Technology Ethics

Edited by Hector MacIntyre (University of Lethbridge)
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  1. Zukünftig Φ. Über Ein Subjektivistisches Gedankenexperiment in der Embryo­Nendebatte.Gregor Damschen & Dieter Schönecker - 2003 - Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft Und Ethik 8:67-93.
    In future φ. On a subjectivist thought experiment in the embryo debate. -.
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  2. Pragmatism and Care in Engineering Ethics.Indira Nair & William M. Bulleit - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-23.
    Engineering is a practice that must function in an environment of incomplete and uncertain knowledge. This environment has become even more difficult in an increasingly complex world. Engineering ethics has to be framed and taught in a way that addresses these realities. This paper proposes a combination of the philosophy of pragmatism and the ethic of care as a possible framework for the practice of engineering ethics that can provide flexibility and openness to address engineering ethics problems more realistically within (...)
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  3. What Are the Core Ideas Behind the Precautionary Principle?Erik Persson - 2016 - Science of the Total Environment 557:134–141.
    The Precautionary Principle is both celebrated and criticized. It has become an important principle for decision making, but it is also subject to criticism. One problem that is often pointed out with the principle is that is not clear what it actually says and how to use it. I have taken on this problem by performing an analysis of some of the most influential formulations of the principle in an attempt to identify the core ideas behind it, with the purpose (...)
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  4. Self-Focused Emotions and Ethical Decision-Making: Comparing the Effects of Regulated and Unregulated Guilt, Shame, and Embarrassment.Cory Higgs, Tristan McIntosh, Shane Connelly & Michael Mumford - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-37.
    Research has examined various cognitive processes underlying ethical decision-making, and has recently begun to focus on the differential effects of specific emotions. The present study examines three self-focused moral emotions and their influence on ethical decision-making: guilt, shame, and embarrassment. Given the potential of these discrete emotions to exert positive or negative effects in decision-making contexts, we also examined their effects on ethical decisions after a cognitive reappraisal emotion regulation intervention. Participants in the study were presented with an ethical scenario (...)
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  5. What Explains Associations of Researchers’ Nation of Origin and Scores on a Measure of Professional Decision-Making? Exploring Key Variables and Interpretation of Scores.Alison L. Antes, Tammy English, Kari A. Baldwin & James M. DuBois - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-32.
    Researchers encounter challenges that require making complex professional decisions. Strategies such as seeking help and anticipating consequences support decision-making in these situations. Existing evidence on a measure of professional decision-making in research that assesses the use of decision-making strategies revealed that NIH-funded researchers born outside of the U.S. tended to score below their U.S. counterparts. To examine potential explanations for this association, this study recruited 101 researchers born in the United States and 102 born internationally to complete the PDR and (...)
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  6. What Crisis? Management Researchers’ Experiences with and Views of Scholarly Misconduct.Christian Hopp & Gary A. Hoover - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-40.
    This research presents the results of a survey regarding scientific misconduct and questionable research practices elicited from a sample of 1215 management researchers. We find that misconduct is not encountered often by reviewers nor editors. Yet, there is a strong prevalence of misrepresentations. When it comes to potential methodological improvements, those that are skeptical about the empirical body of work being published see merit in replication studies. Yet, a sizeable majority of editors and authors eschew open data policies, which points (...)
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  7. Assessment of Doctors’ Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Confidentiality in Hospital Care.Cristina M. Beltran-Aroca, Fernando Labella, Pilar Font-Ugalde & Eloy Girela-Lopez - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-18.
    The physician’s duty of confidentiality is based on the observance of the patient’s privacy and intimacy and on the importance of respecting both of these rights, thus creating a relationship of confidence and collaboration between doctor and patient. The main objective of this work consists of analyzing the aspects that are related to the confidentiality of patients’ data with respect to the training, conduct and opinions of doctors from different Clinical Management Units of a third-level hospital via a questionnaire. The (...)
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  8. Good Scientific Practice: Developing a Curriculum for Medical Students in Germany.Katharina Fuerholzer, Maximilian Schochow & Florian Steger - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-13.
    German medical schools have not yet sufficiently introduced students to the field of good scientific practice. In order to prevent scientific misconduct and to foster scientific integrity, courses on GSP must be an integral part of the curriculum of medical students. Based on a review of the literature, teaching units and materials for two courses on GSP were developed and tested in a pilot course. The pilot course was accompanied by a pre-post evaluation that assessed students’ knowledge and attitudes towards (...)
