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Summary It is perhaps universally accepted that toleration is very important.  But what is toleration?  The pieces included here all offer something about how to best understand the concept.  The importance of this project should not be underestimated given that without a well-worked out conception of toleration, claiming we should tolerate rings somewhat hollow.  In the past, for example, people argued that we tolerate religions that compete with the state religion even if we tax them while we do not tax the state religion.  For most political philosophers today, this is a deficient understanding of the concept.
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  1. Michael Walzer, On Toleration.D. Archard - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
  2. Mapping the Epistemic Arguments for Religious Toleration.Gilles Beauchamp - forthcoming - Religious Studies.
    In the literature on toleration, epistemic arguments are commonly equated with John Stuart Mill's fallibilism according to which toleration of opinions is a necessary means to the attainment of truth. This conflation does not capture the variety of those arguments and it results from the fact that a proper analysis of epistemic arguments for religious toleration and a systematic account of their different types are still lacking. The purpose of this article is to provide such an analysis and to argue (...)
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  3. Tolerance: No Dogs or Philosophers Allowed.Ken Knisely, Shannon Jordon, Floyd Tesmer & Don Peple - forthcoming - DVD.
    How can we know if a social order is threatened by the coexistence of different kinds of people living by different values? Does "tolerance" mean acceptance, or should it aspire only to benign neglect? Is intolerance a sign of community strength or weakness? With Shannon Jordon, Floyd Tesmer, and Don Peple.
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  4. Zagadka Tolerancji [The Puzzle of Tolerance].Wojciech Sadurski - forthcoming - Res Publica.
  5. Paul Russell’s Confusion About Tolerance.Danny Frederick - 2020 - In Against the Philosophical Tide. Yeovil: Critias Publishing. pp. 187-189.
    In ‘Aeon’ magazine (2 August 2017), Professor Paul Russell claims that tolerance demands that criticism of ideologies be permitted; but it also demands that criticism of natural identities be suppressed. He says that the Left’s failure to distinguish ideological from non-ideological identities has led identity politics into intolerance. I argue that Russell’s position is self-contradictory, implying that his (ideological) liberal identity both should and should not be open to criticism. Tolerance must be extended to criticism of non-ideological identities. Laws against (...)
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  6. Andrew Fiala: The Bloomsbury Companion to Political Philosophy: Bloomsbury Academic, New York, NY, 2015, 264 Pp + Index, $171.00 Hc. [REVIEW]Gregory McCreery - 2018 - Human Studies 41 (4):719-726.
  7. The Contours of Toleration: A Relational Account.Kok-Chor Tan - 2018 - In Nurdane Şimsek, Stephen Snyder & Manuel Knoll (eds.), New Perspectives on Distributive Justice: Deep Disagreements, Pluralism, and the Problem of Consensus. De Gruyter. pp. 385-402.
    I outline what I call a relational account of toleration. This relational account helps explain the apparent paradox of toleration in that it involves two competing moral stances, of acceptance and disapproval, towards the tolerated. It also helps clarify the way toleration is a normative ideal, and not a position one is forced into out of the practical need to accommodate or accept. Specifically, toleration is recommended out of respect for that which the tolerant agent also disapproves of. This combination (...)
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  8. Pluralism, Pragmatism and American Democracy: A Minority Report.H. G. Callaway - 2017 - Newcastle, England: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    This book presents the author’s many and varied contributions to the revival and re-evaluation of American pragmatism. The assembled critical perspective on contemporary pragmatism in philosophy emphasizes the American tradition of cultural pluralism and the requirements of American democracy. Based partly on a survey of the literature on interest-group pluralism and critical perspectives on the politics of globalization, the monograph argues for reasoned caution concerning the practical effects of the revival. Undercurrents of “vulgar pragmatism” including both moral and epistemic relativism (...)
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  9. Religious and Political Authority in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Jon Mahoney & Kamel Alboaouh - 2017 - Manas Journal of Social Science 6 (02):241-257.
    Alfred Stepan’s “twin-tolerations” thesis (2000) is a model for explaining different ways that religious and political authority come to be reconciled. In this paper, we investigate some obstacles and challenges to realizing a reconciliation between religious and political authority in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) that might result in a transition away from a theocratic monarchy to a more consultative form of political authority. Whereas most analyses of religion and politics in KSA focus on geopolitics, the rentier state model, (...)
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  10. The Range of Toleration: From Toleration as Recognition Back to Disrespectful Tolerance.Anna Elisabetta Galeotti - 2015 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 41 (2):93-110.
