Technology Ethics

Edited by Hector MacIntyre (University of Lethbridge)
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  1. Engineering Students as Co-creators in an Ethics of Technology Course.Gunter Bombaerts, Karolina Doulougeri, Shelly Tsui, Erik Laes, Andreas Spahn & Diana Adela Martin - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (4):1-26.
    Research on the effectiveness of case studies in teaching engineering ethics in higher education is underdeveloped. To add to our knowledge, we have systematically compared the outcomes of two case approaches to an undergraduate course on the ethics of technology: a detached approach using real-life cases and a challenge-based learning approach with students and stakeholders acting as co-creators. We first developed a practical typology of case-study approaches and subsequently tested an evaluation method to assess the students’ learning experiences and outcomes (...)
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  2. Unique Ethical Challenges for the 21st Century: Online Technology and Virtue Education.Matthew Dennis & Tom Harrison - 2021 - Journal of Moral Education 50 (3):251-266.
    ABSTRACT Living well in the 21st century will present human beings with a unique set of demands and ethical challenges, many of which will require a rapid response to developments in the online space. Online activities increasingly permeate our practical lives. Although there is every indication that this activity will intensify, even experts on digital technology recognise that the precise effects of future emergent technology will be uncertain and remain unknown. We argue that education directed at the cultivation of cyber-wisdom (...)
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  3. Materializing Systemic Racism, Materializing Health Disparities.Vanessa Carbonell & Shen-yi Liao - forthcoming - American Journal of Bioethics.
    The purpose of cultural competence education for medical professionals is to ensure respectful care and reduce health disparities. Yet as Berger and Miller show, the cultural competence framework is dated, confused, and self-defeating. They argue that the framework ignores the primary driver of health disparities—systemic racism—and is apt to exacerbate rather than mitigate bias and ethnocentrism. They propose replacing cultural competence with a framework that attends to two social aspects of structural inequality: health and social policy, and institutional-system activity; and (...)
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  4. Ethics-Based Auditing of Automated Decision-Making Systems: Nature, Scope, and Limitations.Jakob Mökander, Jessica Morley, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (4):1–30.
    Important decisions that impact humans lives, livelihoods, and the natural environment are increasingly being automated. Delegating tasks to so-called automated decision-making systems can improve efficiency and enable new solutions. However, these benefits are coupled with ethical challenges. For example, ADMS may produce discriminatory outcomes, violate individual privacy, and undermine human self-determination. New governance mechanisms are thus needed that help organisations design and deploy ADMS in ways that are ethical, while enabling society to reap the full economic and social benefits of (...)
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  5. When is it Safe to Edit the Human Germline?Janella Baxter - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (4):1-21.
    In the fall of 2018 Jiankui He shocked the international community with the following announcement: two female babies, “Lulu” and “Nana,” whose germlines had been modified by the cutting edge, yet profoundly unsafe CRISPR-Cas9 technology had been born. This event galvanized policy makers and scientists to advocate for more explicit and firm regulation of human germline gene editing. Recent policy proposals attempt to integrate safety considerations and public input to identify specific types of diseases that may be safe targets for (...)
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  6. Ethical Artificial Intelligence in Chemical Research and Development: A Dual Advantage for Sustainability.Erik Hermann, Gunter Hermann & Jean-Christophe Tremblay - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (4):1-16.
    Artificial intelligence can be a game changer to address the global challenge of humanity-threatening climate change by fostering sustainable development. Since chemical research and development lay the foundation for innovative products and solutions, this study presents a novel chemical research and development process backed with artificial intelligence and guiding ethical principles to account for both process- and outcome-related sustainability. Particularly in ethically salient contexts, ethical principles have to accompany research and development powered by artificial intelligence to promote social and environmental (...)
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  7. Enhancing the Collectivist Critique: Accounts of the Human Enhancement Debate.Tess Johnson - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 1.
