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112 found
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  1. Ableism and Ageism: Insights From Disability Studies for Aging Studies.Joel Michael Reynolds & Anna Landre - manuscript
    [This piece is written for those working in social gerontology and aging studies, with the aim of bringing insights from disability studies and philosophy of disability to bear on enduring debates in those fields.] The guiding question of humanistic age-studies—What does it mean to grow old?—cannot be answered without reflecting on disability. This is not simply because growing old invariably means becoming impaired in various ways, but also because the discriminations and stigmas involved in ageism are often rooted in ableism. (...)
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  2. A Symmetrical View of Disability and Enhancement.Stephen M. Campbell & David Wasserman - forthcoming - In Adam Cureton & David Wasserman (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Disability. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Disability and enhancement are often treated as opposing concepts. To become disabled in some respect is to move away from those who are enhanced in that same respect; to become enhanced is to move away from the corresponding state of disability. This chapter examines how best to understand the concepts of disability and enhancement in this symmetrical way. After considering various candidates, two types of accounts are identified as the most promising: welfarist accounts and typical-functioning accounts. The authors ultimately defend (...)
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  3. Disability and Well-Being.Alex Gregory - forthcoming - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. New York:
    This entry discusses the relationship between disability and well‐being. Disabilities are commonly thought to be unfortunate, but whether this is true is unclear, and, if it is true, it is unclear why it is true. The entry first explains the disability paradox, which is the apparent discrepancy between the level of well‐being that disabled people self‐report, and the level of well‐being that nondisabled people predict disabled people to have. It then turns to an argument that says that disabilities must be (...)
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  4. Disability and Uncertainty: How to Proceed When We Do Not Know.Dien Ho - forthcoming - Surgery.
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  5. Bodies, Functions, and Imperfections.Sherri Irvin - forthcoming - In Peter Cheyne (ed.), Perfection and Imperfection in Art and Everyday Life. Routledge.
    The culturally pervasive tendency to identify aspects of the body as aesthetically imperfect harms individuals and scaffolds injustice related to disability, race, gender, LGBTQ+ identities, and fatness. But abandoning the notion of imperfection may not respect people’s reasonable understandings of their own bodies. I examine the prospects for a practice of aesthetic assessment grounded in a notion of the body’s function. I argue that functional aesthetic assessment, to be respectful, requires understanding the body’s functions as complex, malleable, and determined by (...)
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  6. Eugenics, Disability, and Bioethics.Robert A. Wilson - forthcoming - In Joel Reynolds & Christine Weiseler (eds.), The Disability Bioethics Reader. New York, NY, USA:
    This paper begins by saying enough about eugenics to explain why disability is central to eugenics (section 2), then elaborates on why cognitive disability has played and continues to play a special role in eugenics and in thinking about moral status (section 3) before identifying three reasons why eugenics remains a live issue in contemporary bioethics (section 4). After a reminder of the connections between Nazi eugenics, medicine, and bioethics (section 5), it returns to take up two more specific clusters (...)
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  7. Collective Inferiority Complex as Disability: Samuel Ramos' Analysis of the Mexican Psyche.Sergio Armando Gallegos-Ordorica - 2022 - In Disability and American Philosophies. New York: Routledge. pp. 9-24.
  8. Review of Elizabeth Barnes' The Minority Body. [REVIEW]Chong-Ming Lim - 2022 - Mind 131 (522):650–659.
  9. Pragmatic Individualism and the (Re)Production of Disability.Whelan-Jackson Nate - 2022 - In Nate Whelan-Jackson & Daniel J. Brunson (eds.), Disability and American Philosophies. New York: Routledge. pp. 42-60.
  10. The Life Worth Living: Disability, Pain, and Morality.Joel Michael Reynolds - 2022 - Minneapolis, MN, USA: University of Minnesota Press.
    [Releases May 17th] The Life Worth Living investigates the exclusion of and discrimination against disabled people across the history of Western moral philosophy. Building on decades of activism and scholarship, Reynolds shows how longstanding views of disability are misguided and unjust, and he lays out a vision for an anti-ableist moral future. The introduction and first chapter are available to download here. -/- Table of Contents: Introduction: The Ableist Conflation. Part I: Pain. 1. Theories of Pain. 2. A Phenomenology of (...)
