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  1. added 2020-02-09
    Is “Race” Modern? Disambiguating the Question.Adam Hochman - 2020 - du Bois Review 1:1-19.
    Race theorists have been unable to reach a consensus regarding the basic historical question, “is ‘race’ modern?” I argue that this is partly because the question itself is ambiguous. There is not really one question that race scholars are answering, but at least six. First, is the concept of race modern? Second, is there a modern concept of race that is distinct from earlier race concepts? Third, are “races” themselves modern? Fourth, are racialized groups modern? Fifth, are the means and (...)
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  2. added 2019-09-24
    Basic Racial Realism.Joshua Glasgow & Jonathan M. Woodward - 2015 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 1 (3):449--466.
    In the debate over the reality of race, a three-way dispute has become entrenched: race is biologically real, socially real, or simply not real. These three theses have each enjoyed increasingly sophisticated defenses over roughly the past thirty years, but we argue here that this debate contains a lacuna: there is a fourth, mostly neglected, position that we call ‘basic racial realism.’ Basic racial realism says that though race is neither biologically real nor socially real, it is real all the (...)
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  3. added 2019-09-24
    Symposia on Gender, Race and Philosophy.Joshua Glasgow - 2009 - In David Papineau (ed.), Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 5--2.
    A response by the author of A Theory of Race, to review essays by Michael Hardimon, Sally Haslanger, Ron Mallon, and Naomi Zack.
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  4. added 2019-09-09
    What is Race?: Four Philosophical Views.Joshua Glasgow, Sally Haslanger, Chike Jeffers & Quayshawn Spencer - 2019 - Oup Usa.
    In this debate-format book, four philosophers--Joshua Glasgow, Sally Haslanger, Chike Jeffers, and Quayshawn Spencer--articulate contrasting views on race. Each author presents a distinct viewpoint on what race is, and then replies to the others, offering theories that are clear and accessible to undergraduates, lay readers, and non-specialists, as well as other philosophers of race.
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  5. added 2019-09-09
    Racial Realism II: Are Folk Races Real?Quayshawn Spencer - 2018 - Philosophy Compass 13 (1).
    This article is Part II in a pair of articles on racial realism. In Part I, I defined “racial realism” and discussed the major attempts in the past twenty years among metaphysicians of race and biologists to defend racial realism from the viewpoint of what biologists mean by “race.” In this article, I continue discussing and critiquing how metaphysicians of race have conceived of and defended racial realism, but with a focus on how ordinary people use “race.” I focus on (...)
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  6. added 2019-09-09
    Racial Realism I: Are Biological Races Real?Quayshawn Spencer - 2018 - Philosophy Compass 13 (1).
    In this article, I discuss and critique how metaphysicians of race have conceived of and defended racial realism according to how biologists use “race”. I start by defining “racial realism” in the broadest accepted way in the metaphysics of race. Next, I summarize a representative sample of recent attempts from metaphysicians of race and biologists to defend racial realism and the main criticisms against each attempt. I discuss how metaphysicians of race have defended racial realism according to how ordinary people (...)
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  7. added 2019-07-16
    Beyond the Realism Debate: The Metaphysics of ‘Racial’ Distinctions.Olivier0 Lemeire - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 59:47-56.
    The current metaphysical race debate is very much focused on the realism question whether races exist. In this paper I argue against the importance of this question. Philosophers, biologists and anthropologists expect that answering this question will tell them something substantive about the metaphysics of racial classifications, and will help them to decide whether it is justified to use racial categories in scientific research and public policy. I argue that there are two reasons why these expectations are not fulfilled. First (...)
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  8. added 2019-06-06
    Was Race Thinking Invented in the Modern West?Ron Mallon - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (1):77-88.
    The idea that genuinely racial thinking is a modern invention is widespread in the humanities and social sciences. However, it is not always clear exactly what the content of such a conceptual break is supposed to be. One suggestion is that with the scientific revolution emerged a conception of human groups that possessed essences that were thought to explain group-typical features of individuals as well the accumulated products of cultures or civilizations. However, recent work by cognitive and evolutionary psychologists suggests (...)
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  9. added 2019-06-06
    Biological Races in Humans.Alan R. Templeton - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (3):262-271.
    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of (...)
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  10. added 2019-06-06
    “Sanguinary Amusement”: E. A. Freeman, the Comparative Method and Victorian Theories of Race.Vicky L. Morrisroe - 2013 - Modern Intellectual History 10 (1):27-56.
    This article seeks to revise the conventional portrait of the historian E. A. Freeman as an arch-racist and confident proponent of Aryan superiority. Focusing on the relatively obscure Comparative Politics, it is argued that, while attitudes towards race were hardening in the later nineteenth century, Freeman combined the insights of the practitioners of the Comparative Method and the Liberal Anglican philosophy of Thomas Arnold to define the Aryan race as a community of culture rather than of blood. Explicitly rejecting biological (...)
