive Cazeaux - 1999 - British Journal of Aesthetics 39 (3):241-251.
  26. Synesthesia: Gluing Together Time, Number and Space.R. Cohen Kadosh & L. Gertner - 2011 - In Stanislas Dehaene & Elizabeth Brannon (eds.), Space, Time and Number in the Brain. Oxford University Press.
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  27. When Blue is Larger Than Red: Colors Influence Numerical Cognition in Synesthesia.R. Cohen Kadosh, N. Sagiv, D. E. J. Linden, L. C. Robertson, G. Elinger & A. Henik - 2005 - Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 17 (11):1766-73.
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  28. Can Synaesthesia Research Inform Cognitive Science?Roi Cohen Kadosh & Avishai Henik - 2007 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (4):177-184.
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  29. Is There a Normal Phase of Synaesthesia in Development?Simon Cohen - 1995 - Psyche 2.
    Synaesthesia has recently become amenable to scientific investigation. Recent findings are reviewed. Maurer's developmental theory of synaesthesia is then discussed. The theory states that all human neonates have synaesthesia, but that by about 4 months of age the senses have become modularized to the extent that we no longer have synaesthesia. Possible ways of testing this important theory are described, and the distinction between this account and cross-modal matching is clarified.
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  30. Synesthesia - A Real Phenomenon? Or Real Phenomena?Luciano Costa - 1995 - Psyche 2.
    This text comments on Cytowic's recent review on the current knowledge on synesthesia. Recent neurophysiological findings are discussed that suggest cross-modal interference in the mammalian brain. Based on these results, it is proposed that synesthesia may not be restricted to the phenomenologically characterized abnormality described in Cytowic's review, but rather that it may encompass a series of related physical phenomena in the brain. Some additional remarks on the relationship between emotions and consciousness have also been included.
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  31. Synaesthesia.E. M. R. Critchley - 1994 - In E. Critchley (ed.), The Neurological Boundaries of Reality. Farrand. pp. 116.
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  32. Synesthesia: Phenomenology And Neuropsychology A Review of Current Knowledge.Richard Cytowic - 1995 - Psyche 2.
    Synesthesia is the involuntary physical experience of a cross-modal association. That is, the stimulation of one sensory modality reliably causes a perception in one or more different senses. Its phenomenology clearly distinguishes it from metaphor, literary tropes, sound symbolism, and deliberate artistic contrivances that sometimes employ the term "synesthesia" to describe their multisensory joinings. An unexpected demographic and cognitive constellation co-occurs with synesthesia: females and non-right-handers predominate, the trait is familial, and memory is superior while math and spatial navigation suffer. (...)
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  33. Synesthesia: Phenomenology and Neuropsychology.Richard Cytowic - 1995 - Psyche 2 (10).
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  34. Synesthesia in the Twentieth Century.Richard E. Cytowic - 2013 - In Julia Simner & Edward Hubbard (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Synesthesia. Oxford University Press. pp. 399.
    Synaesthesia's Renaissance comments on attitudes and developments in synaesthesia research during the 20th century, focusing in particular on the last three decades when the greatest change took place. During the last century, reaction to the phenomenon varied by group. Synesthetes were gratified to learn that their experience was bona fide and had a scientific name. Laypersons were fascinated and clamored to know more. Well-known psychologists published on it early in the century, but then academia became hostile. After 1940 synesthesia was (...)
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  35. Perceiving Melodies and Perceiving Musical Colors.Stephen Davies - 2010 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (1):19-39.
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  36. Some Demographic and Socio-Cultural Perspectives of Synaesthesia,[W:] LC Robertson, N. Sagiv (Red.).S. Day - 2005 - In Robertson, C. L. & N. Sagiv (eds.), Synesthesia: Perspectives From Cognitive Neuroscience. Oxford University Press.
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  37. Some Demographic and Socio-Cultural Aspects of Synesthesia.Sean Day - 2005 - In Robertson, C. L. & N. Sagiv (eds.), Synesthesia: Perspectives From Cognitive Neuroscience. Oxford University Press.
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  38. Synaesthesia and Synaesthetic Metaphors.Sean Day - 1995 - Psyche 2.
    In a synesthetic metaphor, a certain perceptual mode is initially specified , but the imagery is linguistically related in terms belonging to one or more differing perceptual modes. Commonplace examples of synesthetic metaphors in English include phrases such as "loud colors", "dark sounds", and "sweet smells". Tabulations of the frequency of types of synesthesia and synesthetic metaphors in English reveals that for physiological synesthesia, colored sounds are most common; in English literature, synesthetic metaphors employed for descriptions of tactile sound predominate. (...)
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  39. Synaesthesia and the Borders of the Senses.Sean Day - 1995 - Semiotics:270-278.
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  40. An Experimental Program to Use Synesthesia to Investigate Semantic Structure of the Sign.Sean Day & Charls Pearson - 2007 - Semiotics:129-141.
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  41. Cartographies of the Mind: Philosophy and Psychology in Intersection , Series: Studies in Brain and Mind, Vol. 4.Mario de Caro, Francesco Ferretti & Massimo Marraffa (eds.) - 2007 - Kleuwer.
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  42. Cartographies of the Mind: Philosophy and Psychology in Intersection.Mario de Caro, Francesco Ferretti & Massimo Marraffa (eds.) - 2007 - Kleuwer.
  43. Space, Time, and Number: A Kantian Research Program.Stanislas Dehaene & Elizabeth M. Brannon - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (12):517-519.
  44. Task-Discriminative Space-by-Time Factorization of Muscle Activity.Ioannis Delis, Stefano Panzeri, Thierry Pozzo & Bastien Berret - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
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  45. Sensory Blendings: New Essays on Synaesthesia.Ophelia Deroy (ed.) - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
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  46. Five Plus Two Equals Yellow: Mental Arithmetic in People with Synaesthesia is Not Coloured by Visual Experience.M. Dixon, Daniel Smilek, C. Cudahy & Philip M. Merikle - 2000 - Nature 406.
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  47. Towards a Synergistic Understanding of Synaesthesia Combining Current Experimental Findings With Synaesthetes' Subjective Descriptions.Mike Dixon - 2002 - Psyche 8.
    In synaesthesia, ordinary stimuli elicit extraordinary conscious experiences. For example, standard black digits may elicit highly specific colour experiences and specific tastes may elicit unusual tactile sensations. The growing interest in synaesthesia has led to numerous experimental studies of this phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to review these recent studies and to discuss the relationship between the results of these experimental investigations of synaesthesia and the subjective descriptions reported by synaesthetes. It is argued that when the experimental investigations (...)
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  48. Literary Synesthesia.June E. Downey - 1912 - Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 9 (18):490-498.
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  49. Social Synaesthesia: Expressive Bodies, Embodied Charisma.Peter Es Freund - 2009 - Body and Society 15 (4):21-31.
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  50. Doing Away with Words : Synaesthetic Dislocations in Okinawa and Hong Kong.Rosalind Galt - 2011 - In John David Rhodes & Elena Gorfinkel (eds.), Taking Place: Location and the Moving Image. University of Minnesota Press.
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