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  1. added 2018-12-10
    Racialization: A Defense of the Concept.Adam Hochman - forthcoming - Ethnic and Racial Studies.
    This paper defends the concept of racialization against its critics. As the concept has become increasingly popular, questions about its meaning and value have been raised, and a backlash against its use has occurred. I argue that when “racialization” is properly understood, criticisms of the concept are unsuccessful. I defend a definition of racialization and identify its companion concept, “racialized group.” Racialization is often used as a synonym for “racial formation.” I argue that this is a mistake. Racial formation theory (...)
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  2. added 2018-03-05
    In Defence of Historical Constructivism About Races.E. Diaz-Leon - 2015 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 2.
  3. added 2018-02-16
    A Theory of Race.Joshua Glasgow - 2008 - Routledge.
    Social commentators have long asked whether racial categories should be conserved or eliminated from our practices, discourse, institutions, and perhaps even private thoughts. In _A Theory of Race_, Joshua Glasgow argues that this set of choices unnecessarily presents us with too few options. Using both traditional philosophical tools and recent psychological research to investigate folk understandings of race, Glasgow argues that, as ordinarily conceived, race is an illusion. However, our pressing need to speak to and make sense of social life (...)
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  4. added 2017-10-20
    Replacing Race: Interactive Constructionism About Racialized Groups.Adam Hochman - 2017 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 4:61-92.
    In this paper I defend anti-realism about race and a new theory of racialization. I argue that there are no races, only racialized groups. Many social constructionists about race have adopted racial formation theory to explain how ‘races’ are formed. However, anti-realists about race cannot adopt racial formation theory, because it assumes the reality of race. I introduce interactive constructionism about racialized groups as a theory of racialization for anti-realists about race. Interactive constructionism moves the discussion away from the dichotomous (...)
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  5. added 2017-10-10
    In My Father's House.Kwame Anthony Appiah - 1996 - Hypatia 11 (1):175-201.
    Judeo-Christian and Anglo-Saxon forms of marriage have injected patrilineal values and companionate expectations into the Akan matrilineal family structure. As Anthony Appiah demonstrates, these infusions have generated severe strains in the matrikin social structures and, in extreme cases, resulted in the break up of families. In this essay, I investigate the ideological politics at play in this patrilinealization of Asante society.
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  6. added 2017-01-02
    Unnaturalised Racial Naturalism.Adam Hochman - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 46 (1):79-87.
    Quayshawn Spencer (2014) misunderstands my treatment of racial naturalism. I argued that racial naturalism must entail a strong claim, such as “races are subspecies”, if it is to be a substantive position that contrasts with anti-realism about biological race. My recognition that not all race naturalists make such a strong claim is evident throughout the article Spencer reviews (Hochman, 2013a). Spencer seems to agree with me that there are no human subspecies, and he endorses a weaker form of racial naturalism. (...)
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  7. added 2016-12-28
    In Defense of the Metaphysics of Race.Adam Hochman - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (11):2709–2729.
    In this paper I defend the metaphysics of race as a valuable philosophical project against deflationism about race. The deflationists argue that metaphysical debate about the reality of race amounts to a non-substantive verbal dispute that diverts attention from ethical and practical issues to do with ‘race.’ In response, I show that the deflationists mischaracterize the field and fail to capture what most metaphysicians of race actually do in their work, which is almost always pluralist and very often normative and (...)
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  8. added 2016-12-08
    The Ordinary Concept of Race.Michael O. Hardimon - 2003 - Journal of Philosophy 100 (9):437-455.
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  9. added 2016-09-19
    Gender and Race.Jennifer Saul - 2006 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 80 (1):119-143.
  10. added 2016-09-14
    Metaphors of Race: Theoretical Presuppositions Behind Racism.Stephen T. Asma - 1995 - American Philosophical Quarterly 32 (1):13 - 29.
    Philosophers and scientists have historically conceptualized race according to two main metaphors; internal differentiation (theological, philosophical and genetic), and external differentiation (environmental). This paper examines these metaphors and theories in Descartes, Kant, Hegel, and also Darwin and the subsequent racial theories of recent history. The paper argues that the externalist metaphor has a more liberal and potentially egalitarian tradition.
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  11. added 2016-06-13
    Hysteria, Race, and Phlogiston. A Model of Ontological Elimination in the Human Sciences.David Ludwig - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 45 (1):68-77.