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  11. Disability and White Supremacy.Joel Michael Reynolds - 2022 - Critical Philosophy of Race 10 (1):48-70.
    It is widely known that Black people are significantly more likely to be killed by the police in the United States of America than white people. What is less widely known is that nearly half of all people killed by the police are disabled people. The aim of this paper is to better understand the intersection of racism and ableism in the USA. Contributing to the growing literature at the intersection of philosophy of disability and critical philosophy of race, I (...)
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  12. Disability Studies, Conceptual Engineering, and Conceptual Activism.Elizabeth Amber Cantalamessa - 2021 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 64 (1-2):46-75.
    In this project I am concerned with the extent to which conceptual engineering happens in domains outside of philosophy, and if so, what that might look like. Specifically, I’ll argue that...
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  13. Moving Through Capacity Space: Mapping Disability and Enhancement.Nicholas Greig Evans, Joel Michael Reynolds & Kaylee R. Johnson - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (11):748-755.
    In this paper, we highlight some problems for accounts of disability and enhancement that have not been sufficiently addressed in the literature. The reason, we contend, is that contemporary debates that seek to define, characterise or explain the normative valence of disability and enhancement do not pay sufficient attention to a wide range of cases, and the transition between one state and another. In section one, we provide seven cases that might count as disability or enhancement. We explain why each (...)
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  14. Disability, Impairment, and Marginalised Functioning.Katharine Jenkins & Aness Kim Webster - 2021 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 99 (4):730-747.
    One challenge in providing an adequate definition of physical disability is unifying the heterogeneous bodily conditions that count as disabilities. We examine recent proposals by Elizabeth Barnes (2016), and Dana Howard and Sean Aas (2018), and show how this debate has reached an impasse. Barnes’ account struggles to deliver principled unification of the category of disability, whilst Howard and Aas’ account risks inappropriately sidelining the body. We argue that this impasse can be broken using a novel concept: marginalised functioning. Marginalised (...)
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  15. Luck Egalitarianism and Disability Elimination.Matthew Palynchuk - 2021 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 1 (5):824-843.
    Luck egalitarianism’s commitment to neutralizing brute luck inequalities is thought to imply that the elimination of disabilities is an appropriate way to eliminate the unchosen disadvantage that often accompanies disabilities. This implication is not only intuitively objectionable to some, especially those concerned with disability justice, but is subject to objections from relational egalitarians that should be taken seriously. This paper defends the claim that disability elimination is not a natural implication of luck egalitarian theories of justice and that luck egalitarians (...)
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  16. Genopower: On Genomics, Disability, and Impairment.Joel Michael Reynolds - 2021 - Foucault Studies 31.
    Since the completion of the human genome project in 2003, genomic sequencing, analysis, and interpretation have become staples of research in medicine and the life sciences more generally. While much ink has been spilled concerning genomics’ precipitous rise, there is little agreement among scholars concerning its meaning, both in general and with respect to our current moment. Some claim genomics is neither new, nor noteworthy; others claim it is a novel and worrisome instrument of newgenics. Contrary to the approaches of (...)
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  17. Heidegger, Embodiment, and Disability.Joel Michael Reynolds - 2021 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 26 (1):183-201.
    Most interpreters of Heidegger’s reflections on the body maintain that—whether early, middle, or late in the Gesamtausgabe—Dasein’s or the mortal’s openness to being/beyng is the ground of the fleshly or bodily, but not the reverse. In this paper, I argue that there is evidence from Heidegger’s own oeuvre demonstrating that this relationship is instead mutually reciprocal. That is to say, I contend that corporeal variability is constitutive of Dasein’s openness to being just as Dasein’s openness to being is constitutive of (...)
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  18. Disability, Society, and Personal Transformation.Sean Aas - 2020 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 18 (1):49-74.
    The social model of disability claims that disadvantage from disability is primarily a result of the social response to bodily difference. Social modellers typically draw two normative conclusions: first, that society has a responsibility to address disability disadvantage as a matter of justice, not charity; second, that the appropriate way of addressing this disadvantage is to change social institutions themselves, to better fit for bodily difference, rather than to normalize bodies to fit existing institutions. This paper offers a qualified defense (...)
