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103 found
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  1. Measurement of economic inequality.Prakash Krishnamoorthy - manuscript
    An attempt to treat axiomatically the measurement of economic inequality.
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  2. Does Political Equality Require Equal Power? A Pluralist Account.Attila Mráz - forthcoming - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-16.
    (OPEN ACCESS) In this paper, I criticize two views on how political equality is related to equally distributed political power, and I offer a novel, pluralist account of political equality to address their shortcomings—in particular, concerning their implications for affirmative action in the political domain, political representation, and the situation of permanent minorities. The Equal Power View holds that political equality requires equally distributed political power. It considers affirmative action—e.g., racial or gender electoral quotas—, representation, and more-than-equal power to permanent (...)
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  3. Each Counts for One.Daniel Muñoz - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies.
    After 50 years of debate, the ethics of aggregation has reached a curious stalemate, with both sides arguing that only their theory treats people as equals. I argue that, on the issue of equality, both sides are wrong. From the premise that “each counts for one,” we cannot derive the conclusion that “more count for more”—or its negation. The familiar arguments from equality to aggregation presuppose more than equality: the Kamm/Scanlon “Balancing Argument” rests on what social choice theorists call “(Positive) (...)
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  4. Políticas de la definición de lo humano: más allá de un problema de igualdad.Enver Joel Torregroza Lara - 2024 - Las Torres de Lucca: Revista Internacional de Filosofía Política 13 (1):31-39.
    Anne Phillips argues that definitions of the human are a trap for the political claims to equality contained in humanitarianism or human rights discourse. However, defining the human also hides the ontological and political problem addressed by the Philosophical Anthropology. There is an ethical and political stake in the philosophical anthropology of the last century when it insists on the indefinability of the human. With this, it criticizes the politics implicit in the definition of the human. And also, it questions (...)
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  5. Constructing Moral Equality.Suzy Killmister - 2023 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 9 (4):636-654.
    Moral equality—the idea that ‘we’ all have equal moral worth, our interests ought to count for the same, and we possess the same bundle of basic rights—is one of the most central principles of liberal thought, being regularly drawn on as a presupposition of moral and political inquiry. Perhaps because it is so often relied on as a presupposition, however, moral equality is more often assumed than argued for. When moral equality is argued for, the most common tactic is to (...)
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  6. Relational Equality.Yuichiro Mori - 2023 - Encyclopedia of the Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy.
  7. The Dworkin–Williams Debate: Liberty, Conceptual Integrity, and Tragic Conflict in Politics.Matthieu Queloz - 2023 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research (open access):1-27.
    Bernard Williams articulated his later political philosophy notably in response to Ronald Dworkin, who, striving for coherence or integrity among our political concepts, sought to immunize the concepts of liberty and equality against conflict. Williams, doubtful that we either could or should eliminate the conflict, resisted the pursuit of conceptual integrity. Here, I reconstruct this Dworkin–Williams debate with an eye to drawing out ideas of ongoing philosophical and political importance. The debate not only exemplifies Williams's political realism and its connection (...)
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  8. Kant's Racism as a Philosophical Problem.Laurenz Ramsauer - 2023 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 104 (4):791-815.
    Immanuel Kant was possibly both the most influential racist and the most influential moral philosopher of modern, Western thought. So far, authors have either interpreted Kant as an “inconsistent egalitarian” or as a “consistent inegalitarian.” On the former view, Kant failed to draw the necessary conclusions about persons from his own moral philosophy; on the latter view, Kant did not consider non‐White people as persons at all. However, both standard interpretations face significant textual difficulties; instead, I argue that Kant's moral (...)
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  9. Nietzsche's Political Economy.Dmitri G. Safronov - 2023 - Berlin and Boston: De Gruyter.
    Safronov’s Nietzsche’s Political Economy is a pioneering appraisal of Nietzsche’s critique of industrial culture and its unfolding crisis. The author contends that Nietzsche remains unique in conceptualizing the upheavals of modern political economy in terms of the crisis of its governing values. Nietzsche scrutinises the norms which, not only preside over the unfathomable build-up in debt, the proliferation of meaningless, impersonal slavery and the rise of increasingly repressive social control systems, but inevitably set these precarious tendencies of modern political economy (...)
