About this topic
Summary We perceive movement, change, and the succession and durations of events. We are constantly aware of the flow of our thoughts. Philosophers have long struggled to provide a coherent and unified account of these temporal aspects of experience. Some have simply denied that we do enjoy temporal experience. Most have sought to explain how such experience is possible, commonly by appeal to memory, or to the contested notion of the specious present. The answers to these questions have been thought important to questions concerning self-knowledge, the nature of perceptual experience in general, and the metaphysics of time.
Key works The most important early modern discussions of temporal experience are in Locke 1689, especially chapter XIV, and Reid 2002, essay III 'Of Memory'. James 1890, chapter XV, is a landmark discussion of time perception from both a philosophical and scientific perspective. A number of important philosophical discussions appeared in the decades following James, most saliently Broad 1923 and Husserl 1991. Recent interest in these issues has been reignited by, amongst others, Dainton 2000. Dennett & Kinsbourne 1992 is a provocative and important contribution making connections with empirical work.
Introductions The following recent papers/books contain broad treatments of some of central philosophical issues: (1) Dainton 2010. Also: Dainton 2008 and Dainton 2000, part two; (2) Le Poidevin 2007. Also: Le Poidevin 2008; (3) Gallagher 1998; (4) Kelly 2005; (5) Phillips 2010. A nice survey of historical work in the area is Andersen & Grush 2009.
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  1. Above Time: Rabbi Nachman’s Tzaddik and Enlightened Temporal Experience.Olla Solomyak - 2021 - The Monist 104 (3):410-425.
    Rabbi Nachman of Bratslav describes the tzaddik as experiencing time in a distinctive, enlightened way: What is seventy years for the rest of us feels like a mere fifteen minutes for the tzaddik. Furthermore, even higher levels of enlightenment are possible—for a tzaddik on a higher level, what feels like seventy years for the first tzaddik is again but a mere fifteen minutes. This pattern continues, approaching a limit point which Rabbi Nachman calls “above time,” and which is the perspective (...)
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  2. Human Vision Reconstructs Time to Satisfy Causal Constraints.Christos Bechlivanidis, Marc J. Buehner, Emma C. Tecwyn, D. A. Lagnado, Christoph Hoerl & Teresa McCormack - forthcoming - Psychological Science.
    The goal of perception is to infer the most plausible source of sensory stimulation. Unisensory perception of temporal order, however, appears to require no inference, since the order of events can be uniquely determined from the order in which sensory signals arrive. Here we demonstrate a novel perceptual illusion that casts doubt on this intuition: in three studies (N=607) the experienced event timings are determined by causality in real-time. Adult observers viewed a simple three-item sequence ACB, which is typically remembered (...)
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  3. People Made of Glass: The Collapsing Temporalities of Chronic Conditions.Ida Vandsøe Madsen - 2021 - Wiley: Anthropology of Consciousness 32 (1):7-32.
    An increasing number of people worldwide are living with chronic conditions that have an aspect of bodily fragility as part of the condition or as an effect of treatment. In this article, I explore the temporal experience of bodily fragility and the particularities of consciousness states among people with the chronic condition osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) in Denmark. My aim is threefold. First, my goal is to give an insight into life with OI, a rare and rarely studied condition. Second, I (...)
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  4. Retrieving Heidegger's Temporal Realism.B. Scot Rousse - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    Early Heidegger argues that a “homogenous space of nature” can be revealed by stripping away the intelligibility of Dasein's everyday world, a process he calls “deworlding.” Given this, some interpreters have suggested that Heidegger, despite not having worked out the details himself, is also committed to a notion of deworlded time. Such a “natural time” would amount to an endogenous sequentiality in which events are ordered independently of Dasein and the stand it takes on its being. I show that Heidegger (...)
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  5. The Varying Coherences of Implied Motion Modulates the Subjective Time Perception.Feiming Li, Lei Wang, Lei Jia, Jiahao Lu, Youping Wu, Cheng Wang & Jun Wang - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Previous research has demonstrated that duration of implied motion was dilated, whereas hMT+ activity related to perceptual processes on IM stimuli could be modulated by their motion coherence. Based on these findings, the present study aimed to examine whether subjective time perception of IM stimuli would be influenced by varying coherence levels. A temporal bisection task was used to measure the subjective experience of time, in which photographic stimuli showing a human moving in four directions were presented as probe stimuli. (...)