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  19. The (In)Compatibility of the Privation Theory of Evil and the Mere-Difference View of Disability.Nicholas Colgrove - 2020 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 20 (2):329-348.
    The privation theory of evil (PTE) states that evil is the absence of some good that is supposed to be present. For example, if vision is an intrinsic good, and if human beings are supposed to have vision, then PTE implies that a human being’s lacking vision is an evil, or a bad state of affairs. The mere-difference view of disability (MDD) states that disabilities like blindness are not inherently bad. Therefore, it would seem that lacking sight is not a (...)
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  20. Living Dis/Artfully with and in Illness.Patty Douglas, Carla Rice & Areej Siddiqui - 2020 - Journal of Medical Humanities 41 (3):395-410.
    This article experiments with multimedia storytelling to re-vision difference outside biomedical and humanistic frames by generating new understandings of living dis/artfully with illness. We present and analyze seven short videos created by women and trans people living with illness as part of an arts-based research project that aimed to speak back to hegemonic concepts of disability that create barriers to healthcare.1 We call for a welcoming in of disability studies’ disruptive and re-imaginative orientations to bodily difference to unsettle medicine’s humanistic (...)
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  21. Disability as Inability.Alex Gregory - 2020 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 18 (1):23-48.
    If we were to write down all those things that we ordinarily categorise as disabilities, the resulting list might appear to be extremely heterogeneous. What do disabilities have in common? In this paper I defend the view that disabilities should be understood as particular kinds of inability. I show how we should formulate this view, and in the process defend the view from various objections. For example, I show how the view can allow that common kinds of inability are not (...)
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  22. Normate.Joel Michael Reynolds - 2020 - In Gail Weiss, Ann V. Murphy & Gayle Salamon (eds.), 50 Concepts for a Critical Phenomenology. Evanston, IL, USA: pp. 243-48.
    This short encyclopedia entry defines the concept of the normate.
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  23. A Dilemma For Neurodiversity.Kenneth Shields & David Beversdorf - 2020 - Neuroethics 14 (2):1-17.
    One way to determine whether a mental condition should be considered a disorder is to first give necessary and sufficient conditions for something to be a disorder and then see if it meets these conditions. But this approach has been criticized for begging normative questions. Concerning autism, a neurodiversity movement has arisen with essentially two aims: advocate for the rights and interests of individuals with autism, and de-pathologize autism. We argue that denying autism’s disorder status could undermine autism’s exculpatory role (...)
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  24. Well-Being, Disability, and Choosing Children.Matthew J. Barker & Robert A. Wilson - 2019 - Mind 128 (510):305-328.
    The view that it is better for life to be created free of disability is pervasive in both common sense and philosophy. We cast doubt on this view by focusing on an influential line of thinking that manifests it. That thinking begins with a widely-discussed principle, Procreative Beneficence, and draws conclusions about parental choice and disability. After reconstructing two versions of this argument, we critique the first by exploring the relationship between different understandings of well-being and disability, and the second (...)
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  25. The Cattle in the Long Cedar Springs Draw.Gary Comstock - 2019 - In Nandita Batra & Mario Wenning (eds.), The Human–Animal Boundary Exploring the Line in Philosophy and Fiction. Lanham: Lexington Books. pp. 97-114.
    The argument for vegetarianism from overlapping species goes like this. Every individual who is the subject of a life has a right to life. Some humans—e.g., the severely congenitally cognitively limited—lack language, rationality, autonomy, and self-consciousness, and yet they are subjects of a life. Severely congenitally cognitively limited humans have a right to life. Some animals—e.g., all mammals—lack language, rationality, autonomy, and self-consciousness, and yet they are subjects of a life. We ought to treat like cases alike. The cases of (...)
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  26. Learning From My Daughter: The Value and Care of Disabled Minds.Eva Kittay & Eva Feder Kittay - 2019 - New York, NY, USA: Oxford UP.