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  10. Meeting Balibar: A discussion on equaliberty and differences.Soraya Nour Sckell (ed.) - 2023 - Edições Húmus.
  11. Mike Davis – the Storyteller (1946-2022).Sankar Varma - 2023 - Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability.
    This short note is a recapturing of what Mike Davis stood for and how we all can pay homage to such a great figure who cannot be merely disciplined into any academic specializations. His wonderful marriage of theory and practice is a case in point emphasized throughout this note.
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  12. Prassi e rappresentazione. Alcune riflessioni filosofiche su un piano per il futuro della fabbrica di Firenze.Gianmaria Avellino - 2022 - Read.Csvsalerno Annali Del Volontariato 5 (1):179-194.
    The paper analyses some parts of the GKN Industrial Plan. While not appearing to be an authentic industrial document, the tool performs a valuable narrative function of developing a political strategy to benefit the trade union groups that still operate within the factory. The plan that aims to demonstrate the existence of a different socially integrated factory model shows the need for radical change on a global scale. Through the definition of potential factory forms, the plan describes the potential economic (...)
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  13. The Virtues of Relational Equality at Work.Grant J. Rozeboom - 2022 - Humanistic Management Journal 7 (2):307-326.
    How important is it for managers to have the “nice” virtues of modesty, civility, and humility? While recent scholarship has tended to focus on the organizational consequences of leaders having or lacking these traits, I want to address the prior, deeper question of whether and how these traits are intrinsically morally important. I argue that certain aspects of modesty, civility, and humility have intrinsic importance as the virtues of relational equality – the attitudes and dispositions by which we relate as (...)
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  14. Inequality: Do Not Disperse.David O'Brien - 2021 - Utilitas 33 (2):193-203.
    Many egalitarians incorporate a concern for interpersonal welfare inequality as part of their favored axiology – that is, they take it to be a bad-making feature of outcomes. It is natural to think that, if inequality is in this sense a bad, it is an impersonal bad (one that makes an outcome worse, while not in itself being worse for any person). This natural thought has been challenged. Some writers claim that egalitarian judgments can be accommodated by adopting an expanded (...)
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  15. Equality.Gosepath Stefan - 2021 - The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    This article is concerned with social and political equality. In its prescriptive usage, ‘equality’ is a highly contested concept. Its normally positive connotation gives it a rhetorical power suitable for use in political slogans (Westen 1990). At least since the French Revolution, equality has served as one of the leading ideals of the body politic; in this respect, it is at present probably the most controversial of the great social ideals. There is controversy concerning the precise notion of equality, the (...)
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  16. Relational Egalitarianism and Emergent Social Inequalities.Dan Threet - 2021 - Res Publica 28 (1):49-67.
    This paper identifies a challenge for liberal relational egalitarians—namely, how to respond to the prospect of emergent inequalities of power, status, and influence arising unintentionally through the free exercise of fundamental individual liberties over time. I argue that these emergent social inequalities can be produced through patterns of nonmalicious choices, that they can in fact impede the full realization of relational equality, and that it is possible they cannot be eliminated entirely without abandoning fundamental liberal commitments to leave individuals substantial (...)
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  17. The Egalitarian Fallacy: Are Group Differences Compatible with Political Liberalism?Jonathan Anomaly & Bo Winegard - 2020 - Philosophia 48 (2):433-444.
    Many people greet evidence of biologically based race and sex differences with extreme skepticism, even hostility. We argue that some of the vehemence with which many intellectuals in the West resist claims about group differences is rooted in the tacit assumption that accepting evidence for group differences in socially valued traits would undermine our reasons to treat people with respect. We call this theegalitarian fallacy. We first explain the fallacy and then give evidence that self-described liberals in the United States (...)
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  18. The Levelling-Down Objection and the Additive Measure of the Badness of Inequality.Johan E. Gustafsson - 2020 - Economics and Philosophy 36 (3):401-406.
    The Levelling-Down Objection is a standard objection to monistic egalitarian theories where equality is the only thing that has intrinsic value. Most egalitarians, however, are value pluralists; they hold that, in addition to equality being intrinsically valuable, the egalitarian currency in which we are equal or unequal is also intrinsically valuable. In this paper, I shall argue that the Levelling-Down Objection still minimizes the weight that the intrinsic badness of inequality could have in the overall intrinsic evaluation of outcomes, given (...)