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  6. Phenomenological Approaches to Personal Identity.Jakub Čapek & Sophie Loidolt - 2021 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 20 (2):217-234.
    This special issue addresses the debate on personal identity from a phenomenological viewpoint, especially contemporary phenomenological research on selfhood. In the introduction, we first offer a brief survey of the various classic questions related to personal identity according to Locke’s initial proposal and sketch out key concepts and distinctions of the debate that came after Locke. We then characterize the types of approach represented by post-Hegelian, German and French philosophies of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. We argue that whereas the (...)
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  7. Frightening Times.Davide Bordini & Giuliano Torrengo - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    In this paper, we discuss the inherent temporal orientation of fear, a matter on which philosophers seem to have contrasting opinions. According to some, fear is inherently present-oriented; others instead maintain that it is inherently future-oriented or that it has no inherent temporal orientation at all. Despite the differences, however, all these views seem to understand fear’s temporal orientation as one-dimensional—that is, as uniquely determined by the represented temporal location of the intentional object of fear. By contrast, we present a (...)
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  8. A Momentum Effect in Temporal Arithmetic.Mario Bonato, Umberto D'Ovidio, Wim Fias & Marco Zorzi - 2021 - Cognition 206:104488.
    The mental representation of brief temporal durations, when assessed in standard laboratory conditions, is highly accurate. Here we show that adding or subtracting temporal durations systematically results in strong and opposite biases, namely over-estimation for addition and under-estimation for subtraction. The difference with respect to a baseline temporal reproduction task changed across durations in an operation-specific way and survived correcting for the effect due to operation sign alone, indexing a reliable signature of arithmetic processing on time representation. A second experiment (...)
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  9. Calculating the Boundaries of Consciousness in General Resonance Theory.T. Hunt - 2020 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 27 (11-12):55-80.
    When physical structures resonate in proximity to each other they will under certain circumstances 'sync up' in a shared resonance frequency. This is the phenomenon of spontaneous selforganization. General resonance theory (GRT), a theory of consciousness developed by Hunt and Schooler, suggests that consciousness is a product of various shared resonance frequencies at different physical scales. I suggest a heuristic for calculating the boundaries and resulting capacity for phenomenal consciousness in such resonating structures. Shared resonance results in phase transitions in (...)
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  10. How does Novelty Arise? Institution and Transcendence.Jan Puc - 2017 - Filozofia 72 (4):259-270.
    The paper shows different approaches to creativity, i.e. emergence of new meanings, in Merleau-Ponty and Patočka. The comparison is based mainly on Merleau-Ponty’s lectures L’institution dans l’histoire personnelle et publique (1954/55) and Patočka’s project Negative Platonism (1953). Despite some similarities evident in the key concepts “institution” and “transcendence”, there is a decisive difference between the two approaches concerning the temporality of creation. Whereas Merleau-Ponty likens the temporality of institution to future perfect tense, emphasizing the intertwining of present and future events, (...)
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  11. The Effect of Action on Perceptual Feature Binding.Inci Ayhan, Melisa Kurtcan & Lucas Thorpe - 2020 - Vision Research 177:97-108.
    Color-motion asynchrony (CMA) refers to an apparent lag of direction of motion when a dynamic stimulus changes both color and direction at the same time. The subjective order of simultaneous events, however, is not only perceptual but also subject to illusions during voluntary actions. Self-initiated actions, for example, seem to precede their sensory outcomes following an adaptation to a delay between the action and the sensory feedback. Here, we demonstrate that the extent of the apparent asynchrony can be substantially reduced (...)
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  12. Flash-Lag Illusion.Camden McKenna - 2020 - Illusions Index.
