Technology Ethics

Edited by Hector MacIntyre (University of Lethbridge)
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  1. Why Confucianism Matters in Ethics of Technology.Pak-Hang Wong - forthcoming - In Shannon Vallor (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Technology. Oxford University Press.
    There are a number of recent attempts to introduce Confucian values to the ethical analysis of technology. These works, however, have not attended sufficiently to one central aspect of Confucianism, namely Ritual (‘Li’). Li is central to Confucian ethics, and it has been suggested that the emphasis on Li in Confucian ethics is what distinguishes it from other ethical traditions. Any discussion of Confucian ethics for technology, therefore, remains incomplete without accounting for Li. This chapter aims to elaborate on the (...)
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  2. In Evaluating Technological Risks, When and Why Should We Consult Our Emotions?Sven Nyholm - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):1903-1912.
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  3. Researchers’ Perceptions of a Responsible Research Climate: A Multi Focus Group Study.Tamarinde Haven, H. Roeline Pasman, Guy Widdershoven, Lex Bouter & Joeri Tijdink - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-20.
    The research climate plays a key role in fostering integrity in research. However, little is known about what constitutes a responsible research climate. We investigated academic researchers’ perceptions on this through focus group interviews. We recruited researchers from the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and the Amsterdam University Medical Center to participate in focus group discussions that consisted of researchers from similar academic ranks and disciplinary fields. We asked participants to reflect on the characteristics of a responsible research climate, the barriers they (...)
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  4. Institutional Approaches to Research Integrity in Ghana.Amos K. Laar, Barbara K. Redman, Kyle Ferguson & Arthur Caplan - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-16.
    Research misconduct remains an important problem in health research despite decades of local, national, regional, and international efforts to eliminate it. The ultimate goal of every health research project, irrespective of setting, is to produce trustworthy findings to address local as well as global health issues. To be able to lead or participate meaningfully in international research collaborations, individual and institutional capacities for research integrity are paramount. Accordingly, this paper concerns itself not only with individuals’ research skills but also with (...)
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  5. Brain Recording, Mind-Reading, and Neurotechnology: Ethical Issues From Consumer Devices to Brain-Based Speech Decoding.Stephen Rainey, Stéphanie Martin, Andy Christen, Pierre Mégevand & Eric Fourneret - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2295-2311.
    Brain reading technologies are rapidly being developed in a number of neuroscience fields. These technologies can record, process, and decode neural signals. This has been described as ‘mind reading technology’ in some instances, especially in popular media. Should the public at large, be concerned about this kind of technology? Can it really read minds? Concerns about mind-reading might include the thought that, in having one’s mind open to view, the possibility for free deliberation, and for self-conception, are eroded where one (...)
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  6. The Emergence and Development of Animal Research Ethics: A Review with a Focus on Nonhuman Primates.Gardar Arnason - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2277-2293.
    The ethics of using nonhuman animals in biomedical research is usually seen as a subfield of animal ethics. In recent years, however, the ethics of animal research has increasingly become a subfield within research ethics under the term “animal research ethics”. Consequently, ethical issues have become prominent that are familiar in the context of human research ethics, such as autonomy or self-determination, harms and benefits, justice, and vulnerability. After a brief overview of the development of the field and a discussion (...)
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  7. Bridging the Gap Between Ethical Theory and Practice in Medicine: A Constructivist Grounded Theory Study.Mansure Madani, AbouAli Vedadhir, Bagher Larijani, Zahra Khazaei & Ahad Faramarz Gharamaleki - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2255-2275.
    Physicians try hard to alleviate mental and physical ailments of their patients. Thus, they are heavily burdened by observing ethics and staying well-informed while improving health of their patients. A major ethical concern or dilemma in medication is that some physicians know their behavior is unethical, yet act against their moral compass. This study develops models of theory–practice gap, offering optimal solutions for the gap. These solutions would enhance self-motivation or remove external obstacles to stimulate ethical practices in medicine. The (...)
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  8. Connecting to the Heart: Teaching Value-Based Professional Ethics.Roel Snieder & Qin Zhu - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2235-2254.