    Does life have meaning? What is flourishing? How do we attain the good life? Philosophers, and many others of us, have explored these questions for centuries. As Eva Feder Kittay points out, however, there is a flaw in the essential premise of these questions: they seem oblivious to the very nature of the ways in which humans live, omitting a world of co-dependency, and of the fact that we live in and through our bodies, whether they are fully abled or (...)
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  27. Disability, Disadvantage, and Luck Egalitarianism.Matthew Palynchuk - 2019 - Dialogue 58 (4):pp. 711-720.
    ABSTRACT: In his A Conceptual Investigation of Justice, Kyle Johannsen suggests a theory of disability that holds that to have a disability just is to be worse off, sometimes referred to as the ‘medical’ or ‘individual’ model of disability. I argue that Johannsen’s understanding of disability might force some of his key claims into an uncomfortable position. In particular, for his theory to avoid the thrust of Elizabeth Anderson’s criticisms of luck egalitarianism, the assumption of the medical model of disability (...)
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  28. The Meaning of Ability and Disability.Joel Michael Reynolds - 2019 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 33 (3):434-447.
    Disability has been a topic in multiple areas of philosophical scholarship for decades. However, it is only in the last ten to fifteen years that philosophy of disability has increasingly become recognized as a distinct field. In this paper, I argue that the foundational question of continental philosophy of disability is the question of the meaning of ability. Engaging a range of canonical texts across the Western intellectual tradition, I argue that the foundational question of continental philosophy of disability is (...)
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  29. Behinderung Bis Über Die Grenzen des Sozialen Hinaus Denken:Von Soziokulturell Überakzentuierten Behinderungsmodellen Zu Einer Umfassenden Repräsentation Menschlicher Und Ökologischer Aspekte in Behinderungsdebatten.Christoph P. Trueper - 2019 - TextTräger.
    With regard to recent historical developments, the Social Model has been of enormous emancipatory significance, chiefly as a counter-agent against rigid definitions of dis-/ability and the traditional role (marked by misfortune) imposed on disabled people. Based on underdetermined notions of “social construction”, this model presently threatens to unduly narrow reflections on the existential conditions of disabled agents, and to obscure crucial questions facing just social orders of the future. These notions imply an overemphasis on linguistic/mental and cultural acts in the (...)
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  30. Behinderung und Gesellschaft neu zusammen denken?!: Über die Begrenzungen sozio-kulturell überakzentuierter Behinderungsmodelle hinweg zu sozialen und ökologischen Zukunftsthemen nachhaltig gerechter Gesellschaften.Christoph P. Trueper - 2019 - TextTräger.
    In recent history, the Social Model has crucially contributed to an emancipatory perspective on disability, not least as a rebuttal to deficit oriented views focused on suffering. Several overstated notions of “social construction“ this family of models relies on, however, presently threaten to unduly narrow reflections on “disability”-situations and the self-reflection of disabled people. These notions tend to obscure social and ecological issues an emerging just social order will need to address. The roots of any sociocultural formation in external (physical) (...)
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  31. Why Ever Doubt First-Person Testimony About Disability?Susan V. H. Castro - 2018 - Southwest Philosophy Review 34 (2):49-54.
    In "Disabilities and First-Person Testimony: A Case of Defeat?" Hilary Yancey argues that in at least some cases we have “no significant reason to distrust” the evidential value of first-person testimony concerning the impact of a physical disability on that individual’s well-being. Her argument is premised on a defeasible principle of trust: One should trust the testimony of others regarding p whenever one recognizes that the testifier is in a position to know p. Since the subjective component of wellbeing is (...)
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  32. On Valuing Impairment.Dana Howard & Sean Aas - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (5):1113-1133.
    In The Minority Body, Elizabeth Barnes rejects prevailing social constructionist accounts of disability for two reasons. First, because they understand disability in terms of oppressive social responses to bodily impairment, they cannot make sense of disability pride. Second, they maintain a problematic distinction between impairment and disability. In response to these challenges, this paper defends a version of the social model of disability, which we call the Social Exclusion Model. On our account, to be disabled is to be in a (...)