    Individualist ethical analyses in the enhancement debate have often prioritised or only considered the interests and concerns of parents and the future child. The collectivist critique of the human enhancement debate argues that rather than pure individualism, a focus on collectivist, or group-level ethical considerations is needed for balanced ethical analysis of specific enhancement interventions. Here, I defend this argument for the insufficiency of pure individualism. However, existing collectivist analyses tend to take a negative approach that hinders them from adequately (...)
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  8. Prevalence of Research Misconduct and Questionable Research Practices: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.Yu Xie, Kai Wang & Yan Kong - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (4):1-28.
    Irresponsible research practices damaging the value of science has been an increasing concern among researchers, but previous work failed to estimate the prevalence of all forms of irresponsible research behavior. Additionally, these analyses have not included articles published in the last decade from 2011 to 2020. This meta-analysis provides an updated meta-analysis that calculates the pooled estimates of research misconduct and questionable research practices, and explores the factors associated with the prevalence of these issues. The estimates, committing RM concern at (...)
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  9. Why a Virtual Assistant for Moral Enhancement When We Could have a Socrates?Francisco Lara - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (4):1-27.
    Can Artificial Intelligence be more effective than human instruction for the moral enhancement of people? The author argues that it only would be if the use of this technology were aimed at increasing the individual's capacity to reflectively decide for themselves, rather than at directly influencing behaviour. To support this, it is shown how a disregard for personal autonomy, in particular, invalidates the main proposals for applying new technologies, both biomedical and AI-based, to moral enhancement. As an alternative to these (...)
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  10. A dialogue on the ethics of science: Henri Poincaré and Pope Francis.Nicholas Matthew Danne - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (3):1-12.
    To teach the ethics of science to science majors, I follow several teachers in the literature who recommend “persona” writing, or the student construction of dialogues between ethical thinkers of interest. To engage science majors in particular, and especially those new to academic philosophy, I recommend constructing persona dialogues from Henri Poincaré’s essay, “Ethics and Science”, and the non-theological third chapter of Pope Francis’s encyclical on the environment, Laudato si. This pairing of interlocutors offers two advantages. The first is that (...)
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  11. Owning the Future of Work.Alec Stubbs - 2021 - In S. A. Hamed Hosseini, James Goodman, Sara C. Motta & Barry K. Gills (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Transformative Global Studies. New York, NY, USA: pp. 388-400.
    This chapter focuses the future of work as it relates to automation, artificial intelligence, the gig economy, and the technologies that will emerge from the so-called “fourth industrial revolution.” The goal here is to analyze the ways in which our modern capitalist economy drives technological development and the ownership structures which are built into our economic and technological relations. Our current ownership structures point to a future of “precariatized” labor, leading to less stable, more automated and more deskilled labor. What (...)
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  12. Personality and Authenticity in Light of the Memory-Modifying Potential of Optogenetics: A Reply to Objections About Potential Therapeutic Applicability of Optogenetics.Agnieszka K. Adamczyk & Przemysław Zawadzki - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 1 (12).
  13. Why We Should Not Extend the 14-Day Rule.Bruce P. Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    The 14-day rule restricts the culturing of human embryos in vitro for the purposes of scientific research for no longer than 14 days. Since researchers recently developed the capability to exceed the 14-day limit, pressure to modify the rule has started to build. Sophia McCully argues that the limit should be extended to 28 days, listing numerous potential benefits of doing so. We contend that McCully has not engaged with the main reasons why the Warnock Committee set such a limit, (...)
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  14. The Technological Future of Love.Sven Nyholm, John Danaher & Brian D. Earp - forthcoming - In Natasha McKeever, Andre Grahlé & Joe Saunders (eds.), Love: Past, Present and Future. Routledge.
    How might emerging and future technologies—sex robots, love drugs, anti-love drugs, or algorithms to track, quantify, and ‘gamify’ romantic relationships—change how we understand and value love? We canvass some of the main ethical worries posed by such technologies, while also considering whether there are reasons for “cautious optimism” about their implications for our lives. Along the way, we touch on some key ideas from the philosophies of love and technology.