    Engineering programs in the United States have been experimenting with diverse pedagogical approaches to educate future professional engineers. However, a crucial dimension of ethics education that focuses on the values, personal commitments, and meaning of engineers has been missing in many of these pedagogical approaches. We argue that a value-based approach to professional ethics education is critically needed in engineering education, because such an approach is indispensable for cultivating self-reflective and socially engaged engineers. This paper starts by briefly comparing two (...)
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  9. “Ethics When You Least Expect It”: A Modular Approach to Short Course Data Ethics Instruction.Louise Bezuidenhout, Robert Quick & Hugh Shanahan - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2189-2213.
    Data science skills are rapidly becoming a necessity in modern science. In response to this need, institutions and organizations around the world are developing research data science curricula to teach the programming and computational skills that are needed to build and maintain data infrastructures and maximize the use of available data. To date, however, few of these courses have included an explicit ethics component, and developing such components can be challenging. This paper describes a novel approach to teaching data ethics (...)
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  10. Introduction to the Symposium on Sabine Roeser’s Risk, Technology, and Moral Emotions.Neelke Doorn & Colleen Murphy - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):1887-1890.
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  11. Risk, Technology, and Moral Emotions: Reply to Critics.Sabine Roeser - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):1921-1934.
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  12. Creating ‘Local Publics’: Responsibility and Involvement in Decision-Making on Technologies with Local Impacts.Udo Pesch, Nicole M. A. Huijts, Gunter Bombaerts, Neelke Doorn & Agnieszka Hunka - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2215-2234.
    This paper makes a conceptual inquiry into the notion of ‘publics’, and forwards an understanding of this notion that allows more responsible forms of decision-making with regards to technologies that have localized impacts, such as wind parks, hydrogen stations or flood barriers. The outcome of this inquiry is that the acceptability of a decision is to be assessed by a plurality of ‘publics’, including that of a local community. Even though a plurality of ‘publics’ might create competing normative demands, its (...)
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  13. Unleashing the Constructive Potential of Emotions: Some Critical Comments on Risk, Technology and Moral Emotions by Sabine Roeser.Steffen Steinert - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):1913-1920.
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  14. What Research Institutions Can Do to Foster Research Integrity.Lex Bouter - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2363-2369.
    In many countries attention for fostering research integrity started with a misconduct case that got a lot of media exposure. But there is an emerging consensus that questionable research practices are more harmful due to their high prevalence. QRPs have in common that they can help to make study results more exciting, more positive and more statistically significant. That makes them tempting to engage in. Research institutions have the duty to empower their research staff to steer away from QRPs and (...)
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  15. The Ethics of Digital Well-Being: A Thematic Review.Christopher Burr, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2313-2343.
    This article presents the first thematic review of the literature on the ethical issues concerning digital well-being. The term ‘digital well-being’ is used to refer to the impact of digital technologies on what it means to live a life that is good for a human being. The review explores the existing literature on the ethics of digital well-being, with the goal of mapping the current debate and identifying open questions for future research. The review identifies major issues related to several (...)
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  16. Can a Robot Be a Good Colleague?Sven Nyholm & Jilles Smids - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2169-2188.
    This paper discusses the robotization of the workplace, and particularly the question of whether robots can be good colleagues. This might appear to be a strange question at first glance, but it is worth asking for two reasons. Firstly, some people already treat robots they work alongside as if the robots are valuable colleagues. It is worth reflecting on whether such people are making a mistake. Secondly, having good colleagues is widely regarded as a key aspect of what can make (...)
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  17. Professionalism Among Chinese Engineers: An Empirical Study.Lina Wei, Michael Davis & Hangqing Cong - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2121-2139.
    In 2016, Davis and Zhang surveyed 71 Chinese engineers to investigate the claim that the concept of “profession” may have a far wider range than the term. They concluded that China seems to have a profession of engineering even though the Chinese still lacked an exact translation of the English term. In part, the survey reported here simply continues the work of Davis and Zhang. It confirms their result using a much larger, better educated, demographically different pool of 229 Chinese (...)
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  18. Assessing and Raising Concerns About Duplicate Publication, Authorship Transgressions and Data Errors in a Body of Preclinical Research.Andrew Grey, Alison Avenell, Greg Gamble & Mark Bolland - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2069-2096.
