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  1. added 2020-05-17
    The Technologisation of Grace and Theology: Meta-Theological Insights From Transhumanism.King-Ho Leung - forthcoming - Studies in Christian Ethics.
    This article examines some of the recent theological critiques of the movement of technological human enhancement known as ‘transhumanism’. Drawing on the comparisons between grace and technology often found in the theological discourse on transhumanism, this article argues that the Thomistic distinction between healing grace and elevating grace can not only supplement the theological analysis of transhumanism and its ethical implications, but also help Christian theologians and ethicists become more aware of how the phenomenon of technology may have implicitly shaped (...)
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  2. added 2020-05-07
    A Theory of Evolution as a Process of Unfolding.Agustin Ostachuk - 2020 - Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 16 (1):347-379.
    In this work I propose a theory of evolution as a process of unfolding. This theory is based on four logically concatenated principles. The principle of evolutionary order establishes that the more complex cannot be generated from the simpler. The principle of origin establishes that there must be a maximum complexity that originates the others by logical deduction. Finally, the principle of unfolding and the principle of actualization guarantee the development of the evolutionary process from the simplest to the most (...)
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  3. added 2020-05-01
    Internal Perspectivalism: The Solution to Generality Problems About Proper Function and Natural Norms.Jason Winning - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (33):1-22.
    In this paper, I argue that what counts as the proper function of a trait is a matter of the de facto perspective that the biological system, itself, possesses on what counts as proper functioning for that trait. Unlike non-perspectival accounts, internal perspectivalism does not succumb to generality problems. But unlike external perspectivalism, internal perspectivalism can provide a fully naturalistic, mind-independent grounding of proper function and natural norms. The attribution of perspectives to biological systems is intended to be neither metaphorical (...)
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  4. added 2020-03-24
    The Umwelt of Uexküll and Merleau-Ponty.Agustin Ostachuk - 2013 - Ludus Vitalis 21 (39):45-65.
    The organism against its environment. The organism against other organisms, competing and struggling for life. Antagonism and confrontment as the only possible relation in nature. The tendency to anthropomorphize nature and explain it using concepts and facts from the human sphere. A stroll through the worlds of Uexküll and Merleau-Ponty in the search of alternative knowledge that allow us to understand relation from another point of view. A counterpoint and identification of common tonalities between the research programs from both thinkers (...)
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  5. added 2020-03-01
    The Principle of Life: from Aristotelian Psyche to Drieschian Entelechy.Agustin Ostachuk - 2016 - Ludus Vitalis 24 (45):37-59.
    Is life a simple result of a conjunction of physico-chemical processes? Can be reduced to a mere juxtaposition of spatially determined events? What epistemology or world-view allows us to comprehend it? Aristotle built a novel philosophical system in which nature is a dynamical totality which is in constant movement. Life is a manifestation of it, and is formed and governed by the psyche. Psyche is the organizational principle of the different biological levels: nutritive, perceptive and intelective. Driesch's crucial experiment provided (...)
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  6. added 2020-02-19
    The Organism and its Umwelt: A Counterpoint Between the Theories of Uexküll, Goldstein and Canguilhem.Agustin Ostachuk - 2019 - In Jakob von Uexküll and Philosophy: Life, Environments, Anthropology. Londres, Reino Unido: pp. 158-171.
    The topic of the relationship between the organism and its environment runs through the theories of Uexküll, Goldstein and Canguilhem with equal importance. In this work a counterpoint will be established between their theories, in the attempt to assess at which points the melodies are concordant and at which points they are discordant. As fundamental basis to his theory, Uexküll relies on the concept of conformity to a plan, which allows him to account for the congruity and perfect adjustment between (...)
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  7. added 2020-02-12
    Essence in the Age of Evolution: A New Theory of Natural Kinds.Christopher J. Austin - 2018 - London, UK: Routledge.
    This book offers a novel defence of a highly contested philosophical position: biological natural kind essentialism. This theory is routinely and explicitly rejected for its purported inability to be explicated in the context of contemporary biological science, and its supposed incompatibility with the process and progress of evolution by natural selection. Christopher J. Austin challenges these objections, and in conjunction with contemporary scientific advancements within the field of evolutionary-developmental biology, the book utilises a contemporary neo-Aristotelian metaphysics of "dispositional properties", or (...)
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  8. added 2020-02-12
    Teleology Revisited, and Other Essays in the Philosophy and History of Science.Patrick Suppes - 1980 - Journal of Philosophy 77 (12):820-824.