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  15. Detached From Humanity: Artificial Gestation and the Christian Dilemma.Daniel Rodger & Bruce P. Blackshaw - forthcoming - Christian Bioethics.
    The development of artificial womb technology is proceeding rapidly and will present important ethical and theological challenges for Christians. While there has been extensive secular discourse on artificial wombs in recent years, there has been little Christian engagement with this topic. There are broadly two primary uses of artificial womb technology—ectogestation as a form of enhanced neonatal care, where some of the gestation period takes place in an artificial womb, and ectogenesis, where the entire gestation period is within an artificial (...)
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  16. An African Relational Approach to Healthcare and Big Data Challenges.Cornelius Ewuoso - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (3):1-18.
    Big Data has amplified some challenges in the healthcare context. One significant challenge is how to use healthcare big data in ways that honor individual rights to informed consent or privacy. Careful analysis from diverse backgrounds will be vital in contributing ethical guidelines that can adequately address healthcare Big Data's growing complexities globally. Especially, the study argues that an under-explored African philosophy of Ubuntu can usefully influence big data practices in ways that address this challenge without undermining its benefits. Ubuntu (...)
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  17. The Seductions of Clarity.C. Thi Nguyen - 2021 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 89:227-255.
    The feeling of clarity can be dangerously seductive. It is the feeling associated with understanding things. And we use that feeling, in the rough-and-tumble of daily life, as a signal that we have investigated a matter sufficiently. The sense of clarity functions as a thought-terminating heuristic. In that case, our use of clarity creates significant cognitive vulnerability, which hostile forces can try to exploit. If an epistemic manipulator can imbue a belief system with an exaggerated sense of clarity, then they (...)
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  18. An Ethical Code for Commercial VR/AR Applications.Erick Jose Ramirez, Jocelyn Tan, Miles Elliott, Mohit Gandhi & Lia Petronio - 2021 - In N. Shaghaghi, F. Lamberti, B. Beams, R. Shariatmadari & A. Amer (eds.), Intelligent Technologies for Interactive Entertainment. Springer.
    The commercial VR/AR marketplace is gaining ground and is becoming an ever larger and more significant component of the global economy. While much attention has been paid to the commercial promise of VR/AR, comparatively little attention has been given to the ethical issues that VR/AR technologies introduce. We here examine existing codes of ethics proposed by the ACM and IEEE and apply them to the unique ethical facets that VR/AR introduces. We propose a VR/AR code of ethics for developers and (...)
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  19. Correction To: Research Misconduct in the Fields of Ethics and Philosophy: Researchers’ Perceptions in Spain.Ramón A. Feenstra, Emilio Delgado López-Cózar & Daniel Pallarés-Domínguez - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (3):1-3.
    A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-021-00309-6.
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  20. Please Like This Paper.Lucy McDonald - forthcoming - Philosophy.
    In this paper I offer a philosophical analysis of the act of ‘liking’ a post on social media. First, I consider what it means to ‘like’ something. I argue that ‘liking’ is best understood as a phatic gesture; it signals uptake and anoints the poster’s positive face. Next, I consider how best to theorise the power that comes with amassing many ‘likes’. I suggest that ‘like’ tallies alongside posts institute and record a form of digital social capital. Finally, I consider (...)
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  21. Teaching Drunk: Work, the Online Economy, and Uncertainty in Action.Max F. Kramer - 2021 - Philosophy 96 (3):387-408.
    (Runner-up, Royal Institute of Philosophy 2020 Philosophy Essay Prize) Technological developments have led to the digitization of certain sectors of the economy, and this has many authors looking ahead to the prospects of a post-work society. While it is valuable to theorize about this possibility, it is also important to take note of the present state of work. For better or worse, it is what we are currently stuck with, and as the COVID-19 pandemic has ensured, much of that work (...)