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  19. Mistä puhumme, kun puhumme eriarvoisuudesta?Antti Kauppinen - 2020 - Helsinki: Kalevi Sorsan Säätiö.
    Eriarvoisuuspuheella voidaan viitata moniin eri asioihin. Usein sillä tarkoitetaan hyvien asioiden epätasaista jakautumista. Ei kuitenkaan ole itsessään huono asia, että joillakin menee paremmin kuin toisilla. Silloin kun taloudellinen eriarvoisuus on ongelma, kyse on sen syistä tai seurauksista. On kuitenkin myös itsessään moraalisesti ongelmallinen eriarvoisuuden muoto, jota kutsun erivertaisuudeksi. Siinä on kyse joidenkin herruudesta ja ylivallasta toisiin nähden tai siitä, että joitakin suositaan järjestelmällisesti toisten kustannuksella. Erivertaisuus ei sovi yhteen jokaisen yksilön moraalisen tasa-arvoisuuden kanssa, joten se on itsessään huono asia. Oikeudenmukaisuus (...)
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  20. Equality of Authority as the Aristotelian Common Good.Mark LeBar - 2020 - Journal of Value Inquiry 55 (3):399-416.
    This paper reconsiders the relationship between the personal and the common good within an Aristotelian conception of the virtuous and happy life. Thinking about that relationship requires that we face up to a central tension in the Aristotelian ethical outlook. That approach is rooted in the value of eudaimonia — of living well, of happiness. That is something like the personal good. At the same time, on the Aristotelian picture no form of human life can be good if it is (...)
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  21. Relational egalitarianism.Rekha Nath - 2020 - Philosophy Compass 15 (7):1-12.
    In the past few decades, there has been a growing literature on relational egalitarianism. Relational egalitarianism is a view on the nature and value of equality. In contrast to the dominant view in recent debates on equality—distributive egalitarianism, on which equality is about ensuring people have or fare the same in some respect—on the relational view, equality is a matter of the terms on which relationships are structured. But what exactly does it mean for people to relate as equals? And (...)
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  22. When Vanity Is Dangerous.Grant J. Rozeboom - 2020 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 48 (1):6-39.
    Unjustifiably expecting a higher form of regard from others than one deserves is a familiar vice; call it the “vanity-vice.” How serious of a vice is it? Rousseau claims that it is uniquely morally dangerous. I show how Rousseau’s claim is true of only one form of the vanity-vice. I first develop an account of dangerous vices that takes seriously Rousseau’s concern about the anti-egalitarian vices associated with inflamed amour-propre. I then apply two, cross-cutting distinctions in vanity: a distinction in (...)
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  23. On Robust Discursive Equality.Thomas M. Besch - 2019 - Dialogue 58 (3):1-26.
    This paper explores the idea of robust discursive equality on which respect-based conceptions of justificatory reciprocity often draw. I distinguish between formal and substantive discursive equality and argue that if justificatory reciprocity requires that people be accorded formally equal discursive standing, robust discursive equality should not be construed as requiring standing that is equal substantively, or in terms of its discursive purchase. Still, robust discursive equality is purchase sensitive: it does not obtain when discursive standing is impermissibly unequal in purchase. (...)
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  24. Rights of Depressed Classes: A Constitutional Approach.Desh Raj Sirswal - 2019 - Pehowa (Kurukshetra): CSESCD.
    The present book, “Rights of Depressed Classes: A Constitutional Approach “is the fourth e-book of the Centre which includes the essence of the occasional papers presented in several seminars. Human Rights is one of the majors subjects for discussion in academics as well as in social sector and has an international approach to social issues and problems. The struggle to promote, protect and preserve human rights changes and holds continuity in every generation in our society. The concept and practice of (...)
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  25. خودکشی توسط دموکراسی یک موانع برای آمریکا و جهان.Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    امریکا و جهان در روند فروپاشی از رشد جمعیت بیش از حد هستند, بیشتر از آن برای قرن گذشته, و در حال حاضر همه از آن, با توجه به مردم جهان 3. مصرف منابع و علاوه بر این از 3 میلیارد بیشتر ca. ۲۱۰۰ تمدن صنعتی را سقوط خواهد کرد و در مورد گرسنگی ، بیماری ، خشونت و جنگ در مقیاس سرسام آور را به ارمغان بیاورد. زمین از دست می دهد حداقل 1 درصد از خاک خود را در (...)