    In the flash-lag effect a non-moving object is quickly flashed directly underneath a moving object, which leads us to perceive the non-moving object as “lagging” the moving object, even though the two objects actually occupy the same horizontal position at the time of the flash. In the example above, for instance, a red square moves across a screen. At the midpoint of the red square’s journey from one side to the other, a green square is quickly presented (flashed) just below. (...)
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  13. Art, Temporality and "Motions of the Mind".Venkat Ramanan - 2020 - Https://Bluelabyrinths.Com/.
    It is a commonplace to claim that art imitates life. If so, art, in performing this mimesis, should respond also to our obsession and concern with temporality (time as experienced, not as measured, or human time as opposed to what the metaphysicians claim). How does art participate in this alchemy of smelting clock time into felt time?
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  14. The Perception of (Musical) Metre.P. Boast - 2020 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 27 (9-10):60-86.
    In his explorations of time-consciousness, Edmund Husserl often draws upon the examples of a musical tone or melody to describe temporal experience. Yet, Husserl's arguments are not about music per se, and he never engages with the internal structures and dynamics of music. More specifically, Husserl does not discuss rhythm and metre, the principal temporal modalities of music. Nonetheless, Husserl's thoughts on time-consciousness have a direct bearing on the perception of musical metre, and particularly so with respect to Christopher Hasty's (...)
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  15. Don’T Go Chasing Waterfalls: Motion Aftereffects and the Dynamic Snapshot Theory of Temporal Experience.Camden Alexander McKenna - forthcoming - Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-21.
    The philosophical investigation of perceptual illusions can generate fruitful insights in the study of subjective time consciousness. However, the way illusions are interpreted is often controversial. Recently, proponents of the so-called dynamic snapshot theory have appealed to the Waterfall Illusion, a kind of motion aftereffect, to support a particular view of temporal consciousness according to which experience is structured as a series of instantaneous snapshots with dynamic qualities. This dynamism is meant to account for familiar features of the phenomenology of (...)
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  16. Buddhaghosa, James, and Thompson on Conscious Flow.Mark Fortney - 2021 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 7.
    This paper is about whether consciousness flows. Evan Thompson (2014) has recently claimed that the study of binocular rivalry shows that there are some moments where consciousness does not flow, contra William James (1890). Moreover, he’s claimed that Abhidharma philosophers reject James’s claim that consciousness flows. I argue that binocular rivalry poses no special challenge to James. Second, I argue that because Thompson did not take up the question of how James and Abhidharma philosophers analyse or define flow, he under-described (...)
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  17. Time and the Observer in Jorge Luis Borges.Venkat Ramanan - 2020 - Literature & Aesthetics 30 (1):209-227.
    Jorge Luis Borges displays an ambivalence in his writings towards the reality of time’s flow. On the one hand, he seems to accept arguments from various thinkers refuting the reality of time. “And yet, and yet…” Borges appears unable to feel completely reconciled to such a view of time. I argue that this is because a view that refutes time denies the observer too along with it. I conclude with demonstrating how Borges, by trying to identify a reconciliation between a (...)
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  18. Glad it Happened: Personal Identity and Ethical Depth.M. Schechtman - 2020 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 27 (7-8):95-114.
    The idea that a sense of oneself as continuing over time is necessary for the ethical and experiential depth characteristic of a human life has been expressed frequently in philosophical work on the self and other venues. The opposing view, that preoccupation with one's diachronic extension is misleading and self-damaging, has also had forceful proponents. This paper explores this conflict via reflection on Galen Strawson's defence of the value of 'Episodic' selfexperience and an objection to Strawson raised by Kathleen Wilkes. (...)
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  19. Temporal Asymmetries in Philosophy and Psychology.Christoph Hoerl, Teresa McCormack & Alison Sutton Fernandes (eds.) - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
    Humans’ attitudes towards an event often vary depending on whether the event has already happened or has yet to take place. The dread felt at the thought of a forthcoming examination turns into relief once it is over. People also value past events less than future ones – offering less pay for work already carried out than for the same work to be carried out in the future, as recent research in psychology shows. This volume brings together philosophers and psychologists (...)
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  20. Mental Time Travel? A Neurocognitive Model of Event Simulation.Donna Rose Addis - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (2):233-259.