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  22. Mapping the Dimensions of Agency: The Narrative as Unifying Mechanism.Przemysław Zawadzki - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (2-3):191-193.
  23. Mit Kontaktdaten gegen die Pandemie: Zur Ethik von Corona Warn-Apps.Philippe van Basshuysen & Lucie White - forthcoming - Ethik in der Medizin:1-14.
    Zu Beginn der Pandemie im Frühjahr 2020, und nach einem weitreichenden Lockdown, ruhten große Erwartungen auf Corona-Warn-Apps, um einen erneuten Lockdown zu verhindern. Diese Erwartungen haben sich nicht erfüllt; stattdessen wurden in Deutschland als Reaktion auf erneute Wellen von COVID-19 weitere Kontaktbeschränkungen verordnet. Wie hätte die digitale Kontaktverfolgung wirksamer gestaltet werden können? Wir argumentieren, dass es ein Spannungsfeld zwischen der Datensparsamkeit und einer wirksamen Bekämpfung der Pandemie besteht. Im Gegensatz zur deutschen Corona-Warn-App wäre eine Variante der App, in der pseudonymisierte (...)
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  24. Evaluating Ectogenesis Via the Metaphysics of Pregnancy.Suki Finn & Sasha Isaac - 2021 - In Robbie Davis-Floyd (ed.), Birthing Techno-Sapiens: Human-Technology, Co-Evolution, and the Future of Reproduction. E-Book: Routledge: Taylor & Francis. pp. Chapter 8.
    Ectogenesis, or “artificial womb technology,” has been heralded by some, such as prominent feminist Shulamith Firestone, as a way to liberate women. In this chapter, we challenge this view by offering an alternative analysis of the technology as relying upon and perpetuating a problematic model of pregnancy which, rather than liberating women, serves to devalue them. We look to metaphysics as the abstract study of reality to elucidate how the entities in a pregnancy are related to one another. We consider (...)
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  25. Deepfake Technology and Individual Rights.Francesco Stellin Sturino - forthcoming - Social Theory and Practice.
    Deepfake technology can be used to produce videos of real individuals, saying and doing things that they never in fact said or did, that appear highly authentic. Having accepted the premise that Deepfake content can constitute a legitimate form of expression, it is not immediately clear where the rights of content producers and distributors end, and where the rights of individuals whose likenesses are used in this content begin. This paper explores the question of whether it can be plausibly argued (...)
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  26. Agile as a Vehicle for Values: A Value Sensitive Design Toolkit.Steven Umbrello & Olivia Gambelin - manuscript
    The ethics of technology has primarily focused on what values are and how they can be embedded in technologies through design. In this context, some work has been done to show the efficacy of a number of design approaches. However, existing studies have not clearly pointed out the ways in which design-for-values approaches can be used by design team managers to properly organize and use technologies in practice. This chapter attempts to fill this gap by discussing the value sensitive design (...)
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  27. Digital Technologies for Schizophrenia Management: A Descriptive Review.Olga Chivilgina, Bernice S. Elger & Fabrice Jotterand - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-22.
    While the implementation of digital technology in psychiatry appears promising, there is an urgent need to address the implications of the absence of ethical design in the early development of such technologies. Some authors have noted the gap between technology development and ethical analysis and have called for an upstream examination of the ethical issues raised by digital technologies. In this paper, we address this suggestion, particularly in relation to digital healthcare technologies for patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The introduction (...)
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  28. Interventions for Organizational Climate and Culture in Academia: A Scoping Review.Marin Viđak, Lana Barać, Ružica Tokalić, Ivan Buljan & Ana Marušić - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-23.
    Organizational climate and culture may influence different work-related outcomes, including responsible conduct of research and research misconduct in academic or research organizations. In this scoping review we collected evidence on outcomes of interventions to change organizational climate or culture in academic or research settings. Out of 32,093 documents retrieved by the search, we analysed 207 documents in full text, out of which 7 met the eligibility criteria and were included in the final analysis. The included studies measured organizational climate, organizational (...)