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  26. Democracia, Diversidad, Disgenics, Muerte: el colapso inexorable de las sociedades modernas.Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    Estados Unidos y el mundo están en proceso de colapso por el crecimiento excesivo de la población, la mayor parte del siglo pasado, y ahora todo, debido a la gente del tercer mundo. El consumo de recursos y la adición de 4.000 millones más alrededor de 2100 colapsarán la civilización industrial y provocarán hambre, enfermedades, violencia y guerra a una escala asombrosa. La tierra pierde al menos el 1% de su suelo superior cada año, por lo que a medida que (...)
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  27. Relational Egalitarianism and Informal Social Interaction.Dan Threet - 2019 - Dissertation, Georgetown University
    This dissertation identifies and responds to a problem for liberal relational egalitarians. There is a prima facie worry about the compatibility of liberalism and relational egalitarianism, concerning the requirements of equality in informal social life. Liberalism at least involves a commitment to leaving individuals substantial discretion to pursue their own conceptions of the good. Relational equality is best understood as a kind of deliberative practice about social institutions and practices. Patterns of otherwise innocuous social choices (e.g., where to live, whom (...)
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  28. W.E.B. Du Bois’s critique of Radical Reconstruction : A Hegelian approach to American modernity.Elvira Basevich - 2018 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 45 (2):168-185.
    In this essay, I argue that Hegel’s model of ethical life is normatively gripping for Du Bois’s critique of Radical Reconstruction. My argument proceeds in three steps. First, I use Du Bois’s insights to explain the nature of progressive political change in historical time, an account Hegel lacks. I reconstruct the normative basis of Du Bois's political critique by articulating the three essential features of public reasoning qua citizenship. Second, I defend the promise of black civic enfranchisement with respect to (...)
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  29. Relational Egalitarianism and the Grounds of Entitlements to Health Care.Brian Berkey - 2018 - Les ateliers de l'éthique/The Ethics Forum 13 (3):85-104.
    In recent years, a number of philosophers have argued that much theorizing about the value of equality, and about justice more generally, has focused unduly on distributive issues and neglected the importance of egalitarian social relationships. As a result, relational egalitarian views, according to which the value of egalitarian social relations provides the grounds of the commitment that we ought to have to equality, have gained prominence as alternatives to more fundamentally distributive accounts of the basis of egalitarianism, and of (...)
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  30. Introduction: Nationalism in East Asia and East Asian Multiculturalism.Hsin-Wen Lee & Sungmoon Kim - 2018 - In Lee Hsin-Wen & Kim Sungmoon (eds.), Reimaging Nation and Nationalism in Multicultural East Asia. Routledge. pp. 1-22.
    National identity and attachment to national culture have taken root even in this era of globalization. National sentiments find expression in multiple political spheres and cause troubles of various kinds in many societies, both domestically and across state borders. Some of these problems are rooted in history; others are the result of massive global immigration. As US Secretary of State John Kerry tries to broker a new round of Israel-Palestine peace talks, the Israeli government continues expanding its settlements in disputed (...)
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  31. ANTICORRUPTION NATIONAL SYSTEM: Model Whistleblowers direct citizen action against corruption in Mexico.Carlos Medel-Ramírez - 2018 - Social Science Research Network:1-12.
    The phenomenon of corruption is a cancer that affects our country and that it is necessary to eradicate; This dilutes the opportunities for economic and social development, privileging the single conjunction of particular interests, political actors in non-legal agreements for their own benefit, which lead to acts of corruption. Recent studies indicate that the level of corruption present in a political system is directly related to the type of institutional structure that defines it (Boehm and Lambsdorff, 2009), as well as (...)
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  32. Personhood and (Rectification) Justice in African Thought.Motsamai Molefe - 2018 - Politikon:1- 18.
    This article invokes the idea of personhood (which it takes to be at the heart of Afrocommunitarian morality) to give an account of corrective/rectification justice. The idea of rectification justice by Robert Nozick is used heuristically to reveal the moral-theoretical resources availed by the idea of personhood to think about historical injustices and what would constitute a meaningful remedy for them. This notion of personhood has three facets: (1) a theory of moral status/dignity, (2) an account of historical conditions and (...)