    Mental time travel is defined as projecting the self into the past and the future. Despite growing evidence of the similarities of remembering past and imagining future events, dominant theories conceive of these as distinct capacities. I propose that memory and imagination are fundamentally the same process – constructive episodic simulation – and demonstrate that the ‘simulation system’ meets the three criteria of a neurocognitive system. Irrespective of whether one is remembering or imagining, the simulation system: acts on the same (...)
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  21. Editorial: Memory as Mental Time Travel.André Sant’Anna, Kourken Michaelian & Denis Perrin - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (2):223-232.
    Originally understood as memory for the “what”, the “when”, and the “where” of experienced past events, episodic memory has, in recent years, been redefined as a form of past-oriented mental time travel. Following a brief review of empirical research on memory as mental time travel, this introduction provides an overview of the contributions to the special issue, which explore the theoretical implications of that research.
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  22. Still Life, a Mirror: Phasic Memory and Re-Encounters with Artworks.Clare Mac Cumhaill - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (2):423-446.
    Re-encountering certain kinds of artworks in the present (re-listening to music, re- reading novels) can often occasion a kind of recollection akin to episodic recollection, but which may be better cast as ‘phasic’, at least insofar as one can be said to remember ‘what it was like’ to be oneself at some earlier stage or phase in one’s personal history. The kinds of works that prompt such recollection, I call ‘still lives’ - they are limited wholes whose formal properties are (...)
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  23. Mental Time Travel and Disjunctivism.István Aranyosi - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (2):367-384.
    The paper discusses radical constructivism about episodic memory as developed by Kourken Michaelian under the name of “simulationism”, a view that equates episodic memory with mental time travel. An alternative, direct realist view is defended, which implies disjunctivism about the appearance of remembering. While admitting the importance of mental time travel as an underlying cognitive mechanism in episodic memory, as well as the prima facie reasonableness of the simulationist’s critique of disjunctivism, I formulate three arguments in defense of disjunctivism, which (...)
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  24. The Experience of Being Oneself in Memory: Exploring Sense of Identity via Observer Memory.Ying-Tung Lin - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (2):405-422.
    Every episodic memory entails a sense of identity, which allows us to mentally travel through time. There is a special way by which the subject who is remembering comes into contact with the self that is embedded in the episodic simulation of memory: we can directly and robustly experience the protagonist in memory as ourselves. This paper explores what constitutes such experience in memory. On the face of it, the issue may seem trivial: of course, we are able to entertain (...)
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  25. Rewarding one’s Future Self: Psychological Connectedness, Episodic Prospection, and a Puzzle about Perspective.Christopher Jude McCarroll & Erica Cosentino - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (2):449-467.
    When faced with intertemporal choices, which have consequences that unfold over time, we often discount the future, preferring smaller immediate rewards often at the expense of long-term benefits. How psychologically connected one feels to one’s future self-influences such temporal discounting. Psychological connectedness consists in sharing psychological properties with past or future selves, but connectedness comes in degrees. If one feels that one is not psychologically connected to one’s future self, one views that self like a different person and is less (...)
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  26. Defending Discontinuism, Naturally.Sarah Robins - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (2):469-486.
    The more interest philosophers take in memory, the less agreement there is that memory exists—or more precisely, that remembering is a distinct psychological kind or mental state. Concerns about memory’s distinctiveness are triggered by observations of its similarity to imagination. The ensuing debate is cast as one between discontinuism and continuism. The landscape of debate is set such that any extensive engagement with empirical research into episodic memory places one on the side of continuism. Discontinuists concerns are portrayed as almost (...)
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  27. Self-Referential Memory and Mental Time Travel.Jordi Fernández - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (2):283-300.
    Episodic memory has a distinctive phenomenology. One way to capture what is distinctive about it is by using the notion of mental time travel: When we remember some fact episodically, we mentally travel to the moment at which we experienced it in the past. This way of distinguishing episodic memory from semantic memory calls for an explanation of what the experience of mental time travel is. In this paper, I suggest that a certain view about the content of memories can (...)