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  29. But Anyone Can Mix Their Labor: A Reply to Cheneval.Jakob Thrane Mainz - 2021 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 24 (2):276-285.
  30. Socially Assistive Robots in Aged Care: Ethical Orientations Beyond the Care-Romantic and Technology-Deterministic Gaze.Tijs Vandemeulebroucke, Bernadette Dierckx de Casterlé & Chris Gastmans - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-20.
    Socially Assistive Robots are increasingly conceived as applicable tools to be used in aged care. However, the use carries many negative and positive connotations. Negative connotations come forth out of romanticized views of care practices, disregarding their already established technological nature. Positive connotations are formulated out of techno-deterministic views on SAR use, presenting it as an inevitable and necessary next step in technological development to guarantee aged care. Ethical guidance of SAR use inspired by negative connotations tends to be over-restrictive (...)
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  31. Grant Review Feedback: Appropriateness and Usefulness.Stephen A. Gallo, Karen B. Schmaling, Lisa A. Thompson & Scott R. Glisson - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-20.
    The primary goal of the peer review of research grant proposals is to evaluate their quality for the funding agency. An important secondary goal is to provide constructive feedback to applicants for their resubmissions. However, little is known about whether review feedback achieves this goal. In this paper, we present a multi-methods analysis of responses from grant applicants regarding their perceptions of the effectiveness and appropriateness of peer review feedback they received from grant submissions. Overall, 56–60% of applicants determined the (...)
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  32. Fake News and Epistemic Vice: Combating a Uniquely Noxious Market.Megan Fritts & Frank Cabrera - forthcoming - Journal of the American Philosophical Association.
    The topic of fake news has received increased attention from philosophers since the term became a favorite of politicians (Habgood-Coote 2016; Dentith 2016). Notably missing from the conversation, however, is a discussion of fake news and conspiracy theory media as a market. This paper will take as its starting point the account of noxious markets put forward by Debra Satz (2010), and will argue that there is a pro tanto moral reason to restrict the market for fake news. Specifically, we (...)
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  33. The Legal Ambiguity of Advanced Assistive Bionic Prosthetics: Where to Define the Limits of ‘Enhanced Persons’ in Medical Treatment.Tyler L. Jaynes - 2021 - Clinical Ethics Online First Article.
    The rapid advancement of artificial intelligence systems has generated a means whereby assistive bionic prosthetics can become both more effective and practical for the patients who rely upon the use of such machines in their daily lives. However, de lege lata remains relatively unspoken as to the legal status of patients whose devices contain self-learning CIS that can interface directly with the peripheral nervous system. As a means to reconcile for this lack of legal foresight, this article approaches the topic (...)
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  34. Actionable Principles for Artificial Intelligence Policy: Three Pathways.Charlotte Stix - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-17.
    In the development of governmental policy for artificial intelligence that is informed by ethics, one avenue currently pursued is that of drawing on “AI Ethics Principles”. However, these AI Ethics Principles often fail to be actioned in governmental policy. This paper proposes a novel framework for the development of ‘Actionable Principles for AI’. The approach acknowledges the relevance of AI Ethics Principles and homes in on methodological elements to increase their practical implementability in policy processes. As a case study, elements (...)
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  35. Leadership, Engineering and Ethical Clashes at Boeing.Elaine Englehardt, Patricia H. Werhane & Lisa H. Newton - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-17.
    When there are disasters in our society, whether on an individual, organizational or systemic level, individuals or groups of individuals are often singled out for blame, and commonly it is assumed that the alleged culprits engaged in deliberate misdeeds. But sometimes, at least, these disasters occur not because of deliberate malfeasance, but rather because of complex organizational and systemic circumstances that result in these negative outcomes. Using the Boeing Corporation and its 737 MAX aircraft crashes as an example, this ethical (...)