    Elimination controversies are ubiquitous in philosophy and the human sciences. For example, it has been suggested that human races, hysteria, intelligence, mental disorder, propositional attitudes such as beliefs and desires, the self, and the super-ego should be eliminated from the list of respectable entities in the human sciences. I argue that eliminativist proposals are often presented in the framework of an oversimplified “phlogiston model” and suggest an alternative account that describes ontological elimination on a gradual scale between criticism of empirical (...)
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  12. added 2016-04-25
    Notes From the Resistance: Some Comments on Sally Haslanger's Resisting Reality.Charles W. Mills - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 171 (1):1-13.
    After a brief summary of the 17 essays in Sally Haslanger ’s collection, Resisting Reality: Social Construction and Social Critique, I raise questions in two areas, the defense of constructionism and the definition of gender and race in terms of social oppression. I cite Robin Andreasen’s and Philip Kitcher’s essays arguing that races are both biologically real and socially constructed, and also Joshua Glasgow’s claim that constructionist arguments ultimately fail. I then cite Jennifer Saul’s critique that “ oppression ” definitions (...)
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  13. added 2016-04-25
    If Not Races, Then What? Toward a Revised Understanding of Bio-Social Groupings.Lucius T. Outlaw - 2014 - Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 35 (1-2):275-296.
  14. added 2016-04-25
    “Sanguinary Amusement”: E. A. Freeman, the Comparative Method and Victorian Theories of Race.Vicky L. Morrisroe - 2013 - Modern Intellectual History 10 (1):27-56.
    This article seeks to revise the conventional portrait of the historian E. A. Freeman (1823–92) as an arch-racist and confident proponent of Aryan superiority. Focusing on the relatively obscure Comparative Politics (1873), it is argued that, while attitudes towards race were hardening in the later nineteenth century, Freeman combined the insights of the practitioners of the Comparative Method and the Liberal Anglican philosophy of Thomas Arnold to define the Aryan race as a community of culture rather than of blood. Explicitly (...)
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  15. added 2016-04-25
    The Philosophy of Race, by Atkin Albert: Durham, Acumen, 2012 Pp. Vi+ 194,£ 15.99 (Paperback).Joshua Glasgow - 2013 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-3.
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  16. added 2016-04-25
    Was Race Thinking Invented in the Modern West?Ron Mallon - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (1):77-88.
    The idea that genuinely racial thinking is a modern invention is widespread in the humanities and social sciences. However, it is not always clear exactly what the content of such a conceptual break is supposed to be. One suggestion is that with the scientific revolution emerged a conception of human groups that possessed essences that were thought to explain group-typical features of individuals as well the accumulated products of cultures or civilizations. However, recent work by cognitive and evolutionary psychologists suggests (...)
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  17. added 2016-04-25
    Biological Races in Humans.Alan R. Templeton - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (3):262-271.
    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of (...)
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  18. added 2016-04-25
    The Philosophy of Race, by Atkin Albert.Joshua Glasgow - 2013 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (4):799-801.
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  19. added 2016-04-25
    Joshua Glasgow, A Theory of Race (New York: Routledge, 2009).Tom Martin - 2012 - Philosophical Papers 41 (1):175-179.
  20. added 2016-04-25
    Monahan on the Ontology of Race: Race, Being, and Purity.Clevis Headley - 2012 - Clr James Journal 18 (1):203-211.
  21. added 2016-04-25
    De l'Évolution, des Races Et des Hommes.Jean-Claude Mounolou & Dominique Planchenault - 2009 - Natures Sciences Sociétés 17 (2):111-112.
  22. added 2016-04-25
    Review of Glasgow, Joshua, A Theory of Race[REVIEW]Eddy M. Souffrant - 2009 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2009 (6).
  23. added 2016-04-25
    4.'Race': Normative, Not Metaphysical or Semantic 'Race': Normative, Not Metaphysical or Semantic (Pp. 525-551).Alan H. Goldman, Harry Brighouse, Adam Swift & Sarah Stroud - 2006 - Ethics 116 (3).
  24. added 2016-04-25
    Biological Views Of The Inexistence Of Human Races.Silviene Oliveira & Luzitano Ferreira - 2004 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 14 (2):60-63.
    In biology, race can be defined as a geographically bounded population showing accentuated genetic differentiation. It is believed that the division of human species into "races" presents solid biological base. However, there are problems over using this term. The present work aims to point out some of the difficulties of using the concept of races for the human species, using a biological approach. The race concept is typological, imprecise, based on subjective concepts, and can suffer different interpretations according to the (...)