    Authorship transgressions, duplicate data reporting and reporting/data errors compromise the integrity of biomedical publications. Using a standardized template, we raised concerns with journals about each of these characteristics in 33 pairs of publications originating from 15 preclinical trials reported by a group of researchers. The outcomes of interest were journal responses, including time to acknowledgement of concerns, time to decision, content of decision letter, and disposition of publications at 1 year. Authorship transgressions affected 27/36 publications. The median proportion of duplicate (...)
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  19. Practicing Engineering Ethics in Global Context: A Comparative Study of Expert and Novice Approaches to Cross-Cultural Ethical Situations.Qin Zhu & Brent K. Jesiek - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2097-2120.
    Engineers and other technical professionals are increasingly challenged by the impacts of globalization. Further, engineering educators, technical managers, and human resources staff have demonstrated great interest in selecting and training engineers who are capable of working competently, professionally, and ethically in global context. However, working across countries and cultures brings considerable challenges to global engineers, including as related to understanding and navigating local and regional differences in what counts as professional ethics and integrity. In this study, we focus on written (...)
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  20. Artificial Intelligence, Responsibility Attribution, and a Relational Justification of Explainability.Mark Coeckelbergh - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2051-2068.
    This paper discusses the problem of responsibility attribution raised by the use of artificial intelligence technologies. It is assumed that only humans can be responsible agents; yet this alone already raises many issues, which are discussed starting from two Aristotelian conditions for responsibility. Next to the well-known problem of many hands, the issue of “many things” is identified and the temporal dimension is emphasized when it comes to the control condition. Special attention is given to the epistemic condition, which draws (...)
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  21. Researchers’ Perceptions of Ethical Authorship Distribution in Collaborative Research Teams.Elise Smith, Bryn Williams-Jones, Zubin Master, Vincent Larivière, Cassidy R. Sugimoto, Adèle Paul-Hus, Min Shi, Elena Diller, Katie Caudle & David B. Resnik - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):1995-2022.
    Authorship is commonly used as the basis for the measurement of research productivity. It influences career progression and rewards, making it a valued commodity in a competitive scientific environment. To better understand authorship practices amongst collaborative teams, this study surveyed authors on collaborative journal articles published between 2011 and 2015. Of the 8364 respondents, 1408 responded to the final open-ended question, which solicited additional comments or remarks regarding the fair distribution of authorship in research teams. This paper presents the analysis (...)
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  22. Misconduct and Misbehavior Related to Authorship Disagreements in Collaborative Science.Elise Smith, Bryn Williams-Jones, Zubin Master, Vincent Larivière, Cassidy R. Sugimoto, Adèle Paul-Hus, Min Shi & David B. Resnik - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):1967-1993.
    Scientific authorship serves to identify and acknowledge individuals who “contribute significantly” to published research. However, specific authorship norms and practices often differ within and across disciplines, labs, and cultures. As a consequence, authorship disagreements are commonplace in team research. This study aims to better understand the prevalence of authorship disagreements, those factors that may lead to disagreements, as well as the extent and nature of resulting misbehavior. Methods include an international online survey of researchers who had published from 2011 to (...)
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  23. The Ethical Education and Perspectives of Chinese Engineering Students: A Preliminary Investigation and Recommendations.Rockwell F. Clancy - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):1935-1965.
    To develop more effective ethics education for cross-cultural and international engineering, a study was conducted to determine what Chinese engineering students have learned and think about ethics. Recent research shows traditional approaches to ethics education are potentially ineffective, but also points towards ways of improving ethical behaviors. China is the world’s most populous country, graduating and employing the highest number of STEM majors, although little empirical research exists about the ethical knowledge and perspectives of Chinese engineering students. When compared to (...)
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  24. Editorial: Shaping Ethical Futures in Brain-Based and Artificial Intelligence Research.Elisabeth Hildt, Kelly Laas & Monika Sziron - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-9.
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  25. Limits of Neural Computation in Humans and Machines.Roman Taraban - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-7.
    Aicardi et al. look to neuroscience to mitigate the limitations of current robotics technology. They propose that robotics technology guided by neuroscience has the capacity to create intelligent robots that function with awareness and capacity for abstraction and reasoning. As neurorobotics extends the capability of robotics technology, it introduces new social and ethical concerns, in particular co-opting civilian applications for military use, conflicts between industry and the academy, and data security. However, here we argue that empirical evidence has shown that (...)