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  36. Expanding Research Integrity: A Cultural-Practice Perspective.Govert Valkenburg, Guus Dix, Joeri Tijdink & Sarah de Rijcke - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-23.
    Research integrity is usually discussed in terms of responsibilities that individual researchers bear towards the scientific work they conduct, as well as responsibilities that institutions have to enable those individual researchers to do so. In addition to these two bearers of responsibility, a third category often surfaces, which is variably referred to as culture and practice. These notions merit further development beyond a residual category that is to contain everything that is not covered by attributions to individuals and institutions. This (...)
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  37. Applying a Social Constructivist Approach to an Online Course on Ethics of Research.Miri Barak & Gizell Green - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-24.
    The growing trend of shifting from classroom to distance learning in ethics education programs raises the need to examine ways for adapting best instructional practices to online modes. To address this need, the current study was set to apply a social constructivist approach to an online course in research ethics and to examine its effect on the learning outcomes of science and engineering graduate students. The study applied a pre-test post-test quasi-experimental research design within a framework of a mixed-methods approach. (...)
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  38. Ethical Issues in Consent for the Reuse of Data in Health Data Platforms.Alex McKeown, Miranda Mourby, Paul Harrison, Sophie Walker, Mark Sheehan & Ilina Singh - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-21.
    Data platforms represent a new paradigm for carrying out health research. In the platform model, datasets are pooled for remote access and analysis, so novel insights for developing better stratified and/or personalised medicine approaches can be derived from their integration. If the integration of diverse datasets enables development of more accurate risk indicators, prognostic factors, or better treatments and interventions, this obviates the need for the sharing and reuse of data; and a platform-based approach is an appropriate model for facilitating (...)
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  39. Does Proof of Concept Trump All? RRI Dilemmas in Research Practices.Anita Borch & Harald Throne-Holst - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-21.
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  40. The Value of ‘Traditionality’: The Epistemological and Ethical Significance of Non-Western Alternatives in Science.Mahdi Kafaee & Mostafa Taqavi - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-20.
    After a brief review of the relationship between science and value, this paper introduces the value of ‘traditionality’ as a value in the pure and applied sciences. Along with other recognized values, this value can also contribute to formulating hypotheses and determining theories. There are three reasons for legitimizing the internal role of this value in science: first, this value can contribute to scientific progress by presenting more diverse hypotheses; second, the value of external consistency in science entails this value; (...)
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  41. The Language of Human-Machine Communication. Technology and Language.Daria Bylieva - 2020 - Technology and Language 1 (1):16-21.
    This essay for the inaugural issue of Technology and Language discusses the problem of finding an optimal form of human-machine communication. In the ongoing search for an alien mind, humanity seems to find it not in the infinities of space, but in its own environment. Changes in the language of human-machine interaction made it understandable not only to trained specialists but to every household. In the course of time, home appliances and devices have developed their language abilities even more and (...)
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  42. Privacy Versus Public Health? A Reassessment of Centralised and Decentralised Digital Contact Tracing.Lucie White & Philippe van Basshuysen - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-13.
    At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, high hopes were placed on digital contact tracing. Digital contact tracing apps can now be downloaded in many countries, but as further waves of COVID-19 tear through much of the northern hemisphere, these apps are playing a less important role in interrupting chains of infection than anticipated. We argue that one of the reasons for this is that most countries have opted for decentralised apps, which cannot provide a means of rapidly informing users (...)
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  43. Practices for Research Integrity Promotion in Research Performing Organisations and Research Funding Organisations: A Scoping Review.Rea Ščepanović, Krishma Labib, Ivan Buljan, Joeri Tijdink & Ana Marušić - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-20.
    Research integrity is a continuously developing concept, and increasing emphasis is put on creating RI promotion practices. This study aimed to map the existing RI guidance documents at research performing organisations and research funding organisations. A search of bibliographic databases and grey literature sources was performed, and retrieved documents were screened for eligibility. The search of bibliographical databases and reference lists of selected articles identified a total of 92 documents while the search of grey literature sources identified 118 documents for (...)
