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  1. L'ontologies d'Entreprise Pour la Technologie Blockchain.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    L'ontologie d'entreprise établit une distinction claire entre le niveau de données, le niveau d'information et le niveau essentiel des transactions blockchain et des contrats intelligents. La méthodologie OntoClean analyse des ontologies basées sur des propriétés formelles, indépendantes des domaines (méta-propriétés), constituant la première tentative de formalisation des concepts d'analyse ontologique pour des systèmes informatiques. Les notions sont extraites de l'ontologie philosophique. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.12557.49120 .
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  2. Ethics and the Internet.Hrvoje Domitrović - forthcoming - Ethics.
  3. Social Epistemology as a New Paradigm for Journalism and Media Studies.Yigal Godler, Zvi Reich & Boaz Miller - forthcoming - New Media and Society.
    Journalism and media studies lack robust theoretical concepts for studying journalistic knowledge ‎generation. More specifically, conceptual challenges attend the emergence of big data and ‎algorithmic sources of journalistic knowledge. A family of frameworks apt to this challenge is ‎provided by “social epistemology”: a young philosophical field which regards society’s participation ‎in knowledge generation as inevitable. Social epistemology offers the best of both worlds for ‎journalists and media scholars: a thorough familiarity with biases and failures of obtaining ‎knowledge, and a strong (...)
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  4. Ethics and the Internet.Patrick Leahy, Grant H. Kester, Ronald Doctor, Susan Hallam & Virginia Rezmierski - forthcoming - Ethics, Information, and Technology: Readings.
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  5. Applying Gerontographics in the Study of Older Internet Users.Galit Nimrod - forthcoming - Emergence: Complexity and Organization.
  6. Taking Watsuji Online: Betweenness and Expression in Online Spaces.Lucy Osler & Joel Krueger - forthcoming - Continental Philosophy Review:1-23.
    In this paper, we introduce the Japanese philosopher Tetsurō Watsuji’s phenomenology of aidagara (“betweenness”) and use his analysis in the contemporary context of online space. We argue that Watsuji develops a prescient analysis anticipating modern technologically-mediated forms of expression and engagement. More precisely, we show that instead of adopting a traditional phenomenological focus on face-to-face interaction, Watsuji argues that communication technologies — which now include Internet-enabled technologies and spaces — are expressive vehicles enabling new forms of emotional expression, shared experiences, (...)
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  7. Fake News and Democracy.Merten Reglitz - forthcoming - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    Since the Brexit Referendum in the United Kingdom and the election of Donald Trump as US President in 2016, the term ‘fake news’ has become a significant source of concern. Recently, the European Commission and the British House of Commons have condemned the phenomenon as a threat to their institutions’ democratic processes and values. However, political disinformation is nothing new, and empirical studies suggest that fake news has not decided crucial elections, that most readers do not believe the online fake (...)
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  8. Internet Learning and Multitasking.I. Sabau - forthcoming - Philosophy of Education.
  9. The Internet as Idea in Advance.Dominic Smith - forthcoming - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology.
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  10. La Arqueología Romana En Internet: Panorama General.Cristóbal Macías Villalobos - forthcoming - Nova et Vetera.
  11. Cyberbullying, Moral Responsibility, and Social Networking: Lessons From the Megan Meier Tragedy.Raphael Cohen-Almagor - 2020 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 16 (1):75-98.
    This paper addresses the concepts of moral and social responsibility on the Internet in considering the most troubling phenomenon of cyberbullying that results in loss of life. Specifically, I probe the moral and social responsibilities of Internet users (agents), of the education system in fighting cyberbullying, and of Internet intermediaries. Balance needs to be struck between freedom of expression and social responsibility. The tragic story of Megan Meier serves as an illustrative example and some further incidents in which this ugly (...)
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  12. On Being Known: God and the Private-I.Ronald L. Hall - 2020 - Sophia 59 (4):621-636.
    Given recent discussions of personal privacy, or more particularly, its invasion via the internet, it is not surprising to find the issue of personal privacy emerging regarding God’s relation to our private lives. Two different and opposing views of this God-person relation have surfaced in the literature: ‘God and Privacy’ by Falls-Corbitt and Michael McLain, and ‘Privacy and Control’ by Scott Davison. I discuss key elements in both sides of this debate. Even though I will register my sympathy with both (...)
