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Summary

The ‘naturalistic fallacy’ has been variously identified with the claim that: (i) moral concepts can be defined in terms of non-moral, natural, or metaphysical concepts (the semantic form of the fallacy), (ii) moral properties can be identified with complex, non-moral, natural, or metaphysical properties (the ontological form), (iii) substantive moral conclusions (‘oughts’) can be derived from wholly non-moral premises (‘is-es’; the inferential or Humean form of the fallacy). The phrase was coined by Moore, who did not sharply distinguish between concepts and properties, and who focused on goodness, which he took to be fundamental and simple. Moore’s argument for thinking that the fallacy is a fallacy (i.e. false) is the open question argument. Replies to Moore include the claim that his argument begs the question, that it precludes any informative analysis (the paradox of analysis) and that it establishes only the indefinability of moral concepts, not the irreducibility of moral properties.   

Key works

Moore introduces the naturalistic fallacy in Moore 1903 (section 10), although he later expressed dissatisfaction which his formulation there, and tried to improve on it in a preface to a never-completed second edition (reprinted in Baldwin 1993). Frankena 1939 argues that Moore’s argument is question-begging; Snare 1975 responds. Jackson 1998 (chapter 6) and Smith 1994 (chapter 2) defend analytic naturalism against Moore, highlighting Moore’s paradox of analysis. Durrant 1970 is an early statement of a view which accepts the indefinability of moral concepts but not the irreducibility of moral properties – pursued at length in Boyd 1988. Darwall et al 1992 provides an overview of the influence of Moore’s arguments on metaethics and Baldwin 1990 (chapter 3) gives a detailed account how the fallacy fits in to Moore’s wider philosophical views. A forthcoming collection is Sinclair 2018.