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  11. added 2019-04-21
    Racializing Races: The Racialized Groups of Interactive Constructionism Do Not Undermine Social Theories of Race.Phila Msimang - 2019 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 6.
    Adam Hochman has recently argued for comprehensive anti-realism about race against social kind theories of race. He points out that sceptics, often taken as archetypical anti-realists, may admit race in certain circumstances even if they are eliminativists about race. To be comprehensively anti-realist about races, which also means rejecting all ‘race talk’, he suggests that racial formation theory should be abandoned in favour of interactive constructionism. Interactive constructionism argues for the reality of racialized individuals and racialized groups to the exclusion (...)
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  12. added 2019-04-06
    Race and Reference.Adam Hochman - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (2):32.
    The biological race debate is at an impasse. Issues surrounding hereditarianism aside, there is little empirical disagreement left between race naturalists and anti-realists about biological race. The disagreement is now primarily semantic. This would seem to uniquely qualify philosophers to contribute to the biological race debate. However, philosophers of race are reluctant to focus on semantics, largely because of their worries about the ‘flight to reference’. In this paper, I show how philosophers can contribute to the debate without taking the (...)
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  13. added 2018-12-10
    Racialization: A Defense of the Concept.Adam Hochman - 2019 - Ethnic and Racial Studies 42 (8):1245-1262.
    This paper defends the concept of racialization against its critics. As the concept has become increasingly popular, questions about its meaning and value have been raised, and a backlash against its use has occurred. I argue that when “racialization” is properly understood, criticisms of the concept are unsuccessful. I defend a definition of racialization and identify its companion concept, “racialized group.” Racialization is often used as a synonym for “racial formation.” I argue that this is a mistake. Racial formation theory (...)
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  14. added 2018-03-05
    In Defence of Historical Constructivism About Races.E. Diaz-Leon - 2015 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 2.
  15. added 2018-02-16
    A Theory of Race.Joshua Glasgow - 2008 - Routledge.
    Social commentators have long asked whether racial categories should be conserved or eliminated from our practices, discourse, institutions, and perhaps even private thoughts. In _A Theory of Race_, Joshua Glasgow argues that this set of choices unnecessarily presents us with too few options. Using both traditional philosophical tools and recent psychological research to investigate folk understandings of race, Glasgow argues that, as ordinarily conceived, race is an illusion. However, our pressing need to speak to and make sense of social life (...)
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  16. added 2017-10-20
    Replacing Race: Interactive Constructionism About Racialized Groups.Adam Hochman - 2017 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 4:61-92.
    In this paper I defend anti-realism about race and a new theory of racialization. I argue that there are no races, only racialized groups. Many social constructionists about race have adopted racial formation theory to explain how ‘races’ are formed. However, anti-realists about race cannot adopt racial formation theory, because it assumes the reality of race. I introduce interactive constructionism about racialized groups as a theory of racialization for anti-realists about race. Interactive constructionism moves the discussion away from the dichotomous (...)
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  17. added 2017-10-10
    In My Father's House.Kwame Anthony Appiah - 1996 - Hypatia 11 (1):175-201.
    Judeo-Christian and Anglo-Saxon forms of marriage have injected patrilineal values and companionate expectations into the Akan matrilineal family structure. As Anthony Appiah demonstrates, these infusions have generated severe strains in the matrikin social structures and, in extreme cases, resulted in the break up of families. In this essay, I investigate the ideological politics at play in this patrilinealization of Asante society.
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  18. added 2017-01-02
    Unnaturalised Racial Naturalism.Adam Hochman - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 46 (1):79-87.
    Quayshawn Spencer (2014) misunderstands my treatment of racial naturalism. I argued that racial naturalism must entail a strong claim, such as “races are subspecies”, if it is to be a substantive position that contrasts with anti-realism about biological race. My recognition that not all race naturalists make such a strong claim is evident throughout the article Spencer reviews (Hochman, 2013a). Spencer seems to agree with me that there are no human subspecies, and he endorses a weaker form of racial naturalism. (...)
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  19. added 2016-12-28
    In Defense of the Metaphysics of Race.Adam Hochman - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (11):2709–2729.
    In this paper I defend the metaphysics of race as a valuable philosophical project against deflationism about race. The deflationists argue that metaphysical debate about the reality of race amounts to a non-substantive verbal dispute that diverts attention from ethical and practical issues to do with ‘race.’ In response, I show that the deflationists mischaracterize the field and fail to capture what most metaphysicians of race actually do in their work, which is almost always pluralist and very often normative and (...)
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  20. added 2016-12-08
    The Ordinary Concept of Race.Michael O. Hardimon - 2003 - Journal of Philosophy 100 (9):437-455.