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  33. Pragmatist Egalitarianism.David Rondel - 2018 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    Pragmatist Egalitarianism argues that a deep impasse plagues philosophical egalitarianism. It sets forth a conception of equality rooted in American pragmatist thought--specifically William James, John Dewey, and Richard Rorty--that successfully mediates that impasse.
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  34. Sangiovanni, Andrea. Humanity without Dignity: Moral Equality, Respect, and Human Rights. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2017. Pp. x+308. $39.95. [REVIEW]Grant J. Rozeboom - 2018 - Ethics 128 (2):505-509.
  35. The Anti-Inflammatory Basis of Equality.Grant J. Rozeboom - 2018 - Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics 8:149-169.
    We are moral equals, but in virtue of what? The most plausible answers to this question have pointed to our higher agential capacities, but we vary in the degrees to which we possess those capacities. How could they ground our equal moral standing, then? This chapter argues that they do so only indirectly. Our moral equality is most directly grounded in a social practice of equality, a practice that serves the purpose of mitigating our tendencies toward control and domination that (...)
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  36. Concept, principle, and norm—equality before the law reconsidered.Frej Klem Thomsen - 2018 - Legal Theory 24 (2):103-134.
    Despite the attention equality before the law has received, both laudatory and critical, peculiarly little has been done to precisely define it. The first ambition of this paper is to remedy this, by exploring the various ways in which a principle of equality before the law can be understood and suggest a concise definition. With a clearer understanding of the principle in hand we are better equipped to assess traditional critique of the principle. Doing so is the second ambition of (...)
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  37. Relational Equality and the Expressive Dimension of State Action.Kristin Voigt - 2018 - Social Theory and Practice 44 (3):437-467.
    Expressive theories of state action seek to identify and assess the ‘meaning’ implicit in state action, such as legislation and public policies. In expressive theories developed by relational egalitarians, state action must ‘express’ equal concern and respect for citizens. However, it is unclear how precisely we can determine and assess the meaning of what states do. This paper considers how an expressive theory could be developed, given the commitments of a relational account of equality, and how such a theory would (...)
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  38. The Luck Egalitarianism of G.A. Cohen - A Reply to David Miller.Andreas Albertsen - 2017 - SATS 18 (1):37-53.
    The late G.A. Cohen is routinely considered a founding father of luck egalitarianism, a prominent responsibility-sensitive theory of distributive justice. David Miller argues that Cohen’s considered beliefs on distributive justice are not best understood as luck egalitarian. While the relationship between distributive justice and personal responsibility plays an important part in Cohen’s work, Miller maintains that it should be considered an isolated theme confined to Cohen’s exchange with Dworkin. We should not understand the view Cohen defends in this exchange as (...)
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  39. How to Effectively Defend the King Dictum.H. G. Callaway - 2017 - In Pluralism, Pragmatism and American Democracy: A Minority Report. Newcastle, England: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 181-192.
    The aim of this paper is to defend a famous quotation from Martin Luther King, stating that “The arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends toward justice.” The quotation is inscribed on the King Memorial in Washington, D.C. and President Obama had it woven into a rug for the Oval Office in the White House. The quotation has become something of a contemporary proverb, and is certainly worthy of our close attention. In order to evaluate the dictum, (...)
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  40. Affective Equality: Love Matters.Sara Cantillon & Kathleen Lynch - 2017 - Hypatia 32 (1):169-186.
    The nurturing that produces love, care, and solidarity constitutes a discrete social system of affective relations. Affective relations are not social derivatives, subordinate to economic, political, or cultural relations in matters of social justice. Rather, they are productive, materialist human relations that constitute people mentally, emotionally, physically, and socially. As love laboring is highly gendered, and is a form of work that is both inalienable and noncommodifiable, affective relations are therefore sites of political import for social justice. We argue that (...)
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  41. NDPR: What Can Philosophy Contribute to Ethics? (by James Griffin). [REVIEW]Bradford Cokelet - 2017 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2017.
    Summary of Griffin's book. Raises objections to his ought implies can principle and his negative assumptions about human nature.
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  42. The Great Leveler: Conceptual and Figural Ambiguities of Equality.Jean-Philippe Deranty - 2017 - Cogent Arts and Humanities 4 (1).