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  13. Реформа интернета.Andrej Poleev - 2020 - Enzymes 18.
    Частным аспектом предлагаемой реформы интернета является метаномические правила референцирования и адресации виртуальных объектов с целью приближения их к естественным языкам, и создания их логической системы. Однако реформа интернета и преобразование его в средство общения и служения обществу требует также других мер. К этим мерам относится передача определённых имён в неотчуждаемое владение, чтобы их собственники безусловно и беспрепятственно могли осуществлять их право публикации, т.е. публичного высказывания и выражения их мыслей, что также важно для документографии. Другой мерой должно стать упразднение всей сложившейся (...)
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  14. The Human Right to Free Internet Access.Merten Reglitz - 2020 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 37 (2): 314-331.
    In 2016, the United Nation’s General Assembly adopted a non-binding resolution regarding ‘The Promotion, Protection and Enjoyment of Human Rights on the Internet’. At the heart of this resolution is the UN’s concern that ‘rights that people have offline must also be protected online.’ While the UN thus recognises the importance of the Internet, it does so problematically selectively by focusing on protecting existing offline rights online. I argue instead that Internet access is itself a moral human right that requires (...)
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  15. Internet Access as a Right for Realizing the Human Right to Adequate Mental (and Other) Health Care.Merten Reglitz & Abraham Rudnick - 2020 - International Journal of Mental Health 49 (1): 97-103.
    Human rights protect the conditions of a minimally decent life of which mental health is an indispensable element. Adequate care for mental health is thus recognized as part of the human right to health. However, for populations living far from urban centers, adequate in-person (mental) health care is often extremely costly and thus not provided. Digital mental health care options have become an effective alternative to in-person treatment. Benefitting from these new digital opportunities, though, requires sufficient access to the internet. (...)
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  16. The world is a big network. Pandemic, the Internet and institutions.Constantin Vica - 2020 - Revista de Filosofie Aplicata 3 (Supplementary Issue):136-161.
    2020 is the year of the first pandemic lived through the Internet. More than half of the world population is now online and because of self-isolation, our moral and social lives unfold almost exclusively online. Two pressing questions arise in this context: how much can we rely on the Internet, as a set of technologies, and how much should we trust online platforms and applications? In order to answer these two questions, I develop an argument based on two fundamental assumptions: (...)
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  17. The Internet as Cognitive Enhancement.Cristina Voinea, Constantin Vică, Emilian Mihailov & Julian Savulescu - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2345-2362.
    The Internet has been identified in human enhancement scholarship as a powerful cognitive enhancement technology. It offers instant access to almost any type of information, along with the ability to share that information with others. The aim of this paper is to critically assess the enhancement potential of the Internet. We argue that unconditional access to information does not lead to cognitive enhancement. The Internet is not a simple, uniform technology, either in its composition, or in its use. We will (...)
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  18. Engineering Affect: Emotion Regulation, the Internet, and the Techno-Social Niche.Joel Krueger & Lucy Osler - 2019 - Philosophical Topics 47 (2):205-231.
    Philosophical work exploring the relation between cognition and the Internet is now an active area of research. Some adopt an externalist framework, arguing that the Internet should be seen as environmental scaffolding that drives and shapes cognition. However, despite growing interest in this topic, little attention has been paid to how the Internet influences our affective life — our moods, emotions, and our ability to regulate these and other feeling states. We argue that the Internet scaffolds not only cognition but (...)
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  19. Digital Era Framework.Jörn Lengsfeld - 2019 - Bad Waldsee:
    The "Digital Era Framework" is a reference framework for the digital information age. Targeted at science and practice alike, the concept offers a comprehensive approach for the analysis and assessment of phenomena of digital change, digitalization and digital transformation. The "Digital Era Framework" is based on an integrated approach to examine digital change, in so far as the original state, the occuring change and the final state can be represented in a uniform scheme. The framework emphasises information as the central (...)