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  9. Just Design.Matteo Bianchin & Ann Heylighen - 2018 - Design Studies 54:1-22.
    Inclusive design prescribes addressing the needs of the widest possible audience in order to consider human differences. Taking differences seriously, however, may imply severely restricting “the widest possible audience”. In confronting this paradox, we investigate to what extent Rawls’ theory of justice as fairness applies to design. By converting the paradox into the question of how design can be fair, we show that the demand for equitability shifts from the design output to the design process. We conclude that the two (...)
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  10. A Remembrance of Raymond E. Spier, 1938–2018.Stephanie J. Bird - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (6):1669-1671.
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  11. In Their Own Words: Research Misconduct From the Perspective of Researchers in Malaysian Universities.Angelina P. Olesen, Latifah Amin & Zurina Mahadi - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (6):1755-1776.
    Published data and studies on research misconduct, which focuses on researchers in Malaysia, is still lacking, therefore, we decided that this was an area for investigation. This study provides qualitative results for the examined issues through series of in-depth interviews with 21 researchers and lecturers in various universities in Malaysia. The aims of this study were to investigate the researchers’ opinions and perceptions regarding what they considered to be research misconduct, their experience with such misconduct, and the factors that contribute (...)
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  12. P-Hacking: A Wake-Up Call for the Scientific Community.A. Thirumal Raj, Shankargouda Patil, Sachin Sarode & Ziad Salameh - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (6):1813-1814.
    P-hacking or data dredging involves manipulation of the research data in order to obtain a statistically significant result. The reasons behind P-hacking and the consequences of the same are discussed in the present manuscript.
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  13. Central Europe: Ethical Overlaps of Environmental and Economic Interests in Coming Years.Zdeněk Caha - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (6):1801-1807.
    Despite the size and thanks to the rich brown coal reserves, the Czech Republic is one of the leading energy producers in Europe, and the 7th biggest exporter of electricity in the world. However, following the climate change mitigation, the novel energy policy that enhances the reduction of coal mining is about to be implemented. A preliminary material flow analysis of the Czech energy sector was carried out. The data obtained confirmed that this government act would result in a dramatic (...)
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  14. Aspects of Morality and Law Enforcement in Today’s Science in Post-Soviet Countries.Jana Kliestikova, Tomas Kliestik, Maria Misankova, Tatiana Corejova & Anna Krizanova - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (6):1747-1753.
    Many reports independently confirm that even more than a quarter of a century after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the results of research and development in those countries that were under its influence are insufficient in comparison to the rest of the world. Given that human intelligence is not distributed unevenly and that science is a powerful driving force for the future of an economy, there is a hidden problem, which, if it can be resolved, may release great economic (...)
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  15. Scientists Still Behaving Badly? A Survey Within Industry and Universities.Simon Godecharle, Steffen Fieuws, Ben Nemery & Kris Dierickx - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (6):1697-1717.
    Little is known about research misconduct within industry and how it compares to universities, even though a lot of biomedical research is performed by–or in collaboration with–commercial entities. Therefore, we sent an e-mail invitation to participate in an anonymous computer-based survey to all university researchers having received a biomedical research grant or scholarship from one of the two national academic research funders of Belgium between 2010 and 2014, and to researchers working in large biomedical companies or spin-offs in Belgium. The (...)
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  16. Conflict of Interest and the CREATE-X Trial in the New England Journal of Medicine.Akihiko Ozaki - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (6):1809-1811.
    There is an increasing emphasis on clear disclosure of conflict of interest in medical communities, following repeated scientific frauds in clinical trials. However, incomplete COI statements continue to be prevalent in the medical community, as appears to have occurred in the Capecitabine for Residual Cancer as Adjuvant Therapy trial, which was recently published in the New England Journal of Medicine. The authors of the article did not clearly report the roles of the Japan Breast Cancer Research Group, a sponsor and (...)
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  17. The Food Warden: An Exploration of Issues in Distributing Responsibilities for Safe-by-Design Synthetic Biology Applications.Zoë Robaey, Shannon L. Spruit & Ibo van de Poel - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (6):1673-1696.
