About this topic

The Consciousness-Only (vijñapti-mātra) School of Chinese Buddhism is a transmission and development of the Consciousness-Only School of Indian Buddhism. Controversies exist regarding to what extent the Indian version was reshaped in China. Historically speaking, there were three major phases of the transmission of Indian Consciousness-Only doctrines: (1) early 6th century, represented by Bodhiruci; (2) mid-6th century, represented by Paramārtha (499-569); (3) mid-7th century, represented by Xuanzang (602?-664) and his disciples, who compiled the Cheng weishi lun (*Vijñapti-mātratā-siddhi) and were later regarded as orthodox. One of the major differences between the Consciousness-Only doctrine transmitted by Paramārtha and that by Xuanzang lies in their reception of Tathāgatagarbha thought. According to Paramārtha, all sentient beings share the Dharma-body of the Buddha and can be properly designated as “Buddha-containing” (tathāgata-garbha), but Xuanzang recognizes the existence of the icchantika-s, namely, a group of sentient beings who will never be enlightened and become Buddhas.

Key works Much about the development of this filed remains murky. Frauwallner 1982 and Otake 2013 touch upon Bodhiruci. Paul 1984聖凱 2006, Keng 2009 and Funayama 2012 focus on Paramārtha. Sponberg 1979 and Lusthaus 2003 discuss the doctrines of Xuanzang and his disciple Kuiji (632-682).
Introductions Gimello 1976 remains a reliable introduction. Lusthaus 2003 is controversial in its interpretation of the Consciousness-Only doctrine of Xuanzang and Kuiji as phenomenology instead of as idealism.
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36 found
  1. From Buddha's Speech to Buddha's Essence: Philosophical Discussions of Buddha-Vacana in India and China.Eunsu Cho - 2004 - Asian Philosophy 14 (3):255 – 276.
    This is a comparative study of the discourses on the nature of sacred language found in Indian Abhidharma texts and those written by 7th century Chinese Buddhist scholars who, unlike the Indian Buddhists, questioned 'the essence of the Buddha's teaching'. This issue labeled fo-chiao t'i lun, the theory of 'the essence of the Buddha's teaching', was one of the topics on which Chinese Yogācāra scholars have shown a keen interest and served as the inspiration for extensive intellectual dialogues in their (...)
  2. Buddhist Idealism.Bronwyn Finnigan - forthcoming - In Tyron Goldschmidt & Kenneth Pearce (eds.), Idealism: New Essays in Metaphysics. Oxford University Press.
    This article surveys some of the most influential Buddhist arguments in defense of idealism. It begins by clarifying the central theses under dispute and rationally reconstructs arguments from four major Buddhist figures in defense of some or all of these theses. It engages arguments from Vasubandhu’s Viṃśikā and Triṃśikā; Dignāga’s matching-failure argument in the Ālambanaparīkṣā; the sahopalambhaniyama inference developed by Dharmakīrti; and Xuanzang’s weird but clever logical argument that intrigued philosophers in China and Japan. It aims to clarify what is (...)
  3. Amalavijñānam und Ālayavijñānam.Erich Frauwallner - 1982 - In Erich Frauwallner, Gerhard Oberhammer & Ernst Steinkellner (eds.), Kleine Schriften.
  4. Studies of the works and influence of Paramartha 真諦三蔵研究論集.Toru Funayama (ed.) - 2012
  5. Chih-Yeh and the Foundations of Hua-Yen Buddhism.Robert Gimello - 1976 - Dissertation, Columbia University
  6. Interpretation of Yogācāra Philosophy in Huayan Buddhism.Imre Hamar - 2010 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (2):181-197.
  7. Contexts and Dialogue: Yogācāra Buddhism and Modern Psychology on the Subliminal Mind – by Tao Jiang.Peter D. Hershock - 2008 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 35 (2):371–375.