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  20. Digital Era Framework. Ein Bezugsrahmen für das Digitale Informationszeitalter.Jörn Lengsfeld - 2019 - 88339 Bad Waldsee, Deutschland:
    Der »Digital Era Framework« ist ein Bezugsrahmen für das digitale Informationszeitalter. Gerichtet an Wissenschaft und Praxis gleichermaßen, bietet das Konzept einen umfassenden Ansatz zur Einordnung und Analyse von Phänomenen des Digitalen Wandels, der Digitalisierung und der Digitalen Transformation. Dem »Digital Era Framework« liegt dabei ein integrierter Ansatz zur Untersuchung des Wandels zugrunde, insofern als Ursprungszustand, Veränderung und Endzustand in einem einheitlichen Schema dargestellt werden können. Der Bezugsrahmen stellt die Information in den Mittelpunkt der Betrachtung und beruht auf zwei Ordnungsmomenten: der (...)
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  21. A Review Paper on Internet of Things and It’s Applications.A. K. Sarika, Dr Vinit & Mrs Asha Durafe - 2019 - International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology 6 (06):1623 - 1630.
    Internet, a revolutionary invention, is always transforming into some new kind of hardware and software making it unpreventable for anyone. The type of communication that we see today is either human-to-human or human-to-device, but the Internet of Things (IoT) promises a great future for the internet where the type of communication is machine-to-machine (M2M). The Internet of Things (IoT) is defined as a paradigm in which objects provide with sensors, actuators, and processors communicate with each other to serve a meaningful (...)
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  22. Where the Smart Things Are: Social Machines and the Internet of Things.Paul Smart, Aastha Madaan & Wendy Hall - 2019 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 18 (3):551-575.
    The emergence of large-scale social media systems, such as Wikipedia, Facebook, and Twitter, has given rise to a new multi-disciplinary effort based around the concept of social machines. For the most part, this research effort has limited its attention to the study of Web-based systems. It has also, perhaps unsurprisingly, tended to highlight the social scientific relevance of such systems. The present paper seeks to expand the scope of the social machine research effort to encompass the Internet of Things. One (...)
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  23. Sharing as Speech Act.Emanuele Arielli - 2018 - Versus 127:243-258.
    Social media platforms allow users to perform different speech acts: status updates could be assertives, a like is an expressive, a friendship request is a directive, and so on. But sharing (or "retweeting") seems to lack a fixed illocutive status: this explains why present controversies concerning the sharing of misinformation have been debated in legal procedure and discussed from the point of view of personal responsibility without reaching a general consensus. The premise of this paper is that the diffusion of (...)
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  24. The Ugliness of Trolls: Comparing the Methodologies of the Alt-Right and the Ku Klux Klan.Nathan Eckstrand - 2018 - Cosmopolitan Civil Society 10 (3).
    The alt-right claims it responsibly advocates for its positions while the Ku Klux Klan was “ad-hoc.” This allows them to accept the philosophy of white nationalism while rejecting comparisons with prior white nationalist organizations. I confront this by comparing the methodologies of alt-right trolls and the KKK. After studying each movement’s genesis in pranks done for amusement, I demonstrate that each uses threats to police behavior, encourages comradery around ethnic heritage, and manipulates politics to exclude voices from public deliberation. Differences (...)
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  25. Recommendation Systems as Technologies of the Self: Algorithmic Control and the Formation of Music Taste.Nedim Karakayali, Burc Kostem & Idil Galip - 2018 - Theory, Culture and Society 35 (2):3-24.
    The article brings to light the use of recommender systems as technologies of the self, complementing the observations in current literature regarding their employment as technologies of ‘soft’ power. User practices on the music recommendation website last.fm reveal that many users do not only utilize the website to receive guidance about music products but also to examine and transform an aspect of their self, i.e. their ‘music taste’. The capacity of assisting users in self-cultivation practices, however, is not unique to (...)
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  26. The World Wide Web.Paul Smart - 2018 - In David Coady & James Chase (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Applied Epistemology. New York, NY, USA: pp. 15–27.
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  27. (Fake?) News Alert: Intellectual Virtues Required for Online Knowledge!Paul Smart - 2018 - Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 7 (2):45–55.