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  25. added 2016-04-25
    The Moral and Intellectual Diversity of Races.Arthur Gobineau & Robert Bernasconi - 2002
  26. added 2016-04-25
    Racial Concepts: An Epistemological and Ethical Critique.Katherine D. Witzig - 2000 - Dissertation, Brown University
    In this work, I examine the meaning of the concept "race." I pose two basic questions: What, if anything, are we justified in claiming to know, based upon racial classification? and What, if any, are our ethical responsibilities, given the state of our knowledge and given the uses of the concept "race" in the United States? ;The first question raises issues as to the ontological and epistemological grounds for our beliefs about the significance of racial classifications. In this regard, I (...)
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  27. added 2016-04-25
    Rending the Veil: A Critical Look at the Ontology and Conservation of "Race".Ronald Robles Sundstrom - 1999 - Dissertation, University of Minnesota
    In Rending The Veil: A Critical Look at the Ontology & Conservation of "Race," I explore the nature and existence of "race" and the question of whether the social use of racial classification ought to continue. The principal vehicle for my exploration is W. E. B. Du Bois's landmark 1897 essay "The Conservation Of Races." It is Du Bois' thesis in that essay, along with the criticism and the support it has met, that forms the focus of my work. This (...)
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  28. added 2016-04-25
    Le Mythe des Races.Marie-Christine Leclerc - 1993 - Kernos 6:207-224.
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  29. added 2016-04-25
    The Races of Europe.J. C. Trevor - 1940 - The Eugenics Review 32 (3):91.
  30. added 2016-04-25
    Boas, Franz, Race, Language and Culture.Wittfogel Wittfogel - 1939 - Studies in Philosophy and Social Science 8:481.
  31. added 2016-04-25
    Is Race a Reality?E. W. Macbride - 1936 - Hibbert Journal 35:531.
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  32. added 2016-04-25
    The Primitive Races of Mankind. [REVIEW]A. R. Radcliffe-Brown - 1927 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 5 (1):72.
  33. added 2016-04-25
    The Human Harvest, a Study of the Decay of Races.David Starr Jordan - 1907
  34. added 2016-04-25
    Race and Custom in the Malay Archipelago.Margaretta Morris - 1906 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 27:195-216.
  35. added 2016-04-25
    Races and Peoples.Daniel G. Brinton - 1890 - The Monist 1:131.
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  36. added 2016-04-11
    Philosophy and the Mixed Race Experience.Tina Fernandes Botts (ed.) - 2016 - Lexington Books.
    This book explores the experiences and philosophical work product of mixed race philosophers, as well as possible links between the two. Some books address mixed-race identity, and some anthologies focus on mixed-race identity, but this is the first anthology on the philosophy of mixed-race, and the first anthology by mixed-race philosophers.
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  37. added 2016-04-10
    Race: Deflate or Pop?Adam Hochman - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 57.
    Neven Sesardic has recently defended his arguments in favour of racial naturalism—the view that race is a valid biological category—in response to my criticism of his work. While Sesardic claims that a strong version of racial naturalism can survive critique, he has in fact weakened his position considerably. He concedes that conventional racial taxonomy is arbitrary and he no longer identifies ‘races’ as human subspecies. Sesardic now relies almost entirely on Theodosius Dobzhansky’s notion of race-as-population. This weak approach to ‘race’—according (...)
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  38. added 2016-01-22
    Of Vikings and Nazis: Norwegian Contributions to the Rise and the Fall of the Idea of a Superior Aryan Race.Adam Hochman - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 54:84-88.
    Nazi ideology was premised on a belief in the superiority of the Germanic race. However, the idea of a superior Germanic race was not invented by the Nazis. By the beginning of the 20th century this idea had already gained not only popular but also mainstream scientific support in England, Germany, the U.S., Scandinavia, and other parts of the world in which people claimed Germanic origins (p. xiii). Yet how could this idea, which is now recognised as ideology of the (...)
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  39. added 2016-01-22
    Racial Discrimination: How Not to Do It.Adam Hochman - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C (3):278-286.
    The UNESCO Statements on Race of the early 1950s are understood to have marked a consensus amongst natural scientists and social scientists that ‘race’ is a social construct. Human biological diversity was shown to be predominantly clinal, or gradual, not discreet, and clustered, as racial naturalism implied. From the seventies social constructionists added that the vast majority of human genetic diversity resides within any given racialised group. While social constructionism about race became the majority consensus view on the topic, social (...)