    This article aims to provide a critical map of toleration as it is displayed in contemporary democracy. It does so by presenting three conceptions of toleration to which current practices of toleration can be traced, and, precisely, these are the standard notion, the political conception based on the neutrality principle, and toleration as recognition. The author argues that the latter is the appropriate conception to address the politically relevant issues of toleration arising in pluralistic democracy, while the first is adequate (...)
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  11. Attitudinal Analyses of Toleration and Respect and the Problem of Institutional Applicability.Sune Lægaard - 2015 - European Journal of Philosophy 23 (4):1064-1081.
    Toleration and respect are types of relations between different agents. The standard analyses of toleration and respect are attitudinal; toleration and respect require subjects to have appropriate types of attitudes towards the objects of toleration or respect. The paper investigates whether states can sensibly be described as tolerant or respectful in ways theoretically relevantly similar to the standard analyses. This is a descriptive question about the applicability of concepts rather than a normative question about whether, when and why states should (...)
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  12. Toleration, by Andrew Jason Cohen: Cambridge: Polity Press, 2014, Pp. 176, £15.99 , £45.Peter Balint - 2014 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 92 (4):816-817.
  13. Acts of Tolerance: A Political and Descriptive Account.Peter Balint - 2014 - European Journal of Political Theory 13 (3):264-281.
    Almost all philosophical understandings of tolerance as forbearance require that the reasons for objection and/or the reasons for withholding the power to negatively interfere must be of the morally right kind. In this paper, I instead put forward a descriptive account of an act of tolerance and argue that in the political context, at least, it has several important advantages over the standard more moralised accounts. These advantages include that it better addresses instances of intolerance and that it is able (...)
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  14. Toleration.Andrew Jason Cohen - 2014 - Polity.
    In this engaging and comprehensive introduction to the topic of toleration, Andrew Jason Cohen seeks to answer fundamental questions, such as: What is toleration? What should be tolerated? Why is toleration important? Beginning with some key insights into what we mean by toleration, Cohen goes on to investigate what should be tolerated and why. We should not be free to do everythingÑmurder, rape, and theft, for clear examples, should not be tolerated. But should we be free to take drugs, hire (...)
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  15. On Shareable Reasons: A Comment on Forst.Adam Etinson - 2014 - Journal of Social Philosophy 45 (1):76-88.
  16. Leibniz’s Doctrine of Toleration: Philosophical, Theological and Pragmatic Reasons.Maria Rosa Antognazza - 2013 - In J. Parkin & T. Stanton (eds.), Natural Law and Toleration in the Early Enlightenment. Oxford University Press. pp. 139-164.
    Leibniz is not commonly numbered amongst canonical writers on toleration. One obvious reason is that, unlike Locke, he wrote no treatise specifically devoted to that doctrine. Another is the enormous amount of energy which he famously devoted to ecclesiastical reunification. Promoting the reunification of Christian churches is an objective quite different from promoting the toleration of different religious faiths – so different, in fact, that they are sometimes even construed as mutually exclusive. Ecclesiastical reunification aims to find agreement at least (...)
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  17. Are Toleration and Respect Compatible?Ian Carter - 2013 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (3):195-208.
    Toleration and respect are often thought of as compatible, and indeed complementary, liberal democratic ideals. However, it has sometimes been said that toleration is disrespectful, because it necessarily involves a negative evaluation of the object of toleration. This article shows how toleration and respect are compatible as long as ‘ respect ’ is taken to mean recognition respect, as opposed to appraisal respect. But it also argues that recognition respect itself rules out certain kinds of evaluation of persons, and with (...)
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  18. Introduction.Ian Carter & Maria Paola Ferretti - 2013 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (3):191-194.
    In attempting to clarify both the concept of toleration and its role in contemporary society several authors have interpreted it as based on the notion of respect for persons. Persons are due respect as moral agents and as such should be allowed to make their own choices, even if the content of those choices meets with our disapproval. According to a classical understanding of toleration, one can be said to tolerate something if one disapproves of it (this is commonly called (...)
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  19. Toleration.Emanuela Ceva - 2013 - Oxford Bibliographies in Philosophy.
    The idea of toleration (or tolerance—the terms are mostly used interchangeably) plays a paramount role in liberal theorizing with regard to the normative characterization of the relations between the state and citizens and between majority and minority groups in society. Toleration occurs when an agent A refrains from interfering negatively with an agent B’s practice x or belief y despite A’s opposition to B’s x-ing or y-ing, although A thinks herself to be in the position of interfering. So, the notion (...)