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  28. Causality Influences Children's and Adults' Experience of Temporal Order.Emma C. Tecwyn, Christos Bechlivanidis, David A. Lagnado, Christoph Hoerl, Sara Lorimer, Emma Blakey, Teresa McCormack & Marc J. Buehner - 2020 - Developmental Psychology 56 (4):739-755.
    Although it has long been known that time is a cue to causation, recent work with adults has demonstrated that causality can also influence the experience of time. In causal reordering (Bechlivanidis & Lagnado, 2013, 2016) adults tend to report the causally consistent order of events, rather than the correct temporal order. However, the effect has yet to be demonstrated in children. Across four pre-registered experiments, 4- to 10-year-old children (N=813) and adults (N=178) watched a 3-object Michotte-style ‘pseudocollision’. While in (...)
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  29. Temporal Binding and the Perception/Cognition Boundary.Christoph Hoerl - 2019 - In Valtteri Arstila, Adrian Bardon, Sean Enda Power & Argiro Vatakis (eds.), The illusions of time: Philosophical and psychological essays on timing and time perception. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 275-287.
    Temporal binding occurs when people observe two events that they believe to be causally connected: They underestimate the length of the interval between those two events, when compared with their estimates of the length of intervals between events they believe to be causally unrelated. I discuss temporal binding in the context of Dennett and Kinsbourne’s (Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 15(2), 183–201, 1992) influential argument levelled at what they call ‘Cartesian Materialism’. In particular, I argue that Dennett and Kinsbourne’s argument trades (...)
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  30. Psychopathologies of Time: Defining Mental Illness in Early 20th-Century Psychiatry.Allegra R. P. Fryxell - 2019 - History of the Human Sciences 32 (2):3-31.
    This article examines the role of time as a methodological tool and pathological focus of clinical psychiatry and psychology in the first half of the 20th century. Contextualizing ‘psychopathologies of time’ developed by practitioners in Europe and North America with reference to the temporal theories implicit in Freudian psychoanalysis and Henri Bergson’s philosophy of durée, it illuminates how depression, schizophrenia, and other mental disorders such as obsessive-compulsive behaviours and aphasia were understood to be symptomatic of an altered or disturbed ‘time-sense’. (...)
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  31. Temporal Delusion: 'Duality' Accounts of Time and Double Orientation to Reality in Depressive Psychosis.M. Moskalewicz - 2018 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 25 (9-10):163-183.
    This paper argues that 'duality' accounts of time, as exemplified by Henri Bergson's, Edmund Husserl's, and John McTaggart's ideas, parallel the decomposition of temporal experience in depressive psychosis into objective and subjective dimensions of time. The paper also proposes to comprehend the full-fledged depressive temporal delusion, in which the subjective flow of time comes to a standstill, via the idea of a double orientation to reality characteristic of schizophrenic delusions. In the depressive temporal delusion a person claims that time is (...)
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  32. A Grammar for the Mind: Time Embodied and Disembodied.B. Kotchoubey - 2018 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 25 (7-8):66-88.
    A philosophical idea about a particular relation of humans to time has found its recent psychological development in the form of the hypothesis that at some age point human children acquire a specific ability to describe the past and to think about the future, while animals do not possess this ability but are 'stuck in time'. On the other hand, animals definitely possess memory, and their behaviour constitutes a set of anticipations. A solution of this contradiction is proposed on the (...)
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  33. The Cyclical Time of the Body and its Relation to Linear Time.T. Fuchs - 2018 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 25 (7-8):47-65.
    While linear time results from the measurement of physical events, the temporality of life is characterized by cyclical processes, which also manifest themselves in subjective bodily experience. This applies for the periodicity of heartbeat, respiration, sleep-wake cycle, or circadian hormone secretion, among others. The central integration of rhythmic bodily signals in the brain forms the biological foundation of the phenomenal sense of temporal continuity. Cyclical repetitions are also found in the recurring phases of need, drive, and satisfaction. Finally, the cyclical (...)
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  34. Time Consciousness in a Computional Mind/Brain.V. van Wassenhove - 2017 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 24 (3-4):177-202.