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  26. Computational Goals, Values and Decision-Making.Louise A. Dennis - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-9.
    Considering the popular framing of an artificial intelligence as a rational agent that always seeks to maximise its expected utility, referred to as its goal, one of the features attributed to such rational agents is that they will never select an action which will change their goal. Therefore, if such an agent is to be friendly towards humanity, one argument goes, we must understand how to specify this friendliness in terms of a utility function. Wolfhart Totschnig, argues in contrast that (...)
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  27. What’s Wrong with the Online Echo Chamber: A Motivated Reasoning Account.Yuval Avnur - 2020 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 37 (4):578-593.
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  28. Automation and Utopia: Human Flourishing in a World Without Work John Danaher, 2019 Cambridge, MA and London, England Harvard University Press. 336pp, $39.95 • £31.95 • €36.00. [REVIEW]Daniel W. Tigard - 2020 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 37 (4):684-687.
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  29. Accountability and Community on the Internet: A Plea for Restorative Justice.Laura Wildemann Kane - 2020 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 37 (4):594-611.
    In this article, I analyze norm enforcement on social media, specifically cases where an agent has committed a moral transgression online and is brought to account by an Internet mob with incongruously injurious results in their offline life. I argue that users problematically imagine that they are members of a particular kind of moral community where shaming behaviors are not only acceptable, but morally required to ‘take down’ those who appear to violate community norms. I then demonstrate the costs that (...)
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  30. Creative Anticipatory Ethical Reasoning with Scenario Analysis and Design Fiction.Emily York & Shannon N. Conley - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-32.
    This paper presents an experimental approach for engaging undergraduate STEM students in anticipatory ethical reasoning, or ethical reasoning applied to the analysis of potential mid- to long-term implications and outcomes of technological innovation. The authors implemented two variations of an approach that integrates three key components—scenario analysis, design fiction, and ethical frameworks—into five sections of an introductory course on the social contexts of science and technology that is required of STEM majors. The authors dub this approach Creative Anticipatory Ethical Reasoning, (...)
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  31. Unique Ethical Challenges for the 21st Century: Online Technology and Virtue Education.Matthew Dennis & Tom Harrison - forthcoming - Journal of Moral Education:1-16.
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  32. Ethical and Social Aspects of Neurorobotics.Christine Aicardi, Simisola Akintoye, B. Tyr Fothergill, Manuel Guerrero, Gudrun Klinker, William Knight, Lars Klüver, Yannick Morel, Fabrice O. Morin, Bernd Carsten Stahl & Inga Ulnicane - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-14.
    The interdisciplinary field of neurorobotics looks to neuroscience to overcome the limitations of modern robotics technology, to robotics to advance our understanding of the neural system’s inner workings, and to information technology to develop tools that support those complementary endeavours. The development of these technologies is still at an early stage, which makes them an ideal candidate for proactive and anticipatory ethical reflection. This article explains the current state of neurorobotics development within the Human Brain Project, originating from a close (...)
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  33. Machine Learning Against Terrorism: How Big Data Collection and Analysis Influences the Privacy-Security Dilemma.H. M. Verhelst, A. W. Stannat & G. Mecacci - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-10.
    Rapid advancements in machine learning techniques allow mass surveillance to be applied on larger scales and utilize more and more personal data. These developments demand reconsideration of the privacy-security dilemma, which describes the tradeoffs between national security interests and individual privacy concerns. By investigating mass surveillance techniques that use bulk data collection and machine learning algorithms, we show why these methods are unlikely to pinpoint terrorists in order to prevent attacks. The diverse characteristics of terrorist attacks—especially when considering lone-wolf terrorism—lead (...)
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  34. Privacy, Ethics, and Institutional Research.Alan Rubel - 2019 - New Directions in Institutional Research 2019 (183):5-16.
    Despite widespread agreement that privacy in the context of education is important, it can be difficult to pin down precisely why and to what extent it is important, and it is challenging to determine how privacy is related to other important values. But that task is crucial. Absent a clear sense of what privacy is, it will be difficult to understand the scope of privacy protections in codes of ethics. Moreover, privacy will inevitably conflict with other values, and understanding the (...)