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  20. Toleration.Andrew Jason Cohen - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Oxford: pp. 5150-5160.
    Contemporary philosophical debates surrounding toleration have revolved around three issues: What is toleration? Should we tolerate and, if so, why? What should be tolerated? These questions are of central importance to social and political thought.
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  21. A Multirelational Account of Toleration.Maria Paola Ferretti & Sune Lægaard - 2013 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (3):224-238.
    Toleration classically denotes a relation between two agents that is characterised by three components: objection, power, and acceptance overriding the objection. Against recent claims that classical toleration is not applicable in liberal democracies and that toleration must therefore either be understood purely attitudinally or purely politically, we argue that the components of classical toleration are crucial elements of contemporary cases of minority accommodation. The concept of toleration is applicable to, and is an important element of descriptions of such cases, provided (...)
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  22. Einführung in Die Politische Philosophie [Introduction to Political Philosophy].Stefan Gosepath & Robin Celikates - 2013 - Stuttgart, Deutschland: Reclam.
  23. Was Toleranz Ist, Was Sie Nicht Ist Und Wie Man Sie Nicht Rechtfertigen Kann Eine Replik Auf Lohmar.Peter Königs - 2013 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 67 (3).
    Toleranz wird für gewöhnlich als eine Einstellung definiert, die sich aus Akzeptanz und Ablehnung gegenüber der tolerierten Praxis zusammensetzt. In einem Aufsatz in dieser Zeitschrift hat Achim Lohmar dieses klassische Verständnis von Toleranz angegriffen und einen alternativen Toleranzbegriff stark gemacht. Ich werde argumentieren, dass Lohmars Analyse von Toleranz verfehlt ist, und zeigen, wie sich der klassische Toleranzbegriff gegen Lohmars Kritik verteidigen lässt. Dennoch ist Lohmars Kritik nicht uninteressant. Denn obwohl Lohmars begriffliche Kritik unzutreffend ist, lässt sich auf Lohmars Kritik aufbauend (...)
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  24. Toleration Out of Respect?Sune Lægaard - 2013 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 16 (4):520-536.
  25. Vertical Toleration as a Liberal Idea.Catriona McKinnon - 2013 - Social Theory and Practice 39 (1):1-18.
    This paper argues that the direct, vertical toleration of certain types of citizen by the Rawlsian liberal state is appropriate and required in circumstances in which these types of citizen pose a threat to the stability of the state. By countering the claim that vertical toleration is redundant given a commitment to the Rawlsian version of the liberal democratic ideal, and by articulating a version of that ideal that shows this claim to be false, the paper reaffirms the centrality of (...)
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  26. Can Tolerance Be Grounded in Equal Respect?Enzo Rossi - 2013 - European Journal of Political Theory 12 (3):240-252.
    In this paper I argue that equal respect-based accounts of the normative basis of tolerance are self-defeating, insofar as they are unable to specify the limits of tolerance in a way that is consistent with their own commitment to the equal treatment of all conceptions of the good. I show how this argument is a variant of the long-standing ‘conflict of freedoms’ objection to Kantian-inspired, freedom-based accounts of the justification of systems of norms. I criticize Thomas Scanlon’s defence of ‘pure (...)
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  27. Toleration and Informal Groups: How Does the Formal Dimension Affect Groups' Capacity to Tolerate?F. Zuolo - 2013 - European Journal of Political Theory 12 (3):288-305.
    The ‘agents’ of toleration can be divided into three categories: public institutions, groups and individuals. If it is mostly accepted that both public institutions and individuals are capable of toleration, it is not clear that such a capacity can be attributed to groups, although in daily discourse we seem ready to say that a certain social group is (in)tolerant. This article aims to address this issue by investigating the relationship between collective agency and social groups. Formal groups (e.g. corporations) have (...)
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  28. Moral Traditions, Critical Reflection, and Education in a Liberal-Democratic Society.Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 2012 - In Asger Sørensen & Peter Kemp (eds.), Politics in Education. Berlin: LIT Verlag. pp. 169-182.
    I argue that, in the second half of the second Millennium, three parallel processes took place. First, normative ethics, or natural morality, that had been a distinct subject in the education of European elites from the Renaissance times to the end of the eighteenth century, disappeared as such, being partly allotted to the Churches via the teaching of religion in State School, and partly absorbed by the study of history and literature, assumed to be channels for imbibing younger generations with (...)