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  33. Disabilities Are Also Legitimately Medically Interesting Constraints on Legitimate Interests.Chong-Ming Lim - 2018 - Mind 127 (508):977-1002.
    What is it for something to be a disability? Elizabeth Barnes, focusing on physical disabilities, argues that disability is a social category. It depends on the rules undergirding the judgements of the disability rights movement. Barnes’ account may strike many as implausible. I articulate the unease, in the form of three worries about Barnes’ account. It does not fully explain why the disability rights movement is constituted in such a way that it only picks out paradigmatic disability traits, nor why (...)
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  34. An Ecological Approach to Modeling Disability.Marco J. Nathan & Jeffrey M. Brown - 2018 - Bioethics 32 (9):593-601.
    This article develops an analysis of disability according to which disabling conditions are properties of organisms embedded in sets of environments. We begin by presenting the three mainstream accounts of disability—the medical, social, and interactionist models—and rehearsing some known limitations. We argue that, because of their primary focus on etiology, all three models share, more or less implicitly, a problematic assumption. This is the tenet that disabilities are individual properties. The second part of the essay presents an “ecological” interpretation of (...)
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  35. Philosophy of Disability as Critical Diversity Studies.Shelley Tremain - 2018 - International Journal of Critical Diversity Studies 1 (1).
    Critical diversity studies (CDS) can be found within “traditional,” or “established,” university disciplines, such as philosophy, as well as in relatively newer departments of the university, such as African studies departments, women’s and gender studies departments, and disability studies departments. In this article, therefore, I explain why philosophy of disability, an emerging subfield in the discipline of philosophy, should be recognized as an emerging area of CDS also. My discussion in the article situates philosophy of disability in CDS by both (...)
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  36. Missing Phenomenological Accounts: Disability Theory, Body Integrity Identity Disorder, and Being an Amputee.Christine Wieseler - 2018 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 11 (2):83-111.
    Historically, frameworks impoverished by the omission of disabled people's own standpoints have supported systems and practices that patronize and thereby further oppress disabled people, even while intended to serve their supposed good.Philosophers and psychologists often omit disabled people's concerns and experiences, even when disabled people are in a position of epistemic privilege in regard to the topic under consideration. While numerous recent empirical studies do include the reports of disabled people—regarding their quality of life, for example—there is still much that (...)
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  37. Braidotti, Spinoza and Disability Studies After the Human.Thomas Abrams - 2017 - History of the Human Sciences 30 (5):86-103.
    Disability studies has begun to employ Rosi Braidotti’s posthumanism, as a means to challenge the exclusionary model of man, dominant both in the academy and in everyday life. Braidotti argues that we must embrace a new form of subjectivity to effectively address the academic, environmental and species challenges characterizing the posthuman condition. This critical posthuman subject is inspired, in part, by Baruch de Spinoza, read as a monistic philosopher of difference. In this article, I compare Braidotti’s posthuman philosophy with Spinoza’s (...)
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  38. Em“Body”Ment and Disability: On Taking the “Body” Out of Em“Body”Ment.Julie E. Maybee - 2017 - Journal of Social Philosophy 48 (3):297-320.
  39. Reviewing Resistances to Reconceptualizing Disability.Chong-Ming Lim - 2017 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 117 (3):321-331.
    I attempt to adjudicate the disagreement between those who seek to reconceptualize disability as mere difference and their opponents. I do so by reviewing a central conviction motivating the resistance, concerning the relationship between disability and well-being. I argue that the conviction depends on further considerations about the costs and extent of change involved in accommodating individuals with a particular disability trait. I conclude by considering three pay-offs of this clarification.
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  40. Choosing Disability, Visualizing Care.Adams Rachel - 2017 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 27 (2):301-321.
    This article explores how visual images of dependency and care reflect and reinforce perceptions of people who are ill, disabled, or otherwise dependent, those who sustain them, and the meaning of the work they do. Scenes of care are a valuable index for understanding cultural assumptions about who is deserving of care, how and where care should be given, and who is obligated to serve as a giver of care. It positions these images in the context of the emphasis, within (...)