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  9. added 2020-02-11
    Aristotle on Nature and Living Things: Philosophical and Historical Studies. Presented to David M. Balme on His Seventieth Birthday.William Wians - 1990 - Philosophy of Science 57 (4):724-725.
  10. added 2020-02-10
    The Quest for a Holistic and Historical-Developmental Theory of the Organism.Agustin Ostachuk - 2019 - Ludus Vitalis 27 (51):23-42.
    In this work the doctrine of organicism will be addressed, as explained and seen mainly by Bertalanffy. We will study how this doctrine represents and embodies the ambiguity of Kantian teleology as a regulative principle, and how this same problem leads to consider a real problem as a knowledge problem. It will be concluded that organicism, conceived in this way, does not represent a true holism, but what we will call a syn-holism, a synthesis or assembly, and that to obtain (...)
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  11. added 2020-01-19
    Teleosemantics Without Etiology.Bence Nanay - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (5):798-810.
    The aim of teleosemantics is to give a scientifically respectable, or ‘naturalistic’ theory of mental content. In the debates surrounding the scope and merits of teleosemantics a lot has been said about the concept of indication (or carrying information). The aim of this paper is to focus on the other key concept of teleosemantics: biological function. It has been universally accepted in the teleosemantics literature that the account of biological function one should use to flesh out teleosemantics is that of (...)
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  12. added 2020-01-11
    Max Scheler: dall’antropologia filosofica del Geist all’antropologia filosofica della Bildung.Guido Cusinato - 2010 - Giornale di Filosofia 1:1-29.
  13. added 2019-11-28
    Maschinen der Natur.Thomas Khurana - 2011 - Drehmomente.
    In seinem Neuen System (1695) führt Leibniz einen bemerkenswerten Ausdruck ein, in dem sich eine neue Konzeption des Verhältnisses von Natur und Kunst manifestiert. Er wirft den Modernen, die die natürlichen Dinge ganz nach dem Muster künstlicher Maschinen verstanden haben, vor, die natürlichen und künstlichen Dinge auf unangemessene Weise vermengt zu haben. Statt den Modernen aber nun entgegenzuhalten, dass die Dinge der Natur nicht den Charakter von Maschinen haben, führt Leibniz den zunächst überraschenden Begriff der »Maschinen der Natur« ein: Auch (...)
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  14. added 2019-11-14
    Intuitions About Objects: From Teleology to Elimination.David Mark Kovacs - forthcoming - Mind:fzz071.
    In a series of recent papers, David Rose and Jonathan Schaffer use a number of experiments to show that folk intuitions about composition and persistence are driven by pre-scientific teleological tendencies. They argue that these intuitions are fit for debunking and that the playing field for competing accounts of composition and persistence should therefore be considered even: no view draws more support from folk intuitions than its rivals, and the choice between them should be made exclusively on the basis of (...)
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  15. added 2019-10-16
    Reconsidering the Place of Teleological Arguments for the Existence of God in the Light of the ID/Evolution Controversy.James Dominic Rooney, Op - 2009 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 83:227-240.
    Prompted by questions raised in the public arena concerning the validity of arguments for the existence of God based on “design” in the universe, I explore a traditional teleological argument for the existence of God. Using the arguments offered by Thomas Aquinas as fairly representative of this classical line of argumentation going back to Aristotle, I attempt to uncover the hidden premises and construct arguments for the existence of God which are deductive in nature. To justify the premises of Aquinas’s (...)
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  16. added 2019-10-07
    Speusippus, Theophrastus, and the Metaphysics of Value : Theophrastus’ Metaphysics 11a18–26.Wei Cheng - forthcoming - Journal of Hellenic Studies.
    This paper reexamines Theophrastus’ Metaphysics 11a18–26, an obscure testimony about Speusippus, the second head of the Platonic Academy. As opposed to the traditional interpretation, which takes this passage as Theophrastus’ polemic against Speusippus’ doctrine of value, I argue that he here dialectically takes advantage of, rather than launches an attack on, the Platonist. Based on this new reading, I further propose a revision and a reassessment of the ‘gloomy metaphysics’ of Speusippus which will shed new light on his ethics.
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  17. added 2019-09-02
    Hume, Teleology, and the 'Science of Man'.Lorenzo Greco & Dan O'Brien - 2019 - In William Gibson, Dan O'Brien & Marius Turda (eds.), Teleology and Modernity. New York-London: Routledge. pp. 147-164.