  8. A Korean Yogacara Monk in China: Won-Cheuk and His Commentary on the Heart Sutra.Chang-Geun Hwang - 2000 - Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison
    During the seventh to eighth centuries, China was the site of confluence and lively debate between two major streams within Yogacara studies which solidified into two main sects---the Tz'u-en and the Hsi-ming, which were led by two scholars, K'uei-chi and Won-cheuk, respectively. K'uei-chi, who was Hsuan-tsang's successor, enjoyed the reputation of being one of the most authoritative Yogacara, scholars in Chinese Buddhist history, and was acknowledged as the founder of the Chinese Yogacara School or the Fa-hsiang School. On the other (...)
  9. Ālayavijñāna and the Problematic of Continuity in the Cheng Weishi Lun.Tao Jiang - 2004 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 33 (3):243-284.
  10. Representing Wonch’Uk (613-696): Meditations on Medieval East Asian Buddhist Biographies.John Jorgensen - 2002 - In Benjamin Penny (ed.), Religion and Biography in China and Tibet. Curzon Press.
  11. Yogâcāra Buddhism Transmitted or Transformed? Paramârtha (499-569) and His Chinese Interpreters.Ching Keng - 2009 - Dissertation, Harvard University
    This dissertation argues that the Yogâcāra Buddhism transmitted by the Indian translator Paramârtha (Ch. Zhendi 真諦) underwent a significant transformation due to the influence of his later Chinese interpreters, a phenomenon to which previous scholars failed to paid enough attention. I begin with showing two contrary interpretations of Paramârtha’s notion of jiexing 解性. The traditional interpretation glosses jiexing in terms of “original awakening” (benjue 本覺) in the Awakening of Faith and hence betrays its strong tie to that text. In contrast, (...)
  12. Chinese Buddhist Philosophy From Han Through Tang.Whalen Lai - 2008 - In Bo Mou (ed.), Routledge History of Chinese Philosophy. Routledge.
  13. The Defeat of Vijñaptimatrata in China: Fa-Tsang on Fa-Hsing and Fa-Hsiang.Whalen Lai - 1986 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 13 (1):1-19.
  14. Sinitic Speculations on Buddha-Nature: The Nirvāṇa School (420-589).Whalen Lai - 1982 - Philosophy East and West 32 (2):135-149.
  15. The Meaning of "Mind-Only" : An Analysis of a Sinitic Mahāyāna Phenomenon.Whalen Lai - 1977 - Philosophy East and West 27 (1):65-83.
  16. New Light on the Mahāyāna-Śraddotpāda Śāstra.Walter Liebenthal - 1958 - T'oung Pao 46:155-216.
  17. Truth and Method in the Saṃdhinirmocana Sūtra.Chen-Kuo Lin - 2010 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (2):261-275.
  18. Truth and Method in the Sūtra.Chen-kuo Lin - 2010 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (2):261-275.
  19. The Early Development of the Buddha-Nature Doctrine in China.Ming-Wood Liu - 1989 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 16 (1):1-36.
  20. Fan Chen's "Treatise on the Destructibility of the Spirit" and its Buddhist Critics.Ming-Wood Liu - 1987 - Philosophy East and West 37 (4):402-428.
  21. The Mind-Only teaChing of Ching-Ying Hui-Yüan: An Early Interpretation of Yogācāra Thought in China.Ming-Wood Liu - 1985 - Philosophy East and West 35 (4):351-376.
  22. The Yogācārā and Mādhyamika Interpretations of the Buddha-Nature Concept in Chinese Buddhism.Ming-Wood Liu - 1985 - Philosophy East and West 35 (2):171-193.
  23. Buddhist Phenomenology: A Philosophical Investigation of Yogācāra Buddhism and the Chʼeng Wei-Shih Lun.Dan Lusthaus - 2003 - Routledgecurzon.