  28. Knowledge Machines.Paul Smart - 2018 - The Knowledge Engineering Review 33 (e11):1–26.
    The World Wide Web has had a notable impact on a variety of epistemically-relevant activities, many of which lie at the heart of the discipline of knowledge engineering. Systems like Wikipedia, for example, have altered our views regarding the acquisition of knowledge, while citizen science systems such as Galaxy Zoo have arguably transformed our approach to knowledge discovery. Other Web-based systems have highlighted the ways in which the human social environment can be used to support the development of intelligent systems, (...)
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  29. The Design of the Internet’s Architecture by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and Human Rights.Corinne Cath & Luciano Floridi - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):449-468.
    The debate on whether and how the Internet can protect and foster human rights has become a defining issue of our time. This debate often focuses on Internet governance from a regulatory perspective, underestimating the influence and power of the governance of the Internet’s architecture. The technical decisions made by Internet Standard Developing Organisations that build and maintain the technical infrastructure of the Internet influences how information flows. They rearrange the shape of the technically mediated public sphere, including which rights (...)
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  30. Jones, S. (2017) "The Origin of the Faeces: Ten Years of 2Girls1Cup", Porn Studies.Steve Jones - 2017 - Porn Studies 4 (4):473-476.
    On the ten year anniversary of 2Girls1Cup, this article examines the complex balance of shock, pleasure and disgust elicited by this viral video.
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  31. Responsible Epistemic Technologies: A Social-Epistemological Analysis of Autocompleted Web Search.Boaz Miller & Isaac Record - 2017 - New Media and Society 19 (12):1945-1963.
    Information providing and gathering increasingly involve technologies like search ‎engines, which actively shape their epistemic surroundings. Yet, a satisfying account ‎of the epistemic responsibilities associated with them does not exist. We analyze ‎automatically generated search suggestions from the perspective of social ‎epistemology to illustrate how epistemic responsibilities associated with a ‎technology can be derived and assigned. Drawing on our previously developed ‎theoretical framework that connects responsible epistemic behavior to ‎practicability, we address two questions: first, given the different technological ‎possibilities available (...)
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  32. Спроба оцінки й контекстуалізації помилок у мові української преси (на прикладі видання «Газета по-українськи»).Michael Moser - 2017 - Language: Classic – Modern – Postmodern 3:235-249.
    У статті досліджено мовні помилки, що трапляються в одній із українських інтернет-газет упродовж одного (випадково вибраного) дня цього (2017) року. Указано на високу частотність помилок, на те, що правильність текстів в українських інтернет-ЗМІ значною мірою залежить від мовного оформлення їх безпосереднього джерела, і на те, що в інтернет-ЗМІ часто трапляються найтиповіші помилки сучасної української мови. Доведено, що багато з цих помилок далі поширюють різними веб-порталами (бо часто просто копіюють) без будь-якого мовного редагування. Наголошено на слушності мовного моніторингу українських інтернет-ЗМІ не (...)
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  33. Knowledge, Democracy, and the Internet.Nicola Mößner & Philip Kitcher - 2017 - Minerva 55 (1):1-24.
    The internet has considerably changed epistemic practices in science as well as in everyday life. Apparently, this technology allows more and more people to get access to a huge amount of information. Some people even claim that the internet leads to a democratization of knowledge. In the following text, we will analyze this statement. In particular, we will focus on a potential change in epistemic structure. Does the internet change our common epistemic practice to rely on expert opinions? Does it (...)
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  34. Machine Intelligence and the Social Web: How to Get a Cognitive Upgrade.Paul Smart - 2017 - In Vincent Gripon, Olga Chernavskaya, Paul R. Smart & Tiago Thompsen Primo (eds.), 9th International Conference on Advanced Cognitive Technologies and Applications (COGNITIVE'17). Wilmington, DE, USA: pp. 96–103.
    The World Wide Web (Web) provides access to a global space of information assets and computational services. It also, however, serves as a platform for social interaction (e.g., Facebook) and participatory involvement in all manner of online tasks and activities (e.g., Wikipedia). There is a sense, therefore, that the advent of the Social Web has transformed our understanding of the Web. In addition to viewing the Web as a form of information repository, we are now able to view the Web (...)
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  35. Situating Machine Intelligence Within the Cognitive Ecology of the Internet.Paul Smart - 2017 - Minds and Machines 27 (2):357-380.