    If we compare it with the fellow notion of liberty, equality has an ambivalent place in modern political thinking. Whilst it counts as one of the fundamental norms, many think that equality is valuable only as a way to realise some features of liberty. I take a historical perspective on this issue, and try to identify some of the pre-modern roots of such an ambivalent attitude towards equality. I do this by using Jacques Rancière’s political model as an analytical framework (...)
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  43. Prywatne ubezpieczenia zdrowotne a zasada równości i solidarności.Aleksandra Głos - 2017 - Diametros 51:28-47.
    Private health insurance is a domain of mutually conflicting models of healthcare systems. Most European healthcare systems are built upon the principles of solidarity and equality, and are provided by public entities. But the private health insurance market can threaten these values, limiting solidarity, equality and universality for the sake of cost effectiveness, consumer choice and market competition. The aim of this article is to analyse these risks and present mechanisms for their mitigation, which would allow the construction of effective (...)
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  44. Winners and Losers of the Greek Crisis as a Result of a Double Fragmentation and Exclusion: A Discourse Analysis of Greek Civil Society.Alejandro Pérez - 2017 - GreeSe Papers (119):0-19.
    This article aims to explore, through the civil society’s opinion, the polarisation between ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ and the group of the ‘new excluded’, or ‘new poor’, that has emerged as a result of the European economic crisis and the social transformations that followed in the Greek society. Based on the Theory of Justice introduced by John Rawls (1971), and using the approach of Critical Discourse Analysis, this study focuses on the discourse analysis of the perception of 97 representatives of local (...)
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  45. Religious Practices and Democratic Values in India: A Search for Interreligious Dialogue.Sirswal Desh Raj - 2017 - In Proceedings of National Seminar on World Religions: A Step Towards Inter Religious Dialogue.
    India has a long, rich, and diverse tradition of philosophical thoughts, spanning some two and a half millennia and encompassing several major religious traditions. India’s democracy can be said to rest on the foundation of religious practice due to the practice of multi-religions and different sects in its continent. Religious practices ties among citizens that generate positive and democratic political outcomes if we see it from the ideals of any religious doctrine as per their written scripture. But in society religious (...)
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  46. Fairness to non-participants: a case for a practice-independent egalitarian baseline.Merten Reglitz - 2017 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 20 (4): 466-485.
    Proponents of practice-dependent egalitarianism argue that egalitarian duties and entitlements only apply among participants in morally relevant practices. In this paper, I argue that these views are implausible because they allow for objectionable treatment of non-participants. I show that it is impossible, on the basis of practice-internal considerations alone, to determine the extent to which the pursuit of practices can permissibly limit the opportunities of non-participants. There are opportunities beyond the current holdings of practices to which no one has a (...)
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  47. The Equal Society: Essays on Equality in Theory and Practice. [REVIEW]Arthur Schipper - 2017 - Philosophical Quarterly 67 (269):863-865.
  48. Democracy and Gasset’s ‘The Revolt of the Masses’: An Exposition.Samuel Akpan Bassey - 2016 - OmniScience: A Multi-Disciplinary Journal 6 (2):1-8.
    Democracy simply put, is the government of “the people”. There is no doubt that the rise of “the people” is now a principal political force in our contemporary world. Though democracy is largely celebrated today, Ortega y Gasset, in his book Revolt of the Masses thinks that it is an unfortunate incident. For him, the masses, regrettably, are vulgar. The masses are drunken by the possibilities that contemporary science has made feasible on one hand. Then again, their obscenity keeps them (...)
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  49. Ryzyko równej wolności pozytywnej.Andrzej Stoiński - 2016 - Diametros 49:121-138.
    The article deals with selected problems related to the postulates of equalizing the level of positive liberty. The classic understanding of individual freedom as negative freedom, identified with the lack of compulsion, can be opposed to the so-called positive liberty. The latter notion is usually defined in terms of ability, which suggests that there is a relation between the concept of freedom and the concept of power. The postulate of equality with regard to the ‘freedom to’ would occasionally justify social (...)
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  50. The Principles and the Presumption of Equality.Stefan Gosepath - 2015 - In Carina Fourie, Fabian Schuppert & Ivo Wallimann-Helmer (eds.), Social Equality. On What It Means to Be Equals. Oxford, Vereinigtes Königreich: pp. 167-185.
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