    The Safe-by-Design approach in synthetic biology holds the promise of designing the building blocks of life in an organism guided by the value of safety. This paves a new way for using biotechnologies safely. However, the Safe-by-Design approach moves the bulk of the responsibility for safety to the actors in the research and development phase. Also, it assumes that safety can be defined and understood by all stakeholders in the same way. These assumptions are problematic and might actually undermine safety. (...)
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  18. Devices of Responsibility: Over a Decade of Responsible Research and Innovation Initiatives for Nanotechnologies.Clare Shelley-Egan, Diana M. Bowman & Douglas K. R. Robinson - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (6):1719-1746.
    Responsible research and innovation has come to represent a change in the relationship between science, technology and society. With origins in the democratisation of science, and the inclusion of ethical and societal aspects in research and development activities, RRI offers a means of integrating society and the research and innovation communities. In this article, we frame RRI activities through the lens of layers of science and technology governance as a means of characterising the context in which the RRI activity is (...)
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  19. Sven Ove Hansson (Ed.): The Ethics of Technology. Methods and Approaches. [REVIEW]Diana Adela Martin - 2018 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 1:1-3.
    The Ethics of Technology. Methods and Approaches avoids the overly simplistic and individualistic approach to the ethics of technology, which might otherwise mislead the reader into a superficial understanding of the discipline. Too often, the ethics of technology is reduced to an overt and over reliance on professional codes, ethical theories (spelled out in terms of the dichotomy between deontology and utilitarianism) and the application of a prescribed heuristic to what most often are black and white individualistic dilemmas described by (...)
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  20. What If Banks Were the Main Protectors of Customers’ Private Data?Carissa Véliz - 2018 - Harvard Business Review 1.
    In this article I argue that we are in urgent need for institutional guardianship and management of our personal data. I suggest banks may be in a good position to take on that role. Perhaps that's the future of banking.
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  21. Genetically Engineered Oil Seed Crops and Novel Terrestrial Nutrients: Ethical Considerations.Chris MacDonald, Stefanie Colombo & Michael T. Arts - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-13.
    Genetically engineered organisms have been at the center of ethical debates among the public and regulators over their potential risks and benefits to the environment and society. Unlike the currently commercial GE crops that express resistance or tolerance to pesticides or herbicides, a new GE crop produces two bioactive nutrients and docosahexaenoic acid ) that heretofore have largely been produced only in aquatic environments. This represents a novel category of risk to ecosystem functioning. The present paper describes why growing oilseed (...)
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  22. Cognitive Enhancement and the Threat of Inequality.Walter Veit - 2018 - Journal of Cognitive Enhancement 2:1-7.
    As scientific progress approaches the point where significant human enhancements could become reality, debates arise whether such technologies should be made available. This paper evaluates the widespread concern that human enhancements will inevitably accentuate existing inequality and analyzes whether prohibition is the optimal public policy to avoid this outcome. Beyond these empirical questions, this paper considers whether the inequality objection is a sound argument against the set of enhancements most threatening to equality, i.e., cognitive enhancements. In doing so, I shall (...)
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  23. “I Want Us to Be a Normal Family”: Toward an Understanding of the Functions of Anonymity Among U.S. Oocyte Donors and Recipients.Inmaculada de Melo-Martín, Lisa R. Rubin & Ina N. Cholst - forthcoming - Ajob Empirical Bioethics:1-17.
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Anonymity remains the more common practice in gamete donations, but legislation prohibiting anonymity with a goal of protecting donor-conceived children's right to know their genetic origins is becoming more common. However, given the dearth of research investigating the function of anonymity for donors and recipients, it is unclear whether these policies will accomplish their goals. The aim of this study was to explore experiences with anonymity among oocyte donors and recipients who participated in an anonymous donor oocyte program (...)
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  24. Legal Archetypes and Metadata Collection.Alan Rubel - 2017 - Wisconsin International Law Review 34 (4):823-853.
    In discussions of state surveillance, the values of privacy and security are often set against one another, and people often ask whether privacy is more important than national security.2 I will argue that in one sense privacy is more important than national security. Just what more important means is its own question, though, so I will be more precise. I will argue that national security rationales cannot by themselves justify some kinds of encroachments on individual privacy (including some kinds that (...)
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  25. The Moral Obligation to Prioritize Research Into Deep Brain Stimulation Over Brain Lesioning Procedures for Severe Enduring Anorexia Nervosa.Jonathan Pugh, Jacinta Tan, Tipu Aziz & Rebecca J. Park - forthcoming - Frontiers in Psychiatry 9:523.