    The Internet is an important focus of attention for the philosophy of mind and cognitive science communities. This is partly because the Internet serves as an important part of the material environment in which a broad array of human cognitive and epistemic activities are situated. The Internet can thus be seen as an important part of the ‘cognitive ecology’ that helps to shape, support and realize aspects of human cognizing. Much of the previous philosophical work in this area has sought (...)
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  36. The Social Scaffolding of Machine Intelligence.Paul Smart - 2017 - International Journal on Advances in Intelligent Systems 10 (3&4):261–279.
    The Internet provides access to a global space of information assets and computational services. It also, however, serves as a platform for social interaction (e.g., Facebook) and participatory involvement in all manner of online tasks and activities (e.g., Wikipedia). There is a sense, therefore, that the Internet yields an unprecedented form of access to the human social environment: it provides insight into the dynamics of human behavior (both individual and collective), and it additionally provides access to the digital products of (...)
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  37. Бітард як персонаж фольклору анонімних форумів.Kostiantyn Zadyraka - 2017 - NaUKMA Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture 191:26-28.
    Статтю присвячено феномену Інтернет-фольклору, який розглядається на прикладі візуального образу персонажа «бітард». Наведено деякі аргументи для обґрунтування доцільності вживання поняття «Інтернет-фольклор», описано особливості комунікації через специфічний тип анонімних форумів – іміджборд, а також процес формування фольклору іміджборд. Проаналізовано один із елементів цього фольклору – персонаж «бітард», як відображення досвіду користувачів форумів. Описано його визначальні риси та головні характеристики.
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  38. Review of Interdisciplining Digital Humanities: Boundary Work in an Emerging Field. [REVIEW]Subhasis Chattopadhyay - 2016 - Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India 121 (7 (July)):577-8.
    This review makes a case for scholars putting up their works online and for removing pay-walls of any kind. Therefore, this review is in sync with the stated aims of philpapers.org.
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  39. Social Media, Trust, and the Epistemology of Prejudice.Karen Frost-Arnold - 2016 - Social Epistemology 30 (5-6):513-531.
    Ignorance of one’s privileges and prejudices is an epistemic problem. While the sources of ignorance of privilege and prejudice are increasingly understood, less clarity exists about how to remedy ignorance. In fact, the various causes of ignorance can seem so powerful, various, and mutually reinforcing that studying the epistemology of ignorance can inspire pessimism about combatting socially constructed ignorance. I argue that this pessimism is unwarranted. The testimony of members of oppressed groups can often help members of privileged groups overcome (...)
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  40. A Universal Socio-Technical Computing Machine.Markus Luczak-Roesch, Ramine Tinati, Saud Aljaloud, Wendy Hall & Nigel Shadbolt - 2016 - In International Conference on Web Engineering.
    This is an attempt to develop a universal socio-technical computing machine that captures and coordinates human input to let collective problem solving activities emerge on the Web without the need for an a priori composition of a dedicated task or human collective.
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  41. Computing and Philosophy: Selected Papers From IACAP 2014.Vincent C. Müller (ed.) - 2016 - Springer.
    This volume offers very selected papers from the 2014 conference of the “International Association for Computing and Philosophy” (IACAP) - a conference tradition of 28 years. - - - Table of Contents - 0 Vincent C. Müller: - Editorial - 1) Philosophy of computing - 1 Çem Bozsahin: - What is a computational constraint? - 2 Joe Dewhurst: - Computing Mechanisms and Autopoietic Systems - 3 Vincenzo Fano, Pierluigi Graziani, Roberto Macrelli and Gino Tarozzi: - Are Gandy Machines really local? (...)
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  42. Presentación. PolíTICa: Redes, Deliberación y Heurísticas Sociales. Dilemata. Revista Internacional de Éticas Aplicadas (22):I-Iv (2016) (Editora Invitada).María G. Navarro - 2016
    In the last forty years the number of specialized publications on deliberative democracy has increased steadily. Yet, today, one of the greatest challenges we still face today is to deepen into the knowledge of our actual and singular deliberative cultures. In order to achieve this, it is necessary that we use theoretical and methodological approaches that enable us to capture the inherent complexity to the specific forms of deliberation that are present in as different areas as that of politics, economics, (...)