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  40. added 2015-11-19
    Review of Sally Haslanger, Resisting Reality: Social Construction and Social Critique. [REVIEW]Theodore Bach - 2014 - Ethics 124 (3):612-617.
    There has been a significant amount of research, from a variety of disciplines, targeting the nature and political status of human categories such as woman, man, Black, and Latino. The result is a tangle of concepts and distinctions that often obscure more than clarify the subject matter. This incentivizes the creation of fresh terms and distinctions that might disentangle the old, but too often these efforts just add to the snarl. The process iterates, miscommunication becomes standard, and insufficiently vetted concepts (...)
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  41. added 2015-09-23
    The Philosophy of Race.Albert Atkin - 2012 - Routledge.
    "Race" is so highly charged and loaded a concept it often hampers critical thinking about racial practice and policy. A philosophical approach allows us to isolate and analyse the key questions: What is race? Can we do without race? What is racism and why is it wrong? What should our policies on race and racism be? The Philosophy of Race presents a concise and up-to-date overview of the central philosophical debates about race. It then builds on this philosophical foundation to (...)
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  42. added 2015-09-11
    Race as a Physiosocial Phenomenon.Catherine Kendig - 2011 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 33 (2):191-222.
    This paper offers both a criticism of and a novel alternative perspective on current ontologies that take race to be something that is either static and wholly evident at one’s birth or preformed prior to it. In it I survey and critically assess six of the most popular conceptions of race, concluding with an outline of my own suggestion for an alternative account. I suggest that race can be best understood in terms of one’s experience of his or her body, (...)
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  43. added 2014-09-05
    Dr. Tansill on Racial Theory.Friedrich Baerwald - 1940 - Thought: Fordham University Quarterly 15 (4):758-760.
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  44. added 2014-08-25
    A Radical Solution to the Race Problem.Quayshawn Spencer - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (5):1025-1038.
    It has become customary among philosophers and biologists to claim that folk racial classification has no biological basis. This paper attempts to debunk that view. In this paper, I show that ‘race’, as used in current U.S. race talk, picks out a biologically real entity. I do this by, first, showing that ‘race’, in this use, is not a kind term, but a proper name for a set of human population groups. Next, using recent human genetic clustering results, I show (...)
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  45. added 2014-05-13
    Criticizing Social Reality From Within: Haslanger on Race, Gender, and Ideology.Titus Stahl - 2014 - Krisis: Journal for Contemporary Philosophy (1):5-12.
    This paper critically evaluates the semantic externalist conception of Race and Gender concepts put forward in Sally Haslanger's 2012 essay collection "Resisting Reality". I argue that her endorsement of "objective type externalism" limits the options for critique compared to social externalist approaches.
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  46. added 2014-04-21
    Less Than Human: Why We Demean, Enslave, and Exterminate Others.David Livingstone Smith - 2011 - St. Martins Press.
  47. added 2014-04-02
    The Concept of Socialrace.Michael O. Hardimon - 2013 - Philosophy and Social Criticism (1):0191453713498252.
    Explication of the concept of socialrace: the concept variously refers to (1) a social group that is taken to be a racialist race, (2) the social position occupied by a particular social group that is a socialrace and (3) the system of social positions that are socialraces. Socialrace is distinguished from other more familiar forms of social construction. The sense in which socialrace counts as a race concept is explained. The advantages of the term ‘socialrace’ are discussed. The desiderata for (...)
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  48. added 2014-04-02
    Racial Identity and Non-Essentialism About Race.Anna Stubblefield - 1995 - Social Theory and Practice 21 (3):341-368.
  49. added 2014-03-19
    A Third Way in the Race Debate.Joshua Glasgow - 2006 - Journal of Political Philosophy 14 (2):163–185.
  50. added 2014-03-19
    ‘Race': Normative, Not Metaphysical or Semantic.Ron Mallon - 2006 - Ethics 116 (3):525-551.
    In recent years, there has been a flurry of work on the metaphysics of race. While it is now widely accepted that races do not share robust, bio-behavioral essences, opinions differ over what, if anything, race is. Recent work has been divided between three apparently quite different answers. A variety of theorists argue for racial skepticism, the view that races do not exist at all.[iv] A second group defends racial constructionism, holding that races are in some way socially constructed.[v],[vi] And (...)
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