  24. Wŏnhyo's Doctrine of the Two Hindrances.Charles Muller - manuscript
    as a major force in the establishment of Hua-yen studies in Korea. A major component of Wŏnhyo's career that is sometimes overlooked in these characterizations, however, is the fact that he easily stands as one of the greatest Yogācāra scholars in the entire history of East Asian Buddhism, having demonstrated a mastery of the Yogācāra doctrine equaled by probably no more than three or four individuals in the entire East Asian tradition. 1 Indeed, after K'uei-chi 窺基 and Hsüan-tsang 玄奘, there (...)
  25. A study of the Yuan-Wei translations of vasubandhu's sutra commentaries 元魏漢訳ヴァスバンドゥ釈経論群の研究.Susumu Otake - 2013 - Daizo Shuppan.
  26. Ouyang Jian Wen Xuan.Jian Ouyang - 2011 - Shanghai Yuan Dong Chu Ban She.
  27. Philosophy of Mind in Sixth-Century China: Paramārtha's "Evolution of Consciousness".Diana Y. Paul - 1984 - Stanford University Press.
    Of the many translators who carried the Buddhist doctrine to China, Paramartha, a missionary-monk who arrived in China in AD 546, ranks as the translator par excellence of the sixth century. Introducing philosophical ideas that would subsequently excite the Chinese imagination to develop the great schools of Sui and T'ang Buddhism, Paramartha's translations are almost exclusively of Yogacara Buddhist texts on the nature of the mind and consciousness. This first study of Paramartha in a Western language focuses on the Chuan (...)
  28. The Doctrine of *Amalavijnana in Paramartha (499-569), and Later Authors to Approximately 800 C.E.Michael Radich - 2009 - Zinbun 41:45-174.
  29. On the Problem of the External World in the Ch’Eng Wei Shih Lun. Tōkyō: The International Institute for Buddhist Studies.Lambert Schmithausen - 2005 - The International Institute for Buddhist Studies.
  30. Ālayavijñāna: On the Origin and the Early Development of a Central Concept of Yogācāra Philosophy: Reprint with Addenda and Corrigenda.Lambert Schmithausen - 1987 - International Institute for Buddhist Studies of the International College for Postgraduate Buddhist Studies.
  31. The Vijñaptimatrata Buddhism of the Chinese Monk K’Uei-Chi (A.D. 632-682).Alan Sponberg - 1979 - Dissertation, University of British Columbia
  32. Ch'eng Wei-Shih Lun : The Doctrine of Mere-Consciousness.Tat Wei - 1973 - Ch'eng Wei-shih Lun Publication Committee.
  33. Buddhism Under the T'ang.Stanley Weinstein - 1987 - Cambridge University Press.
  34. Empty Subject Terms in Buddhist Logic: Dignāga and His Chinese Commentators.Zhihua Yao - 2009 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 37 (4):383-398.
    The problem of empty terms is one of the focal issues in analytic philosophy. Russell’s theory of descriptions, a proposal attempting to solve this problem, attracted much attention and is considered a hallmark of the analytic tradition. Scholars of Indian and Buddhist philosophy, e.g., McDermott, Matilal, Shaw and Perszyk, have studied discussions of empty terms in Indian and Buddhist philosophy. But most of these studies rely heavily on the Nyāya or Navya-Nyāya sources, in which Buddhists are portrayed as opponents to (...)
  35. Buddhist Consciousnesses and Psychological Forces.Ma Zhen - 2016 - Asian Research Journal of Arts and Social Sciences 1 (5):1-15.
    This article reviews the ancient Buddhist doctrine of consciousness and its concordance with the psychological heritage of modern science. Firstly, it introduces the nine consciousnesses of Buddhist philosophy, namely, five sensory consciousnesses, plus Mano, Manas, Alaya, and Amala consciousnesses. Secondly, it summarizes the development of the four psychological forces, i.e., Watson’s behaviorism, Freudian psychoanalysis, Jung’s unconscious, and Grof’s transpersonal psychology. Finally, it suggests that the last four consciousnesses are equivalent to the four forces, respectively.
  36. Shelun xuepai yanjiu Shelun xuepai yanjiu 攝論學派研究.Shengkai 聖凱 - 2006 - Zongjiao wenhua chubanshe.