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  44. Three Risks That Caution Against a Premature Implementation of Artificial Moral Agents for Practical and Economical Use.Christian Herzog - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-15.
    In the present article, I will advocate caution against developing artificial moral agents based on the notion that the utilization of preliminary forms of AMAs will potentially negatively feed back on the human social system and on human moral thought itself and its value—e.g., by reinforcing social inequalities, diminishing the breadth of employed ethical arguments and the value of character. While scientific investigations into AMAs pose no direct significant threat, I will argue against their premature utilization for practical and economical (...)
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  45. Research Misconduct in the Fields of Ethics and Philosophy: Researchers’ Perceptions in Spain.Ramón A. Feenstra, Emilio Delgado López-Cózar & Daniel Pallarés-Domínguez - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-21.
    Empirical studies have revealed a disturbing prevalence of research misconduct in a wide variety of disciplines, although not, to date, in the areas of ethics and philosophy. This study aims to provide empirical evidence on perceptions of how serious a problem research misconduct is in these two disciplines in Spain, particularly regarding the effects that the model used to evaluate academics’ research performance may have on their ethical behaviour. The methodological triangulation applied in the study combines a questionnaire, a debate (...)
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  46. Weak Signal-Oriented Investigation of Ethical Dissonance Applied to Unsuccessful Mobility Experiences Linked to Human–Machine Interactions.F. Vanderhaegen - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-25.
    Ethical dissonance arises from conflicts between beliefs or behaviors and affects ethical factors such as normality or conformity. This paper proposes a weak signal-oriented framework to investigate ethical dissonance from experiences linked to human–machine interactions. It is based on a systems engineering principle called human-systems inclusion, which considers any experience feedback of weak signals as beneficial to learn. The framework studies weak signal-based scenarios from testimonies of individual experiences and these scenarios are assessed by other people. For this purpose, the (...)
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  47. Without a Trace: Why Did Corona Apps Fail?Lucie White & Philippe van Basshuysen - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2020-107061.
    At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, high hopes were put on digital contact tracing, using mobile phone apps to record and immediately notify contacts when a user reports as infected. Such apps can now be downloaded in many countries, but as second waves of COVID-19 are raging, these apps are playing a less important role than anticipated. We argue that this is because most countries have opted for app configurations that cannot provide a means of rapidly informing users of (...)
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  48. Reckoning with Assessment: Can We Responsibly Innovate? [REVIEW]Steven Umbrello - 2021 - Metascience 30 (1):41-43.
    A new edited volume by Emad Yaghmaei and Ibo van de Poel, Assessment of Responsible Innovation: Methods and Practices, is reviewed. Responsible innovation (RI) is a project into the ethical and design issues that emerge during the engineering programs of new technologies. This volume is intended to determine how if at all, RI practices can be validated and assessed for success in context.
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  49. Emerging From Lockdown - What Went Wrong?Philippe van Basshuysen & Lucie White - manuscript
    As many Western countries emerged from initial periods of lockdown in spring 2020, they had brought COVID-19 infection rates down significantly. This was followed, however, with more drastic second and third waves of viral spread, which many of these same countries are struggling to bring under control, even with the implementation of further periods of lockdown. Could this have been prevented by policymakers? We revisit two strategies that were focus of much discussion during the early stages of the pandemic, and (...)
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  50. The Problem with Killer Robots.Nathan Gabriel Wood - 2020 - Journal of Military Ethics 19 (3):220-240.
    Warfare is becoming increasingly automated, from automatic missile defense systems to micro-UAVs (WASPs) that can maneuver through urban environments with ease, and each advance brings with it ethical questions in need of resolving. Proponents of lethal autonomous weapons systems (LAWS) provide varied arguments in their favor; robots are capable of better identifying combatants and civilians, thus reducing "collateral damage"; robots need not protect themselves and so can incur more risks to protect innocents or gather more information before using deadly force; (...)
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