    Deep Brain Stimulation is currently being investigated as an experimental treatment for patients suffering from treatment-refractory AN, with an increasing number of case reports and small-scale trials published. Although still at an exploratory and experimental stage, initial results have been promising. Despite the risks associated with an invasive neurosurgical procedure and the long-term implantation of a foreign body, DBS has a number of advantageous features for patients with SE-AN. Stimulation can be fine-tuned to the specific needs of the particular patient, (...)
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  26. Reordering the “World of Things”: The Sociotechnical Imaginary of RFID Tagging and New Geographies of Responsibility.Ulrike Felt & Susanne Öchsner - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-22.
    The aim of this study is to investigate radio frequency identification tagging as a form of sociotechnical experimentation and the kinds of sociotechnical futures at stake in this experimentation. For this purpose, a detailed analysis of a publicly available promotional video by a tag producer for the fashion industry, a sector widely using RFID tags, was analysed in detail. The results of the study indicated that the sociotechnical imaginary of RFID tagging gravitates around the core value of perfect sociotechnical efficiency. (...)
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  27. Attitudes and Knowledge About Plagiarism Among University Students: Cross-Sectional Survey at the University of Split, Croatia.Željana Bašić, Ivana Kružić, Ivan Jerković, Ivan Buljan & Ana Marušić - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-17.
    Plagiarism is one of the most severe academic integrity issues. This study examined students’ knowledge of and attitudes towards plagiarism, tested their ability to recognize plagiarism, and explored the association of study levels and attendance in courses dealing with referencing rules and plagiarism with students’ attitudes and knowledge. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted at the University of Split, comprising the students of all schools and study levels. Overall, results indicate the students were not very familiar with referencing rules and (...)
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  28. Enabling Posthumous Medical Data Donation: An Appeal for the Ethical Utilisation of Personal Health Data.Jenny Krutzinna, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-31.
    This article argues that personal medical data should be made available for scientific research, by enabling and encouraging individuals to donate their medical records once deceased, similar to the way in which they can already donate organs or bodies. This research is part of a project on posthumous medical data donation developed by the Digital Ethics Lab at the Oxford Internet Institute at the University of Oxford. Ten arguments are provided to support the need to foster posthumous medical data donation. (...)
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  29. Will CRISPR Germline Engineering Close the Door to an Open Future?Rachel L. Mintz, John D. Loike & Ruth L. Fischbach - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-15.
    The bioethical principle of autonomy is problematic regarding the future of the embryo who lacks the ability to self-advocate but will develop this defining human capacity in time. Recent experiments explore the use of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats /Cas9 for germline engineering in the embryo, which alters future generations. The embryo’s inability to express an autonomous decision is an obvious bioethical challenge of germline engineering. The philosopher Joel Feinberg acknowledged that autonomy is developing in children. He advocated that (...)
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  30. Challenges in Collecting Big Data in A Clinical Environment with Vulnerable Population: Lessons Learned From A Study Using A Multi-Modal Sensors Platform.Bing Ye, Shehroz S. Khan, Belkacem Chikhaoui, Andrea Iaboni, Lori Schindel Martin, Kristine Newman, Angel Wang & Alex Mihailidis - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-20.
    Agitation is one of the most common behavioural and psychological symptoms in people living with dementia. This behaviour can cause tremendous stress and anxiety on family caregivers and healthcare providers. Direct observation of PLwD is the traditional way to measure episodes of agitation. However, this method is subjective, bias-prone and timeconsuming. Importantly, it does not predict the onset of the agitation. Therefore, there is a need to develop a continuous monitoring system that can detect and/or predict the onset of agitation. (...)
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  31. The Ethics of Technology: Response to Critics.Martin Peterson - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1645-1652.
    The Ethics of Technology: A Geometric Analysis of Five Moral Principles proposes five moral principles for analyzing ethical issues related to engineering and technology. The objections raised by several authors to the multidimensional scaling technique used in the book reveal a lack of familiarity with this widely used technique.
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  32. Martin Peterson: The Ethics of Technology: A Geometric Analysis of Five Moral Principles.Gert-Jan C. Lokhorst - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1641-1643.
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  33. Fairness in Knowing: Science Communication and Epistemic Justice.Fabien Medvecky - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1393-1408.