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  35. The Boeing 737 MAX: Lessons for Engineering Ethics.Joseph Herkert, Jason Borenstein & Keith Miller - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-18.
    The crash of two 737 MAX passenger aircraft in late 2018 and early 2019, and subsequent grounding of the entire fleet of 737 MAX jets, turned a global spotlight on Boeing’s practices and culture. Explanations for the crashes include: design flaws within the MAX’s new flight control software system designed to prevent stalls; internal pressure to keep pace with Boeing’s chief competitor, Airbus; Boeing’s lack of transparency about the new software; and the lack of adequate monitoring of Boeing by the (...)
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  36. Keeping the “Human in the Loop” in the Age of Artificial Intelligence.Fabrice Jotterand & Clara Bosco - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-6.
    The benefits of Artificial Intelligence in medicine are unquestionable and it is unlikely that the pace of its development will slow down. From better diagnosis, prognosis, and prevention to more precise surgical procedures, AI has the potential to offer unique opportunities to enhance patient care and improve clinical practice overall. However, at this stage of AI technology development it is unclear whether it will de-humanize or re-humanize medicine. Will AI allow clinicians to spend less time on administrative tasks and technology (...)
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  37. Landscape of Machine Implemented Ethics.Vivek Nallur - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-19.
    This paper surveys the state-of-the-art in machine ethics, that is, considerations of how to implement ethical behaviour in robots, unmanned autonomous vehicles, or software systems. The emphasis is on covering the breadth of ethical theories being considered by implementors, as well as the implementation techniques being used. There is no consensus on which ethical theory is best suited for any particular domain, nor is there any agreement on which technique is best placed to implement a particular theory. Another unresolved problem (...)
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  38. Integrating Value Considerations in the Decision Making for the Design of Biorefineries.Mar Palmeros Parada, Lotte Asveld, Patricia Osseweijer & John Alexander Posada - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-29.
    Biobased production has been promoted as a sustainable alternative to fossil resources. However, controversies over its impact on sustainability highlight societal concerns, value tensions and uncertainties that have not been taken into account during its development. In this work, the consideration of stakeholders’ values in a biorefinery design project is investigated. Value sensitive design is a promising approach to the design of technologies with consideration of stakeholders’ values, however, it is not directly applicable for complex systems like biorefineries. Therefore, some (...)
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  39. The Human Side of Artificial Intelligence.Matthew A. Butkus - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-11.
    Artificial moral agents raise complex ethical questions both in terms of the potential decisions they may make as well as the inputs that create their cognitive architecture. There are multiple differences between human and artificial cognition which create potential barriers for artificial moral agency, at least as understood anthropocentrically and it is unclear that artificial moral agents should emulate human cognition and decision-making. It is conceptually possible for artificial moral agency to emerge that reflects alternative ethical methodologies without creating ontological (...)
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  40. Towards Establishing Criteria for the Ethical Analysis of Artificial Intelligence.Michele Farisco, Kathinka Evers & Arleen Salles - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-13.
    Ethical reflection on Artificial Intelligence has become a priority. In this article, we propose a methodological model for a comprehensive ethical analysis of some uses of AI, notably as a replacement of human actors in specific activities. We emphasize the need for conceptual clarification of relevant key terms in order to undertake such reflection. Against that background, we distinguish two levels of ethical analysis, one practical and one theoretical. Focusing on the state of AI at present, we suggest that regardless (...)
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  41. Toward Implementing the ADC Model of Moral Judgment in Autonomous Vehicles.Veljko Dubljević - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-12.
    Autonomous vehicles —and accidents they are involved in—attest to the urgent need to consider the ethics of artificial intelligence. The question dominating the discussion so far has been whether we want AVs to behave in a ‘selfish’ or utilitarian manner. Rather than considering modeling self-driving cars on a single moral system like utilitarianism, one possible way to approach programming for AI would be to reflect recent work in neuroethics. The agent–deed–consequence model :3–20, 2014a, Behav Brain Sci 37:487–488, 2014b) provides a (...)
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  42. Shifting Perspectives.David J. Gunkel - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-6.
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  43. Expanding Nallur's Landscape of Machine Implemented Ethics.William A. Bauer - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-10.