    There are various forms of teleological thinking central to debates in the early modern and modern periods, debates in which David Hume (1711–1776) is a key figure. In the first section, we shall introduce three levels at which teleological considerations have been incorporated into philosophical accounts of man and nature, and sketch Hume’s criticisms of these approaches. In the second section, we turn to Hume’s non-teleological ‘science of man’. In the third section, we show how Hume has an account of (...)
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  18. added 2019-09-01
    Téléologie et fonctions en biologie. Une approche non causale des explications téléofonctionnelles.Alberto Molina Pérez - 2017 - Dissertation, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
  19. added 2019-08-03
    A Generalized Selected Effects Theory of Function.Justin Garson - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (3):523-543.
    I present and defend the generalized selected effects theory (GSE) of function. According to GSE, the function of a trait consists in the activity that contributed to its bearer’s differential reproduction, or differential retention, within a population. Unlike the traditional selected effects (SE) theory, it does not require that the functional trait helped its bearer reproduce; differential retention is enough. Although the core theory has been presented previously, I go significantly beyond those presentations by providing a new argument for GSE (...)
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  20. added 2019-06-06
    Explanation and Teleology in Aristotle’s Science of Nature. By Mariska Leunissen. [REVIEW]Byron J. Stoyles - 2012 - Ancient Philosophy 32 (2):452-458.
  21. added 2019-06-06
    Santayana’s Treatment of Teleology: Bulletin of the Santayana Society.Brian Jonathan Garrett - 2010 - Overheard in Seville 28 (28):1-10.
    Santayana's epiphenomenalism is best understood as part of his thinking about teleology and final causes. Santayana makes a distinction between final causes, which he rejects, and teleology, which he finds ubiquitous. Mental causation is identified with a doctrine of final causes which he argues is an absurd form of causation. Thus mental causes are rejected and Santayana embraces epiphenomenalism.
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  22. added 2019-06-06
    Aristotle’s Teleology.Rich Cameron - 2010 - Philosophy Compass 5 (12):1096-1106.
    Teleology is the study of ends and goals, things whose existence or occurrence is purposive. Aristotle’s views on teleology are of seminal importance, particularly his views regarding biological functions or purposes. This article surveys core examples of Aristotle’s invocations of teleology; explores philosophically puzzling aspects of teleology ; articulates two of Aristotle’s arguments defending commitment to teleology against critics who attempt to explain nature solely through appeal to nonteleological efficient and material causes; and argues that Aristotle was an ontological realist (...)
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  23. added 2019-06-06
    Polanyi on Teleology: A Response to John Apczynski and Richard Gelwick.Walter B. Gulick - 2005 - Zygon 40 (1):89-96.
    . Michael Polanyi criticized the neo‐Darwinian synthesis on two grounds: that accidental hereditary changes bringing adaptive advantages cannot account for the rise of discontinuous new species, and that a Ideological ordering principle is needed to explain evolutionary advance. I commend the previous articles by John Apczynski and Richard Gelwick and also argue, more strongly than they, that Polanyi's critique of evolutionary theory is flawed. It relies on an inappropriate notion of progress and untenable analogies from the human process of scientific (...)
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  24. added 2019-06-06
    How to Be a Realist About Sui Generis Teleology Yet Feel at Home in the 21St Century.Richard Cameron - 2004 - The Monist 87 (1):72-95.
    Contemporary discussion of biological teleology has been dominated by a complacent orthodoxy. Responsibility for this shortcoming rests primarily, I think, with those who ought to have been challenging dogma but have remained silent, leaving the orthodox to grow soft, if happily. In this silence, champions of orthodoxy have declared a signal victory, proclaiming the dominance of their view as one of philosophy’s historic successes. But this declaration is premature at best—this would be neither the first nor probably the last time (...)
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  25. added 2019-06-06
    The Experimental Foundations of Galen's Teleology.Christopher E. Cosans - 1998 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (1):63-80.
    This article outlines in details specific experiments that Galen performed. It explores how his methodology for experimentation was a sophisticated response to the rationalist-empirist debate as it occurred in ancient medicine. -/- .
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  26. added 2019-06-06
    Chance and Teleology in Aristotle’s Physics.Marcelo D. Boeri - 1995 - International Philosophical Quarterly 35 (1):87-96.
  27. added 2019-06-06
    Short on Teleology.A. Olding - 1985 - Analysis 45 (3):158.
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  28. added 2019-06-06
    Teleology Without Regrets. The Transformation of Physiology in Germany: 1790–1847.Timothy Lenoir - 1981 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 12 (4):293.
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  29. added 2019-06-06
    Biological Teleology: Questions and Explanations.Robert N. Brandon - 1981 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 12 (2):91.