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  21. added 2016-09-19
    Gender and Race.Jennifer Saul - 2006 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 80 (1):119-143.
  22. added 2016-09-14
    Metaphors of Race: Theoretical Presuppositions Behind Racism.Stephen T. Asma - 1995 - American Philosophical Quarterly 32 (1):13 - 29.
    Philosophers and scientists have historically conceptualized race according to two main metaphors; internal differentiation (theological, philosophical and genetic), and external differentiation (environmental). This paper examines these metaphors and theories in Descartes, Kant, Hegel, and also Darwin and the subsequent racial theories of recent history. The paper argues that the externalist metaphor has a more liberal and potentially egalitarian tradition.
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  23. added 2016-06-13
    Hysteria, Race, and Phlogiston. A Model of Ontological Elimination in the Human Sciences.David Ludwig - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 45 (1):68-77.
    Elimination controversies are ubiquitous in philosophy and the human sciences. For example, it has been suggested that human races, hysteria, intelligence, mental disorder, propositional attitudes such as beliefs and desires, the self, and the super-ego should be eliminated from the list of respectable entities in the human sciences. I argue that eliminativist proposals are often presented in the framework of an oversimplified “phlogiston model” and suggest an alternative account that describes ontological elimination on a gradual scale between criticism of empirical (...)
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  24. added 2016-04-25
    If Not Races, Then What? Toward a Revised Understanding of Bio-Social Groupings.Lucius T. Outlaw - 2014 - Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 35 (1-2):275-296.
  25. added 2016-04-25
    Notes From the Resistance: Some Comments on Sally Haslanger’s Resisting Reality.Charles W. Mills - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 171 (1):1-13.
    After a brief summary of the 17 essays in Sally Haslanger ’s collection, Resisting Reality: Social Construction and Social Critique, I raise questions in two areas, the defense of constructionism and the definition of gender and race in terms of social oppression. I cite Robin Andreasen’s and Philip Kitcher’s essays arguing that races are both biologically real and socially constructed, and also Joshua Glasgow’s claim that constructionist arguments ultimately fail. I then cite Jennifer Saul’s critique that “ oppression ” definitions (...)
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  26. added 2016-04-25
    The Philosophy of Race, by Atkin Albert: Durham, Acumen, 2012 Pp. Vi+ 194,£ 15.99 (Paperback).Joshua Glasgow - 2013 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (4):1-3.
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  27. added 2016-04-25
    The Philosophy of Race, by Atkin Albert: Durham, Acumen, 2012 Pp. Vi + 194, £15.99.Joshua Glasgow - 2013 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (4):799-801.
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  28. added 2016-04-25
    Monahan on the Ontology of Race: Race, Being, and Purity.Clevis Headley - 2012 - Clr James Journal 18 (1):203-211.
  29. added 2016-04-25
    Joshua Glasgow, A Theory of Race (New York: Routledge, 2009).Tom Martin - 2012 - Philosophical Papers 41 (1):175-179.
  30. added 2016-04-25
    De l'Évolution, des Races Et des Hommes.Jean-Claude Mounolou & Dominique Planchenault - 2009 - Natures Sciences Sociétés 17 (2):111-112.
  31. added 2016-04-25
    Review of Glasgow, Joshua, A Theory of Race[REVIEW]Eddy M. Souffrant - 2009 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2009 (6).
  32. added 2016-04-25
    4.'Race': Normative, Not Metaphysical or Semantic 'Race': Normative, Not Metaphysical or Semantic (Pp. 525-551).Alan H. Goldman, Harry Brighouse, Adam Swift & Sarah Stroud - 2006 - Ethics 116 (3).
  33. added 2016-04-25
    Biological Views Of The Inexistence Of Human Races.Silviene Oliveira & Luzitano Ferreira - 2004 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 14 (2):60-63.
    In biology, race can be defined as a geographically bounded population showing accentuated genetic differentiation. It is believed that the division of human species into "races" presents solid biological base. However, there are problems over using this term. The present work aims to point out some of the difficulties of using the concept of races for the human species, using a biological approach. The race concept is typological, imprecise, based on subjective concepts, and can suffer different interpretations according to the (...)
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  34. added 2016-04-25
    The Moral and Intellectual Diversity of Races.Arthur Gobineau & Robert Bernasconi - 2002
  35. added 2016-04-25
    Racial Concepts: An Epistemological and Ethical Critique.Katherine D. Witzig - 2000 - Dissertation, Brown University
    In this work, I examine the meaning of the concept "race." I pose two basic questions: What, if anything, are we justified in claiming to know, based upon racial classification? and What, if any, are our ethical responsibilities, given the state of our knowledge and given the uses of the concept "race" in the United States? ;The first question raises issues as to the ontological and epistemological grounds for our beliefs about the significance of racial classifications. In this regard, I (...)