    Science communication, as a field and as a practice, is fundamentally about knowledge distribution; it is about the access to, and the sharing of knowledge. All distribution brings with it issues of ethics and justice. Indeed, whether science communicators acknowledge it or not, they get to decide both which knowledge is shared, and who gets access to this knowledge. As a result, the decisions of science communicators have important implications for epistemic justice: how knowledge is distributed fairly and equitably. This (...)
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  34. The Ethics of Virtual Reality Technology: Social Hazards and Public Policy Recommendations.James S. Spiegel - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1537-1550.
    This article explores four major areas of moral concern regarding virtual reality technologies. First, VR poses potential mental health risks, including Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder. Second, VR technology raises serious concerns related to personal neglect of users’ own actual bodies and real physical environments. Third, VR technologies may be used to record personal data which could be deployed in ways that threaten personal privacy and present a danger related to manipulation of users’ beliefs, emotions, and behaviors. Finally, there are other moral and (...)
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  35. Normalized Paper Credit Assignment: A Solution for the Ethical Dilemma Induced by Multiple Important Authors.Hui Fang - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1589-1601.
    With the growth of research collaborations, the average number of authors per article and the phenomenon of equally important authorships have increased. The essence of the phenomenon of equally important authorships is the approximately equal importance of authors, both because of the difficulties in comparing authors’ contributions to a paper and some actual research evaluation practices, which give full paper credit only to the most important authors. A mechanism for indicating that various authors contributed equally is required to maintain and (...)
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  36. Differing Perceptions Concerning Research Integrity Between Universities and Industry: A Qualitative Study.Simon Godecharle, Benoit Nemery & Kris Dierickx - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1421-1436.
    Despite the ever increasing collaboration between industry and universities, the previous empirical studies on research integrity and misconduct excluded participants of biomedical industry. Hence, there is a lack of empirical data on how research managers and biomedical researchers active in industry perceive the issues of research integrity and misconduct, and whether or not their perspectives differ from those of researchers and research managers active in universities. If various standards concerning research integrity and misconduct are upheld between industry and universities, this (...)
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  37. Interlocking Editorships in Scientific Journals.Mohammadamin Erfanmanesh & Marzieh Morovati - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1665-1667.
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  38. Sanitary Worker’s Death Unnerves Pakistan’s Health Care Ethics to the Core.Syed Bilal Pasha, Tooba Fatima Qadir, Huda Fatima, Mohammed Madadin, Syed Ather Hussain & Ritesh G. Menezes - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1611-1616.
    Health care ethics is a sensitive domain, which if ignored, can lead to patient dissatisfaction, weakened doctor–patient interaction and episodes of violence. Little importance has been paid to medical ethics within undergraduate medical education in developing countries such as Pakistan. Three doctors in Pakistan are currently facing an official police complaint and arrest charges, following the death of a sanitary worker, who fell unconscious while cleaning a drain and was allegedly refused treatment as he was covered in sewage filth. The (...)
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  39. Methods for Practising Ethics in Research and Innovation: A Literature Review, Critical Analysis and Recommendations.Wessel Reijers, David Wright, Philip Brey, Karsten Weber, Rowena Rodrigues, Declan O’Sullivan & Bert Gordijn - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1437-1481.
    This paper provides a systematic literature review, analysis and discussion of methods that are proposed to practise ethics in research and innovation. Ethical considerations concerning the impacts of R&I are increasingly important, due to the quickening pace of technological innovation and the ubiquitous use of the outcomes of R&I processes in society. For this reason, several methods for practising ethics have been developed in different fields of R&I. The paper first of all presents a systematic search of academic sources that (...)
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  40. Maqasid Al-Shariah as a Complementary Framework for Conventional Bioethics: Application in Malaysian Assisted Reproductive Technology Fatwa.Abdul Halim Ibrahim, Noor Naemah Abdul Rahman & Shaikh Mohd Saifuddeen - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1493-1502.
    Rapid development in the area of assisted reproductive technology, has benefited mankind by addressing reproductive problems. However, the emergence of new technologies and techniques raises various issues and discussions among physicians and the masses, especially on issues related to bioethics. Apart from solutions provided using conventional bioethics framework, solutions can also be derived via a complementary framework of bioethics based on the Higher Objectives of the Divine Law in tackling these problems. This approach in the Islamic World has been applied (...)