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  29. Toleration.Rainer Forst - 2012 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The term “toleration”—from the Latin tolerare: to put up with, countenance or suffer—generally refers to the conditional acceptance of or non-interference with beliefs, actions or practices that one considers to be wrong but still “tolerable,” such that they should not be prohibited or constrained. There are many contexts in which we speak of a person or an institution as being tolerant: parents tolerate certain behavior of their children, a friend tolerates the weaknesses of another, a monarch tolerates dissent, a church (...)
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  30. Toleration in Conflict: Past and Present.Rainer Forst - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    The concept of toleration plays a central role in pluralistic societies. It designates a stance which permits conflicts over beliefs and practices to persist while at the same time defusing them, because it is based on reasons for coexistence in conflict - that is, in continuing dissension. A critical examination of the concept makes clear, however, that its content and evaluation are profoundly contested matters and thus that the concept itself stands in conflict. For some, toleration was and is an (...)
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  31. Explorations on the Notion of Legal Tolerance.Eliana Herrera-Vega - 2012 - World Futures 68 (4-5):280 - 295.
    This article builds on the notion of legal tolerance and analyzes the scope of its definition. It situates the notion in the complex set of relations occurring between the major systems of society. Generally, legal tolerance, as a concept, is understood in light of the possibilities of the legal system of influencing other major systems? responses. On the other hand, tolerance is also the response of the legal system in respect to other major systems? communications. Although there is a common (...)
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  32. Tolerance or Hospitality?Yan Mengwei - 2012 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 7 (1):154-163.
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  33. Three Versions of Liberal Tolerance: Dworkin, Rawls, Raz.Denise Meyerson - 2012 - Jurisprudence 3 (1):37-70.
    The idea that the exercise of state power should be limited so as to permit free choice in matters of personal conduct has been central to liberalism ever since John Stuart Mill defended the harm principle. However, this surface agreement conceals deeper disagreements. One disputed matter relates to the nature of the tolerant state: is it a state that refrains from improving our moral character by coercive means is it a state that takes no interest whatsoever in the moral character (...)
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  34. A Pocket Philosophical Dictionary.Voltaire . - 2011 - Oxford University Press UK.
    'What can you say to a man who tells you he prefers obeying God rather than men, and that as a result he's certain he'll go to heaven if he cuts your throat?'Voltaire's Pocket Philosophical Dictionary, first published in 1764, is a major work of the European Enlightenment. It is also a highly entertaining book: this is no 'dictionary' in the ordinary sense, nor does it treat 'philosophy' in the modern meaning of the term. It consists of a sequence of (...)
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  35. Tolerance and Pain.Derek Edyvane - 2011 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 14 (3):405-419.
    It is often thought that tolerance must be painful; the absence of pain is taken as an indication of indifference, an indication that the agent does not really disapprove of the object of her professed tolerance. This article challenges that view by arguing that the association of tolerance and pain depends ultimately upon the contentious assumption that inner conflict is a form of dysfunction. By unsettling that assumption, it is possible to unsettle the idea that one?s tolerance of others must (...)
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  36. Why the Traditional Conception of Toleration Still Matters.John Horton - 2011 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 14 (3):289-305.
    The ?traditional? conception of toleration, understood as the putting up with beliefs and practices by those who disapprove of them, has come under increasing attack in recent years for being negative, condescending and judgemental. Instead, its critics argue for a more positive, affirmative conception, perhaps best captured by Anna Elisabetta Galeotti?s idea of ?toleration as recognition?. In this article, without denying that it is not always the most appropriate form of response to differences, I defend the traditional conception of toleration (...)
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  37. On Tolerance and Intolerance.Peter Koreny - 2011 - Filozofia 66 (4):301-314.
    The paper deals with tolerance and intolerance on the background of the tensions existing between the moral “No” and “Yes”, between the initial rejection of the values, beliefs of the others and respecting them. An indifferent tolerance of the people incapable of saying moral “Yes” or “No” is unveiled as an attitude emptied of spiritual and moral contents. It also shows the dilemmas of morally convinced people when facing the normative request to tolerate the values and beliefs of the others. (...)
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  38. Must the Tolerant Person Have a Sense of Humour? On the Structure of Tolerance as a Virtue.David Owen - 2011 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 14 (3):385-403.
    This article addresses the relationship of toleration and humour as virtues. It argues that our understanding of toleration as a virtue has been captured and shaped by the conception of tolerance as a duty and, through a critique of John Horton?s classic article on toleration as a virtue, seeks to show what a view freed from such captivity would look like. It then turns to argue that humour plays a fundamental role in relation to living a virtuous life. Finally, it (...)