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  43. Reseña de 'El nuevo leviatán. Una historia política de la Red' de Enrique Alonso. [REVIEW]María G. Navarro - 2016 - Dilemata (22):363-367.
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  44. Internet of Things Future in Edge Computing.C. Pvandana & Ajeet Chikkamannur - 2016 - International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science 3 (12):148-154.
    With the advent of Internet of Things (IoT) and data convergence using rich cloud services, data computing has been pushed to new horizons. However, much of the data generated at the edge of the network leading to the requirement of high response time. A new computing paradigm, edge computing, processing the data at the edge of the network is the need of the time. In this paper, we discuss the IoT architecture, predominant application protocols, definition of edge computing and its (...)
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  45. Віртуальне тіло: приклади соціальних мереж та анонімних форумів.Kostiantyn Zadyraka - 2016 - NaUKMA Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture 179:18-22.
    У статті досліджено феномен віртуальної тілесності, яка не тільки посідає важливе місце у сфері зацікавлення гуманітарних наук, а й увійшла як елемент повсякденності в життя значної частини сучасного людства завдяки мережі Інтернет. Розглянуто концепції поєднання віртуальності та тілесності, ключові підходи до аналізу цього поєднання. Предметом аналізу стали анонімні форуми як яскравий приклад конфігурації віртуального тіла, радикально відмінний від інших через анонімний спосіб репрезентації. Інформація, яку індивід викладає в публічний доступ, сприймається як його втілення в буквальному сенсі слова, а цифровий формат (...)
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  46. Alterity and Freedom of Information on the Internet.Jasmin Hammon - 2015 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 45 (3):91-99.
    Giving a short overview of the technical innovation of Deep Packet Inspection and "Internet fast-lanes", this paper shows the ethical dimension of giving up the founding principle of the open Internet. These new means of network management are fiercely discussed because of their inherent threat of censorship and attack on privacy. This paper will attempt to explain why the experience of otherness and both the freedom of information and the freedom of expression are endangered if Net Neutrality is no longer (...)
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  47. Socio-Technical Computation.Markus Luczak-Roesch, Ramine Tinati, Kieron O'Hara & Nigel Shadbolt - 2015 - In Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference Companion on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing.
    Motivated by the significant amount of successful collaborative problem solving activity on the Web, we ask: Can the accumulated information propagation behavior on the Web be conceived as a giant machine, and reasoned about accordingly? In this paper we elaborate a thesis about the computational capability embodied in information sharing activities that happen on the Web, which we term socio-technical computation, reflecting not only explicitly conditional activities but also the organic potential residing in information on the Web.
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  48. Site Temporarily Unavailable.Shannon Trosper Schorey - 2015 - Alternative Spirituality and Religion Review 6 (1):91-109.
    “Scientology v. the Internet” references the Church of Scientology’s ongoing struggle with Internet activists and users who attempt to access, disseminate, or modify copyrighted and trademarked church documents online. Since the mid 1990s the Church of Scientology has attempted to use copyright and trademarks to secure their sacred esoteric teachings, but Internet activists have argued that these policies transgress good “Netizen” etiquette and threaten the architecture of the digital platform as a space for the radical access and dissemination of information. (...)
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  49. Internet of Things: Toward Smart Networked Systems and Societies.Mark Underwood, Michael Gruninger, Leo Obrst, Ken Baclawski, Mike Bennett, Gary Berg-Cross, Torsten Hahmann & Ram Sriram - 2015 - Applied Ontology 10 (3-4):355-365.
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  50. Digital Rights and Freedoms: A Framework for Surveying Users and Analyzing Policies.Todd Davies - 2014 - In Luca Maria Aiello & Daniel McFarland (eds.), Social Informatics: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference (SocInfo 2014). Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 8851. pp. 428-443.
    Interest has been revived in the creation of a "bill of rights" for Internet users. This paper analyzes users' rights into ten broad principles, as a basis for assessing what users regard as important and for comparing different multi-issue Internet policy proposals. Stability of the principles is demonstrated in an experimental survey, which also shows that freedoms of users to participate in the design and coding of platforms appear to be viewed as inessential relative to other rights. An analysis of (...)
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