    Time consciousness may elicit different concepts for each of us: some may imagine a directional flow mapping life events, others may think of the time needed to accomplish a task, or hear the musical tempo pacing their morning jogs. While we are all experts in experiencing time, introspection provides little intuition regarding the mechanisms supporting psychological time. Being conscious of time is to render intelligible the non-stationarities of brain activity with respect to its homeostatic time bases: specifically, while clocking mechanisms (...)
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  35. On Time, Causation, and the Sense of Agency.M. Vuorre - 2017 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 24 (3-4):203-215.
    The experience of controlling events in the external world through voluntary action-- the sense of agency -- is a subtle but pervasive feature of human mental life and a constituent part of the sense of self. However, instead of reflecting an actual connection between conscious thoughts and subsequent outcomes, SoA may be an illusion. Whether this experience is an illusion, indicating no actual causal connection between conscious intention and physical outcome in the world, has been the focus of intense philosophical (...)
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  36. Disrupted Continuity of Subjective Time in the Milliseconds Range in the Self-Distrubances of Schizophrenia: Convergence of Experimental, Phenomenological, and Predictive Coding Accounts.A. Giersch & A. Mishara - 2017 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 24 (3-4):62-87.
    The impression of time continuity is a pervasive and given property of our subjective life. However, it appears to be compromised in patients with schizophrenia who experience what has been labelled 'self-disturbances'. We propose that the gaps in the continuity of self-experience in schizophrenia reflect disruption of non-conscious levels of temporal processing and indicate how this view is supported by experimental, phenomenological, and predictive coding approaches. Both experimental data and the phenomenology of time support the same surprising findings, i.e. the (...)
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  37. The Arrow of Mind.R. Le Poidevin - 2017 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 24 (3-4):112-126.
    Episodic memory provides a peculiarly intimate kind of access to our experiential past. Does this tell us anything about the nature of time, and in particular the basis of time's direction? This paper will argue that the causal theory of temporal direction enables us to unify a number of the key features of episodic memory: its being about particular past experiences, its reliable representation of experiences as past, and the derivative nature of this kind of access to the past: that (...)
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  38. Experience and the Pacemaker- Accumulator Model.V. Arstila - 2017 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 24 (3-4):14-36.
    The pacemaker-accumulator model provides a framework in which the results of different duration estimation tasks are commonly accounted for. Nevertheless, the model remains abstract and it does not provide proper explanations nor predictions for duration estimations in various experimental set-ups. This paper aims to address these shortcomings by explicating an experiential pacemaker-accumulator model that supplements the standard pacemaker-accumulator model with two claims. Both of them concern the role that experiences play in duration estimation tasks and are also partly supported by (...)
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  39. Taking Time Seriously in Tononi's Integrated Information Theory.T. Hunt - 2016 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 23 (9-10):88-110.
    Integrated information theory is an increasingly accepted and powerful theory of consciousness. IIT has faced some criticism, however, particularly with respect to the exclusion principle that is the theory's solution to the 'boundary problem': how is the boundary for any particular conscious entity drawn in each moment? I propose an alternative approach to the exclusion principle. Based on the passage of time that constitutes our normal first-person experience, I suggest that a 'time axiom' should be added to IIT, with an (...)
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  40. Perciving Two Levels of the Flow of Time.R. P. Gruber, M. Bach & R. A. Block - 2015 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 22 (5-6):7-22.
    Many physicists regard the flow of time as an illusion. There is an upper level flow of time, the phenomenon of past/present/future; and there is a lower level flow of time which is really a flow of events. Perceptual completion accounts for the lower level flow of time in a few ways: apparent movement; amodal completion; and dynamic change as exemplified by a newly described modal completion that we called happening. It acts like an illusory percept connecting discrete stimuli in (...)
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  41. Interactive Time-Travel: On the Intersubjective Retro-Modulation of Intentions.E. Di Paolo - 2015 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 22 (1-2):49-74.
    The temporality of intentions and actions in situations of social interaction can sometimes be paradoxical. I argue that in these situations it may sometimes be possible to conceive of individual acts that can, in a strong sense, be intended retroactively. This could happen when the relational patterns in social interaction literally alter the virtual structure of a participant's past corporeal intentions resulting in an odd experience of having intended something all along without knowing it. I propose that this possibility should (...)