Introductions Pigden 1991, Sturgeon 1998
Related categories

121 found
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1 — 50 / 121
  1. added 2020-04-16
    Moral Notions, with Three Papers on Plato.Alan Tapper, R. E. Ewin & Julius Kovesi (eds.) - 2004 - Christchurch, NZ: Cybereditions.
    Morality is often thought of as non-rational or sub-rational. In Moral Notions, first published in 1967, Julius Kovesi argues that the rationality of morality is built into the way we construct moral concepts. In showing this he also resolves the old Humean conundrum of the relation between 'facts' and 'values'. And he puts forward a method of reasoning that might make 'applied ethics' (at present largely a hodge-podge of opinions) into a constructive discipline. Kovesi's general theory of concepts - important (...)
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  2. added 2019-12-28
    Analitik Etiğin Babası Kimdi? George Edward Moore’un DNA Testi (translation by Hatice Altıntaş).Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 2013 - Felsefi Düsün 1 (1):5-31.
    I reconstruct the background of ideas, concerns and intentions out of which Moore’s early essays, the preliminary version, and then the final version of Principia Ethica originated. I stress the role of religious concerns, as well as that of the Idealist legacy. I argue that PE is more a patchwork of rather diverging contributions than a unitary work, not to say the paradigm of a new school in Ethics. I add a comparison with Rashdall’s almost contemporary ethical work, suggesting that (...)
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  3. added 2019-12-27
    Lei de Hume e falácia naturalista.Ricardo Tavares Da Silva - 2016 - Anatomia Do Crime 4:187-204.
  4. added 2019-12-12
    Evolutionary Ethics.Michael Klenk - 2019 - Introduction to Philosophy: Ethics.
    This chapter first introduces naturalistic approaches to ethics more generally and distinguishes methodological ethical naturalism (the focus of this chapter), from metaphysical ethical naturalism. The second part then discusses evolutionary ethics as a specific variant of methodological ethical naturalism. After introducing the concepts of evolutionary theory that are relevant for evolutionary ethics, I will sketch the history of evolutionary ethics, which offers an interesting lesson about why it became a controversial topic, and then focus on four central questions about ethics (...)
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  5. added 2019-06-16
    On Appeals to Nature and Their Use in the Public Controversy Over Genetically Modified Organisms.Andrei Moldovan - 2018 - Informal Logic 38 (3):409-437.
    In this paper I discuss appeals to nature, a particular kind of argument that has received little attention in argumentation theory. After a quick review of the existing literature, I focus on the use of such arguments in the public controversy over the acceptabil-ity of genetically-modified organisms in the food industry. Those who reject this biotechnology invoke its unnatural character. Such arguments have re-ceived attention in bioethics, where they have been analyzed by distinguishing different meanings that “nature” and “natural” might (...)
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  6. added 2019-06-06
    The Possibility of Metaphysics: Environmental Ethics and the Naturalistic Fallacy.Andrew J. Kerr - 2000 - Environmental Ethics 22 (1):85-99.
    One of the most distinguishing features of environmental ethics has been the effort to develop a nonanthropocentric intrinsic value theory, that is, a definition of the good which is not dependent upon some quality particular to humanity, a definition of the good whereby properties found in the terrestrial, nonhuman world are constitutive of that definition. In this paper, I argue that major nonanthropocentric theories suffer from arbitrariness. I argue through the use of representative thinkers that much nonathropocentric theory has committed (...)
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  7. added 2019-06-06
    Diagnosing the Naturalistic Fallacy: Principia Ethica Reuisited.Darryl F. Wright - 1994 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 32 (4):465-482.
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  8. added 2019-06-06
    Burying Moore's Naturalistic Fallacy.Dennis Rohatyn - 1982 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 56:173.
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  9. added 2019-06-05
    From Ought to Is: Physics and the Naturalistic Fallacy.Matthew Stanley - 2014 - Isis 105 (3):588-595.
    In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries there were many attempts to justify political and social systems on the basis of physics and astronomy. By the early twentieth century such moves increasingly also integrated the life and social sciences. The physical sciences gradually became less appealing as a sole source for sociopolitical thought. The details of this transition help explain the contemporary reluctance to capitalize on an ostensibly rich opportunity for naturalistic social reasoning: the anthropic principle in cosmology, which deals with (...)
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  10. added 2019-06-05
    The Naturalistic Fallacy Is Modern.Lorraine Daston - 2014 - Isis 105 (3):579-587.
    The naturalistic fallacy appears to be ubiquitous and irresistible. The avant-garde and the rearguard, the devout and the secular, the learned elite and the lay public all seem to want to enlist nature on their side, everywhere and always. Yet a closer look at the history of the term “naturalistic fallacy” and its associated arguments suggests that this way of understanding appeals to nature’s authority in human affairs is of relatively modern origin. To apply this category cross-historically masks considerable variability (...)