    This paper gives an account of evolutionary explanations in biology. Briefly, the explanations I am primarily concerned with are explanations of adaptations. These explanations are contrasted with other nonteleological evolutionary explanations. The distinction is made by distinguishing the different kinds of questions these different explanations serve to answer. The sense in which explanations of adaptations are teleological is spelled out.
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  30. added 2019-06-06
    Thoughts on Teleology.Israel Scheffler - 1958 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 9 (33):265.
  31. added 2019-06-06
    Mechanism and Teleology in Current Biological Theory.Ulrich A. Hauber - 1938 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 14:45.
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  32. added 2019-06-06
    VII.—The Limitations of Analysis in Biology.E. S. Russell - 1932 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 33 (1):147-158.
  33. added 2019-06-06
    IV.—Mechanical Explanation and Its Alternatives.C. D. Broad - 1918 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 19 (1):86-124.
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  34. added 2019-06-05
    I.—Teleological Explanation: The Presidential Address.R. B. Braithwaite - 1946 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 47 (1):i-xx.
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  35. added 2019-06-04
    Robust Processes and Teleological Language.Jonathan Birch - 2012 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 2 (3):299-312.
    I consider some hitherto unexplored examples of teleological language in the sciences. In explicating these examples, I aim to show (a) that such language is not the sole preserve of the biological sciences, and (b) that not all such talk is reducible to the ascription of functions. In chemistry and biochemistry, scientists explaining molecular rearrangements and protein folding talk informally of molecules rearranging “in order to” maximize stability. Evolutionary biologists, meanwhile, often speak of traits evolving “in order to” optimize some (...)
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  36. added 2019-05-30
    Kant's Concept of Teleology. By J. D. McFarland. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press, 1970, Pp. Ix, 150. £2.Michael Ruse - 1974 - Dialogue 13 (1):192-195.
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  37. added 2019-05-01
    Do Constancy Mechanisms Save Distal Content?Justin Garson - 2019 - Philosophical Quarterly 69 (275):409-417.
    In this journal, Schulte develops a novel solution to the problem of distal content: by virtue of what is a mental representation about a distal object rather than a more proximal cause of that representation? Schulte maintains that in order for a representation to have a distal content, it must be produced by a constancy mechanism, along with two other conditions. I raise three objections to his solution. First, a core component of Schulte's solution is just a restrictive version of (...)
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  38. added 2019-05-01
    Teleosemantics, Selection and Novel Contents.Justin Garson & David Papineau - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (3):36.
    Mainstream teleosemantics is the view that mental representation should be understood in terms of biological functions, which, in turn, should be understood in terms of selection processes. One of the traditional criticisms of teleosemantics is the problem of novel contents: how can teleosemantics explain our ability to represent properties that are evolutionarily novel? In response, some have argued that by generalizing the notion of a selection process to include phenomena such as operant conditioning, and the neural selection that underlies it, (...)
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  39. added 2019-04-01
    Four Ways of Eliminating Mind From Teleology.Lowell Nissen - 1991 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 24 (1):27-48.
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  40. added 2019-02-04
    An Organisational Approach to Biological Communication.Ramiro Frick, Leonardo Bich & Alvaro Moreno - 2019 - Acta Biotheoretica (2):103-128.
    This paper aims to provide a philosophical and theoretical account of biological communication grounded in the notion of organisation. The organisational approach characterises living systems as organised in such a way that they are capable to self-produce and self-maintain while in constant interaction with the environment. To apply this theoretical framework to the study of biological communication, we focus on a specific approach, based on the notion of influence, according to which communication takes place when a signal emitted by a (...)
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  41. added 2019-01-19
    Kant on Formative Power.Ina Goy - 2012 - Lebenswelt: Aesthetics and Philosophy of Experience 2:26-49.
    The notion of a formative power is one of the most obscure in Kant’s theory of biology. In section I of the paper, I will provide a list of all passages in which Kant uses the term, claiming that the older meaning of ‘formative power’ in Kant’s writings is an epistemological one, whereas the biological meaning of the term appears not before the mid-1780s. I will present and discuss some of these passages in closer detail, and will give a precise (...)
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  42. added 2018-12-03
    Changing Kinds: Aristotle and the Aristotelians.Stephen R. L. Clark - 2015 - Diametros 45:19-34.
    Aristotle is routinely blamed for several errors that, it is supposed, held 'science' back for centuries - among others, a belief in distinct, homogenous and unchanging species of living creatures, an essentialist account of human nature, and a suggestion that 'slavery' was a natural institution. This paper briefly examines Aristotle's own arguments and opinions, and the perils posed by a contrary belief in changeable species. Contrary to received opinion even amongst some of his followers, Aristotle was not a species essentialist (...)