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  39. A Defensible Conception of Tolerance in Aquinas?Manfred Svensson - 2011 - The Thomist 75 (2):291-308.
  40. Two Conceptions of Liberal Global Toleration.Kok-Chor Tan - 2011 - The Monist 94 (4):489-505.
  41. Tolerance or Toleration? How to Deal with Religious Conflicts in Europe.Lorenzo Zucca - 2011 - In Maksymilian Del Mar (ed.), New Waves in Philosophy of Law. Palgrave-Macmillan.
  42. Conceiving of 'Toleration'.Stephen Cohen - 2010 - Australian Journal of Professional and Applied Ethics 10 (1/2).
  43. Why Tolerance Cannot Be Our Principal Value.Theo Wa de Wit - 2010 - Bijdragen 71 (4):377-390.
    Whereas the concept of ‘tolerance’ was a marginal category from the end of the sixteenth century, it has become a political key concept today. Have we not all become strangers and foreigners? As such the concept of ‘strangeness’ has lost its relevance. In recent times we witness a new turn in the dialectics of tolerance. It becomes a political and polemical category allowing for a distinct segregation between ‘them’ and ‘we’. The concept explains ‘why we are civilized and they are (...)
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  44. Perplexities of Tolerance: Introduction.Tim6 Heysse & Barbara Segaert - 2010 - Bijdragen 71 (4):351-357.
  45. Toleration and Recognition: What Should We Teach?Peter Nigel Jones - 2010 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 42 (1):38-56.
    Generally we think it good to tolerate and to accord recognition. Yet both are complex phenomena and our teaching must acknowledge and cope with that complexity. We tolerate only what we object to, so our message to students cannot be simply, ‘promote the good and prevent the bad’. Much advocacy of toleration is not what it pretends to be. Nor is it entirely clear what sort of conduct should count as intolerant. Sometimes people are at fault for tolerating what they (...)
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  46. Toleration, Civility, and Absolute Presuppositions.Medhat Khattar - 2010 - Collingwood and British Idealism Studies 16 (1-2):113-135.
    This article argues that toleration understood as the principled restraint from the use of force is an instance of RG. Collingwood's 'ideal of civility' towards which liberalism as the process of civilisation aspires. In the first part of this article, Toleration as Civility, I draw on Collingwood's philosophy to provide an account of toleration as an instance of civility embodying self-respect, historical consciousness, and complete freedom of the will. Accordingly, the limits of toleration are conceived as necessarily informed by the (...)
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  47. Tolerance Versus Freedom of Religion: The Importance of Amoral Arguments in the History of Tolerance.Patrick Loobuyck - 2010 - Bijdragen 71 (4):358-376.
    In this contribution we examine the various amoral types of reasoning that have long predominated in the history of tolerance. In doing this we also hope to show that these amoral notions of tolerance are always far removed from, and in conflict with, the idea of freedom of religion as a moral and political right. In conclusion we show that when the liberal notion of freedom as a personal and moral right predominates, then the notion of tolerance loses some of (...)
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  48. Toleration, Respect and Recognition: Some Tensions.Mitja Sardoč - 2010 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 42 (1):6-8.
  49. Tolérance et neutralité : incompatibles ou complémentaires ?Marc Rüegger - 2009 - Les ateliers de l'éthique/The Ethics Forum 4 (2):175-186.
    La tolérance et la neutralité sont habituellement considérées comme des réponses interchangeables ou du moins complémentaires à des situations de conflit et de désaccord moral. Malgré cette association traditionnelle, plusieurs auteurs ont récemment contesté la complémentarité, voire même la compatibilité, de ces deux notions. Cet article examine tout d’abord deux arguments qui visent à établir l’incompatibilité de la tolérance et de la neutralité. Il montre ensuite que si ces arguments ne sont pas probants, en ce sens qu’ils ne parviennent pas (...)
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  50. The Last Artificial Virtue.Andrew Sabl - 2009 - Political Theory 37 (4):511-538.
    David Hume’s position on religion is, broadly speaking, “politic”: instrumental and consequentialist. Religions should be tolerated or not according to their effects on political peace and order. Such theories of toleration are often rejected as immoral or unstable. The reading provided here responds by reading Hume’s position as one of radically indirect consequentialism. While religious policy should serve consequentialist ends, making direct reference to those ends merely gives free reign to religious-political bigotry and faction. Toleration, like Hume’s other “artificial virtues” (...)
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