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  36. added 2016-04-25
    Rending the Veil: A Critical Look at the Ontology and Conservation of "Race".Ronald Robles Sundstrom - 1999 - Dissertation, University of Minnesota
    In Rending The Veil: A Critical Look at the Ontology & Conservation of "Race," I explore the nature and existence of "race" and the question of whether the social use of racial classification ought to continue. The principal vehicle for my exploration is W. E. B. Du Bois's landmark 1897 essay "The Conservation Of Races." It is Du Bois' thesis in that essay, along with the criticism and the support it has met, that forms the focus of my work. This (...)
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  37. added 2016-04-25
    Le Mythe des Races.Marie-Christine Leclerc - 1993 - Kernos 6:207-224.
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  38. added 2016-04-25
    The Races of Europe.J. C. Trevor - 1940 - The Eugenics Review 32 (3):91.
  39. added 2016-04-25
    Boas, Franz, Race, Language and Culture.Wittfogel Wittfogel - 1939 - Studies in Philosophy and Social Science 8:481.
  40. added 2016-04-25
    Is Race a Reality?E. W. Macbride - 1936 - Hibbert Journal 35:531.
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  41. added 2016-04-25
    The Primitive Races of Mankind. [REVIEW]A. R. Radcliffe-Brown - 1927 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 5 (1):72.
  42. added 2016-04-25
    The Human Harvest, a Study of the Decay of Races.David Starr Jordan - 1907
  43. added 2016-04-25
    Race and Custom in the Malay Archipelago.Margaretta Morris - 1906 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 27:195-216.
  44. added 2016-04-25
    Races and Peoples.Daniel G. Brinton - 1890 - The Monist 1:131.
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  45. added 2016-04-11
    Philosophy and the Mixed Race Experience.Tina Fernandes Botts (ed.) - 2016 - Lexington Books.
    This book explores the experiences and philosophical work product of mixed race philosophers, as well as possible links between the two. Some books address mixed-race identity, and some anthologies focus on mixed-race identity, but this is the first anthology on the philosophy of mixed-race, and the first anthology by mixed-race philosophers.
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  46. added 2016-04-10
    Race: Deflate or Pop?Adam Hochman - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 57.
    Neven Sesardic has recently defended his arguments in favour of racial naturalism—the view that race is a valid biological category—in response to my criticism of his work. While Sesardic claims that a strong version of racial naturalism can survive critique, he has in fact weakened his position considerably. He concedes that conventional racial taxonomy is arbitrary and he no longer identifies ‘races’ as human subspecies. Sesardic now relies almost entirely on Theodosius Dobzhansky’s notion of race-as-population. This weak approach to ‘race’—according (...)
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  47. added 2016-01-22
    Of Vikings and Nazis: Norwegian Contributions to the Rise and the Fall of the Idea of a Superior Aryan Race.Adam Hochman - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 54:84-88.
    Nazi ideology was premised on a belief in the superiority of the Germanic race. However, the idea of a superior Germanic race was not invented by the Nazis. By the beginning of the 20th century this idea had already gained not only popular but also mainstream scientific support in England, Germany, the U.S., Scandinavia, and other parts of the world in which people claimed Germanic origins (p. xiii). Yet how could this idea, which is now recognised as ideology of the (...)
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  48. added 2016-01-22
    Racial Discrimination: How Not to Do It.Adam Hochman - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences (3):278-286.
    The UNESCO Statements on Race of the early 1950s are understood to have marked a consensus amongst natural scientists and social scientists that ‘race’ is a social construct. Human biological diversity was shown to be predominantly clinal, or gradual, not discreet, and clustered, as racial naturalism implied. From the seventies social constructionists added that the vast majority of human genetic diversity resides within any given racialised group. While social constructionism about race became the majority consensus view on the topic, social (...)
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  49. added 2015-11-19
    Review of Sally Haslanger, Resisting Reality: Social Construction and Social Critique. [REVIEW]Theodore Bach - 2014 - Ethics 124 (3):612-617.
    There has been a significant amount of research, from a variety of disciplines, targeting the nature and political status of human categories such as woman, man, Black, and Latino. The result is a tangle of concepts and distinctions that often obscure more than clarify the subject matter. This incentivizes the creation of fresh terms and distinctions that might disentangle the old, but too often these efforts just add to the snarl. The process iterates, miscommunication becomes standard, and insufficiently vetted concepts (...)
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  50. added 2015-09-23
    The Philosophy of Race.Albert Atkin - 2012 - Routledge.
    "Race" is so highly charged and loaded a concept it often hampers critical thinking about racial practice and policy. A philosophical approach allows us to isolate and analyse the key questions: What is race? Can we do without race? What is racism and why is it wrong? What should our policies on race and racism be? The Philosophy of Race presents a concise and up-to-date overview of the central philosophical debates about race. It then builds on this philosophical foundation to (...)
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