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  44. Blame-Laden Moral Rebukes and the Morally Competent Robot: A Confucian Ethical Perspective.Qin Zhu, Tom Williams, Blake Jackson & Ruchen Wen - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-16.
    Empirical studies have suggested that language-capable robots have the persuasive power to shape the shared moral norms based on how they respond to human norm violations. This persuasive power presents cause for concern, but also the opportunity to persuade humans to cultivate their own moral development. We argue that a truly socially integrated and morally competent robot must be willing to communicate its objection to humans’ proposed violations of shared norms by using strategies such as blame-laden rebukes, even if doing (...)
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  45. Correcting the Brain? The Convergence of Neuroscience, Neurotechnology, Psychiatry, and Artificial Intelligence.Stephen Rainey & Yasemin J. Erden - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-16.
    The incorporation of neural-based technologies into psychiatry offers novel means to use neural data in patient assessment and clinical diagnosis. However, an over-optimistic technologisation of neuroscientifically-informed psychiatry risks the conflation of technological and psychological norms. Neurotechnologies promise fast, efficient, broad psychiatric insights not readily available through conventional observation of patients. Recording and processing brain signals provides information from ‘beneath the skull’ that can be interpreted as an account of neural processing and that can provide a basis to evaluate general behaviour (...)
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  46. Role-Playing Computer Ethics: Designing and Evaluating the Privacy by Design (PbD) Simulation.Katie Shilton, Donal Heidenblad, Adam Porter, Susan Winter & Mary Kendig - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-16.
    There is growing consensus that teaching computer ethics is important, but there is little consensus on how to do so. One unmet challenge is increasing the capacity of computing students to make decisions about the ethical challenges embedded in their technical work. This paper reports on the design, testing, and evaluation of an educational simulation to meet this challenge. The privacy by design simulation enables more relevant and effective computer ethics education by letting students experience and make decisions about common (...)
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  47. Dark Advertising and the Democratic Process.Joe Saunders - 2020 - In Kevin Macnish & Jai Galliott (eds.), Big Data and Democracy. Edinburgh University Press.
    Political advertising is changing. This chapter considers some of the implications of this for the democratic process. I begin with recent reports of online political advertising. From this, two related concerns emerge. The first is that online political advertisements sometimes occur in the dark, and the second is that they can involve sending different messages to different groups. I consider these issues in turn. This involves an extended discussion of the importance of publicity and discussion in democracy, and a comparison (...)
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  48. Dignity and Dissent in Humans and Non-humans.Andreas Matthias - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-14.
    Is there a difference between human beings and those based on artificial intelligence that would affect their ability to be subjects of dignity? This paper first examines the philosophical notion of dignity as Immanuel Kant derives it from the moral autonomy of the individual. It then asks whether animals and AI systems can claim Kantian dignity or whether there is a sharp divide between human beings, animals and AI systems regarding their ability to be subjects of dignity. How this question (...)
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  49. Assessing the Organizational Climate for Translational Research with a New Survey Tool.Arno Simons, Nico Riedel, Ulf Toelch, Barbara Hendriks, Stephanie Müller-Ohlraun, Lisa Liebenau, Jens Ambrasat, Ulrich Dirnagl & Martin Reinhart - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-18.
    Promoting translational research as a means to overcoming chasms in the translation of knowledge through successive fields of research from basic science to public health impacts and back is a central challenge for research managers and policymakers. Organizational leaders need to assess baseline conditions, identify areas needing improvement, and to judge the impact of specific initiatives to sustain or improve translational research practices at their institutions. Currently, there is a lack of such an assessment tool addressing the specific context of (...)
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  50. An Ethical Framework for the Design, Development, Implementation, and Assessment of Drones Used in Public Healthcare.Dylan Cawthorne & Aimee Robbins-van Wynsberghe - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-25.
    The use of drones in public healthcare is suggested as a means to improve efficiency under constrained resources and personnel. This paper begins by framing drones in healthcare as a social experiment where ethical guidelines are needed to protect those impacted while fully realizing the benefits the technology offers. Then we propose an ethical framework to facilitate the design, development, implementation, and assessment of drones used in public healthcare. Given the healthcare context, we structure the framework according to the four (...)
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