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  41. Merleau-Ponty, World-Creating Blindness, and the Phenomenology of Non-Normate Bodies.Joel Michael Reynolds - 2017 - Chiasmi International: Trilingual Studies Concerning Merleau-Ponty's Thought 19:419-434.
    An increasing number of scholars at the intersection of feminist philosophy and critical disability studies have turned to Merleau-Ponty to develop phenomenologies of disability or of what, following Rosemarie Garland-Thomson, I call "non-normate" embodiment. These studies buck the historical trend of philosophers employing disability as an example of deficiency or harm, a mere litmus test for normative theories, or an umbrella term for aphenotypical bodily variation. While a Merleau-Pontian-inspired phenomenology is a promising starting point for thinking about embodied experiences of (...)
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  42. Foucault and Feminist Philosophy of Disability (Winner of the Tobin Siebers Prize for Disability Studies in the Humanities for 2016).Shelley Tremain - 2017 - Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press.
  43. A More "Inclusive" Approach to Enhancement and Disability.David Wasserman & Stephen M. Campbell - 2017 - In Jessica Flanigan & Terry Price (eds.), The Ethics of Ability and Enhancement. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 25-38.
  44. Disabled – Therefore, Unhealthy?Sean Aas - 2016 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (5):1259-1274.
    This paper argues that disabled people can be healthy. I argue, first, following the well-known ‘social model of disability’, that we should prefer a usage of ‘disabled’ which does not imply any kind of impairment that is essentially inconsistent with health. This is because one can be disabled only because limited by false social perception of impairment and one can be, if impaired, disabled not because of the impairment but rather only because of the social response to it. Second, I (...)
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  45. Is Disability a Neutral Condition?Jeffrey M. Brown - 2016 - Journal of Social Philosophy 47 (2):188-210.
    The issue of whether biological and psychological properties associated with disability can be harmful, beneficial, or neutral brings up an important philosophical question about how we evaluate disability, and disability’s impact on well-being. The debate is usually characterized as between those who argue disability is intrinsically harmful, and disability rights advocates who argue that disability is just another way of being different, in part, because disability can also provide important benefits. I argue that this debate is a false one, as (...)
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  46. Review of Elizabeth Barnes, The Minority Body. [REVIEW]Stephen M. Campbell & Joseph A. Stramondo - 2016 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
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  47. Disability and Mere Difference.Guy Kahane & Julian Savulescu - 2016 - Ethics 126 (3):774-788.
  48. Cognitively Enhanced Children: The Case for Special Needs and Special Regulatory Attention.Jenny Krutzinna - 2016 - Law, Innovation and Technology 8 (2):177-206.
    Despite the welfare of the child being afforded special legal and moral importance, it appears that the law is currently not objective in its application to children. There is an undeniable link between healthy child development and education, with the latter greatly impacting on mental health and general well-being. Drawing on the example of the differential treatment of gifted children in an educational context, I argue that the legal framework with regard to learning disabilities and cognitive impairments operates contrary to (...)
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  49. The Disability Studies Industry.J. C. Lester - 2016 - In Arguments for Liberty: a Libertarian Miscellany. Buckingham, England: The University of Buckingham Press. pp. 83-94.
    This brief monograph was written in an attempt to discover the general situation of Disability Studies, given that this appears to have become a growth area in academia with various typically illiberal aspects. The findings bear out the initial impression. There is a style of argument, even propaganda (for there is usually little genuine engagement with opposing liberal views), that can be seen in many other areas of academia. It amounts to a relatively new ‘progressive’ industry with various fashionable keywords, (...)
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  50. Philosophy and Psychiatry: Problems, Intersections and New Perspectives.Daniel Moseley & Gary Gala - 2016 - Routledge.
    This groundbreaking volume of original essays presents fresh avenues of inquiry at the intersection of philosophy and psychiatry. Contributors draw from a variety of fields, including evolutionary psychiatry, phenomenology, biopsychosocial models, psychoanalysis, neuroscience, neuroethics, behavioral economics, and virtue theory. Philosophy and Psychiatry’s unique structure consists of two parts: in the first, philosophers write five lead essays with replies from psychiatrists. In the second part, this arrangement is reversed. The result is an interdisciplinary exchange that allows for direct discourse, and a (...)
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