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  43. added 2018-12-03
    Necessity and the Physicalist Account in Aristotle’s Physics. Difficulties with the Rainfall Example.Jarosław Olesiak - 2015 - Diametros 45:35-38.
    The aim of the present article is to consider the shortcomings of the physicalist rainfall example set forth by Aristotle in Physics II.8. I first outline the ancient physicalist account of the coming-to-be of natural organisms and the accompanying rejection of the teleological character of such processes. Then I examine the rainfall example itself. The fundamental difficulty is that rainfall does not appear to have a proper nature. Hence it is not natural in the strict sense and cannot be used (...)
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  44. added 2018-12-03
    Thinking About End of Life in Teleological Terms.Paolo Biondi & Rachel Haliburton - 2015 - Diametros 45:1-18.
    This brief paper presents an Aristotelian-inspired approach to end-of-life decision making. The account focuses on the importance of teleology, in particular, the telos of eudaimonia understood as the goal of human flourishing as well as the telos of medicine when a person’s eudaimonia is threatened by serious illness and death. We argue that an Aristotelian bioethics offers a better alternative to a “fundamentalist bioethics” since the telos of eudaimonia offers a more realistic conception of the self and the realities of (...)
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  45. added 2018-10-30
    La teoría de la selección natural. Una exploración metacientífica.Santiago Ginnobili - 2018 - Bernal: Universidad Nacional de Quilmes.
    Este libro analiza y reconstruye una de las teorías científicas que más discusiones han provocado en el ámbito de la biología, de la filosofía y de la sociedad: la teoría de la selección natural. Esta teoría, que ocupa un lugar central en la biología evolutiva, se encuentra en el centro de la revolución darwiniana, uno de los cambios más radicales ocurridos en la historia de la ciencia y, sin dudas, uno de los que más consecuencias han tenido sobre la ciencia (...)
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  46. added 2018-10-29
    A Functional Naturalism.Anthony Nguyen - 2018 - Synthese 2002.
    I provide two arguments against value-free naturalism. Both are based on considerations concerning biological teleology. Value-free naturalism is the thesis that both (1) everything is, at least in principle, under the purview of the sciences and (2) all scientific facts are purely non-evaluative. First, I advance a counterexample to any analysis on which natural selection is necessary to biological teleology. This should concern the value-free naturalist, since most value-free analyses of biological teleology appeal to natural selection. My counterexample is unique (...)
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  47. added 2018-09-18
    Objetividad versus inteligibilidad de las funciones biológicas: La paradoja normativa y el autismo epistemológico de las ciencias modernas.Alberto Pérez - 2007 - Ludus Vitalis 15:39-67.
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  48. added 2018-08-24
    Teleology Without Tears: Aristotle and the Role of Mechanistic Conceptions of Organisms.Sylvia Berryman - 2007 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 37 (3):351-369.
    In this paper I outline a role for mechanistic conceptions of organisms in ancient Greek natural philosophy, especially the study of organisms. By ‘mechanistic conceptions’ I mean the use of ideas and techniques drawn from the field of mechanics to investigate the natural world. ‘Mechanistic conceptions’ of organisms in ancient Greek philosophy, then, are those that draw on the ancient understanding of the field called ‘mechanics’ — hê mêchanikê technê—to investigate living things, rather than those bearing some perceived similarity to (...)
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  49. added 2018-05-17
    Elemental Teleology and an Interpretation of the Rainfall Example in Physics 2.8.Caleb Kinlaw - unknown
    This paper proposes an interpretation of the rainfall example in which Aristotle does not himself think that crop growth is the final cause of rain. The grounds for this interpretation will be an ‘elemental teleology’ which affirms that the only final cause of the movements of the elements is the goal of reaching their proper places of rest. Textual evidence for the presence of this doctrine in Aristotle’s thought is examined in the first two thirds of the paper. My interpretation (...)
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  50. added 2018-04-08
    Evolution's Arrow: The Direction of Evolution and the Future of Humanity.John E. Stewart - 2000 - Canberra: The Chapman Press.
    Evolution's Arrow argues that evolution is directional and progressive, and that this has major consequences for humanity. Without resort to teleology, the book demonstrates that evolution moves in the direction of producing cooperative organisations of greater scale and evolvability - evolution has organised molecular processes into cells, cells into organisms, and organisms into societies. The book founds this position on a new theory of the evolution of cooperation. It shows that self-interest at the level of the genes does not prevent (...)
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