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  42. Tensions Theoretical and Theorized: Comment on Di Paolo's 'Interative Time-Travel'.J. Z. Elias - 2015 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 22 (1-2):75-79.
  43. Deja Vecu and Deja Visite Similarities and Differences: Initial Results From an Online Investigation.A. Funkhouser & M. Schredl - 2014 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 21 (11-12):7-18.
    It has been posited that the experience commonly called 'deja vu' can be subdivided into several types of deja experience. For the past nine years an internet questionnaire has collected data about what are called 'deja vecu' and 'deja visite' experiences. It is clear from the data that deja vecu experiences occur more frequently than do deja visite ones. Further analysis of the data has shown that deja vecu experiences were rated as being significantly longer than those of deja visite. (...)
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  44. Zukunftsbewusstsein. Grundriss einer Phänomenologie der Erwartung.Mario Schärli - 2018 - In Emil Angehrn & Joachim Küchenhoff (eds.), Erwartung. Zukunft zwischen Furcht und Hoffnung. Weilerswist, Deutschland: pp. 35–64.
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  45. Manic Temporality.Wayne Martin, Tania Gergel & Gareth S. Owen - 2018 - Philosophical Psychology 32 (1):72-97.
    ABSTRACTTime-consciousness has long been a focus of research in phenomenology and phenomenological psychology. We advance and extend this tradition of research by focusing on the character of temporal experience under conditions of mania. Symptom scales and diagnostic criteria for mania are peppered with temporally inflected language: increased rate of speech, racing thoughts, flight-of-ideas, hyperactivity. But what is the underlying structure of temporal experience in manic episodes? We tackle this question using a strategically hybrid approach. We recover and reconstruct three hypotheses (...)
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  46. Bill Viola’s 'Nantes Triptych': Unearthing the Sources of its Condensed Temporality.Carlos Vara Sánchez - 2014 - Aniki: Portuguese Journal of the Moving Image 2 (1):35-48.
    In this text we intend to analyze Bill Viola’s video installation Nantes Triptych (1992) as an example of the richness which lies in the liminal spaces between arts. We defend the thesis that the utilization of the traditional pictorial structure of the triptych in this particular work, along with the powerful audiovisual material, renders a kairological event available to the viewer. This temporal experience makes possible an existential experience when in front of this video installation. To discuss this assumption we (...)
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  47. The Human Experience of Time: The Development of Its Philosophical Meaning. [REVIEW]Rickard Donovan - 1977 - International Philosophical Quarterly 17 (3):350-352.
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  48. The Present as the Seat of Temporal Existence: Merleau-Ponty and Mead.Patrick L. Bourgeois & Sandra B. Rosenthal - 1993 - International Studies in Philosophy 25 (3):1-15.
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  49. Temporal Self-Extension: Implications for Temporal Comparison and Autobiographical Memory.Philip Broemer & Adam Grabowski - 2015 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 46 (2):246-261.
    Research on temporal comparison has shown that people dissociate themselves from their past to attain a positive self view. Social comparison research has demonstrated that the distinctness of contextually activated information determines whether a recalled self exerts assimilation or contrast effects on the current self. However, hardly any study addressed individual differences. Also, very little is known about whether the ease or difficulty to date past events and experiences influences current self-judgments. We present a new scale capturing the degree of (...)
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  50. How Does One Conceive Time? Measurement by Means of Time Metaphors Questionnaire.Czeslaw Nosal & Malgorzata Sobol-Kwapinska - 2009 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 40 (3):121-129.
    How does one conceive time? Measurement by means of Time Metaphors Questionnaire Attitude towards time are usually expressed by means of metaphors. This paper presents phases of construction and validation of the Time Metaphors Questionnaire. This is a method for testing conceiving of time. An exploratory factor analyses yielded seven factor scales: Friendly Time, Hostile Time, Rapid Passage of Time, Significance of the Moment, Subtle Time, Wild Time and Empty Time. Results of correlations between scales of the Time Metaphors Questionnaire (...)
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