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  41. Lack of Improvement in Scientific Integrity: An Analysis of WoS Retractions by Chinese Researchers.Lei Lei & Ying Zhang - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1409-1420.
    This study investigated the status quo of article retractions by Chinese researchers. The bibliometric information of 834 retractions from the Web of Science SCI-expanded database were downloaded and analysed. The results showed that the number of retractions increased in the past two decades, and misconduct such as plagiarism, fraud, and faked peer review explained approximately three quarters of the retractions. Meanwhile, a large proportion of the retractions seemed typical of deliberate fraud, which might be evidenced by retractions authored by repeat (...)
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  42. Social Freezing in Medical Practice. Experiences and Attitudes of Gynecologists in Germany.Maximilian Schochow, Giovanni Rubeis, Grit Büchner-Mögling, Hansjakob Fries & Florian Steger - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1483-1492.
    Surveys of the German public have revealed a high acceptance of social freezing, i.e. oocyte conservation without medical indication. Up to now, there are no investigations available on the experiences and attitudes of health professionals towards social freezing. Between August 2015 and January 2016, we surveyed gynecologists Germany-wide on the topic social freezing. Five gynecologists specialized in reproductive medicine and five office-based gynecologists in standard care were chosen for the survey. The survey was conducted with an explorative, qualitative research design. (...)
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  43. Technology Games: Using Wittgenstein for Understanding and Evaluating Technology.Mark Coeckelbergh - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1503-1519.
    In the philosophy of technology after the empirical turn, little attention has been paid to language and its relation to technology. In this programmatic and explorative paper, it is proposed to use the later Wittgenstein, not only to pay more attention to language use in philosophy of technology, but also to rethink technology itself—at least technology in its aspect of tool, technology-in-use. This is done by outlining a working account of Wittgenstein’s view of language and by then applying that account (...)
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  44. Patent Ethics: The Misalignment of Views Between the Patent System and the Wider Society.Ellen-Marie Forsberg, Anders Braarud Hanssen, Hanne Marie Nielsen & Ingrid Olesen - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1551-1576.
    Concerns have been voiced about the ethical implications of patenting practices in the field of biotechnology. Some of these have also been incorporated into regulation, such as the European Commission Directive 98/44 on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions. However, the incorporation of ethically based restrictions into patent legislation has not had the effect of satisfying all concerns. In this article, we will systematically compare the richness of ethical concerns surrounding biotech patenting, with the limited scope of ethical concerns actually (...)
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  45. Predatory Journals Spamming for Publications: What Should Researchers Do?Aamir Raoof Memon - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1617-1639.
    In the internet era spam has become a big problem. Researchers are troubled with unsolicited or bulk spam emails inviting them to publish. However, this strategy has helped predatory journals hunt their prey and earn money. These journals have grown tremendously during the past few years despite serious efforts by researchers and scholarly organizations to hinder their growth. Predatory journals and publishers are often based in developing countries, and they potentially target researchers from these counties by using different tactics identified (...)
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  46. A Method for Improving the Integrity of Peer Review.Mehdi Dadkhah, Mohsen Kahani & Glenn Borchardt - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1603-1610.
    Peer review is the most important aspect of reputable journals. Without it, we would be unsure about whether the material published was as valid and reliable as is possible. However, with the advent of the Internet, scientific literature has now become subject to a relatively new phenomenon: fake peer reviews. Some dishonest researchers have been manipulating the peer review process to publish what are often inferior papers. There are even papers that explain how to do it. This paper discusses one (...)
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  47. Author Productivity Index: Without Distortions.Marton Demeter - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1661-1663.
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  48. How Accused Scientists Deal with Scientific Fraud: View From a Different Culture.Beuy Joob & Viroj Wiwanitkit - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1659-1660.
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  49. E-Commerce Review System to Detect False Reviews.Manjur Kolhar - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1577-1588.
    E-commerce sites have been doing profitable business since their induction in high-speed and secured networks. Moreover, they continue to influence consumers through various methods. One of the most effective methods is the e-commerce review rating system, in which consumers provide review ratings for the products used. However, almost all e-commerce review rating systems are unable to provide cumulative review ratings. Furthermore, review ratings are influenced by positive and negative malicious feedback ratings, collectively called false reviews. In this paper, we proposed (...)
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  50. Erratum To: World Map of Scientific Misconduct.Behzad Ataie-Ashtiani - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1657-1657.
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