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  11. added 2019-06-05
    Falácia naturalista e naturalismo moral: do é ao deve mediante o quero.Adriano Naves de Brito - 2010 - Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 51 (121):215-226.
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  12. added 2019-06-02
    Peter Geach's Ethics.Katharina Nieswandt - forthcoming - In Hähnel Martin (ed.), Aristotelian Naturalism: A Research Companion. Dordrecht: Springer.
    Geach is best known for his contributions to theoretical philosophy: Most of his more than one hundred papers and a dozen books are on logic, philosophy of language and metaphysics. But he also made significant contributions to ethics. Particularly influential were a series of short metaethics papers, which are small masterpieces, both in terms of philosophical content and style. In usually less than ten pages, Geach delivers sharp analyses and powerful objections against influential schools. His arguments are always so clear (...)
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  13. added 2019-05-19
    Einleitung.Falk Hamann & Peter Heuer - 2019 - In Falk Hamann & Peter Heuer (eds.), Die ontologischen Grundlagen der aristotelischen Ethik. Leipzig, Germany: pp. 9–17.
    Diese Einleitung skizziert verschiedene Problemfelder des Verhältnisses von Ethik und Ontologie bei Aristoteles und diskutiert überblicksartig entsprechende Lösungsansätze, die innerhalb des zeitgenössischen Neo-Aristotelismus entwickelt wurden.
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  14. added 2019-04-08
    L'etica analitica dalla legge di Hume al principio di Kant.Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 2004 - In Angelo Campodonico (ed.), Tra legge e virtù. La filosofia pratica angloamericana contemporanea. Genova, Italy: Il melangolo. pp. 9-46.
    I reconstruct a plot in the twentieth-century Anglo-Saxon ethical discussion. I discuss first the reasons why in the first half of the twentieth century the claim of a neutral character of metaethics vis-a-vis normative ethics was generally accepted; then I discuss the reasons for a U-turn that took place in 1958, which brought back to the forefront two traditional schools of normative ethics, Kantian and Utilitarian, and the reasons for criticism from the new school of virtue ethics. I conclude by (...)
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  15. added 2019-03-14
    Anscombe on the Mesmeric Force of ‘Ought’ and a Spurious Kind of Moral Realism.Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 2017 - Etica E Politica 19 (2):51-86.
    I discuss the second of the three theses advanced by Anscombe in ‘Modern Moral Philosophy’. The focus is the nature of entities to which – if Anscombe’s diagnosis is correct – ought and cognate modals are assumed by modern moral philosophers to refer. I reconstruct the alternative account offered by Anscombe of viable and justified ‘Aristotelian’ modals – as contrasted with mysterious and unjustified ‘Kantian’ modals; I discuss the nature and status of ‘Aristotelian necessity’ to which such legitimate modals refer (...)
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  16. added 2019-01-25
    The Naturalistic Fallacy.Neil Sinclair (ed.) - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    At the turn of the twentieth century, G.E. Moore contemptuously dismissed most previous 'ethical systems' for committing the 'Naturalistic Fallacy'. This fallacy – which has been variously understood, but has almost always been seen as something to avoid – was perhaps the greatest structuring force on subsequent ethical theorising. To a large extent, to understand the Fallacy is to understand contemporary ethics. This volume aims to provide that understanding. Its thematic chapters – written by a range of distinguished contributors – (...)
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  17. added 2018-08-23
    Naturalismo Moral e Normatividade: Uma investigação sobre as origens e os limites da naturalização do fenômeno moral.Luca Nogueira Igansi - 2016 - Saarbrücken, Germany: Novas Edições Acadêmicas.
    O autor propõe uma investigação do naturalismo moral contemporâneo a partir das variadas formulações do argumento conhecido como a falácia naturalista, assim como do contraponto de algumas teorias não-naturalistas como as de G. E. Moore e John Rawls. A partir da análise destas formulações do argumento no contexto formal da metaética contemporânea, busca aferir a validade da falácia naturalista no contexto atual, bem como de seus limites na aplicação contra o naturalismo moral. O naturalismo moral é apresentado, então, numa versão (...)
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  18. added 2018-08-23
    A Falácia Naturalista na Metaética Contemporânea: Usos e Equívocos.L. N. Igansi - 2014 - Fundamento 1 (8):11-31.
    The naturalistic fallacy according to Moore and its relation to Hume will be analyzed for an exposition both clear and updated in contemporary formal logics, which will denounce its limited scope in current metaethics. I’ll identify the origins of the expression naturalistic fallacy in Moore and atempt to refne its meaning and use, contrasting its relationship to the open-question argument and Hume’s Law. Its application is identifed in four aspects: invalidly as the openquestion argument for not establishing a metaphysical connection (...)
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  19. added 2018-08-23
    Normatividade e Valor no Naturalismo Moral.Luca Nogueira Igansi - 2014 - Dissertation,
    Este trabalho investiga o naturalismo moral contemporâneo a partir das variadas formulações do argumento conhecido como a falácia naturalista, assim como do contraponto de algumas teorias não-naturalistas, em especial a de G. E. Moore. Parto da análise destas formulações do argumento no contexto formal da metaética contemporânea, buscando aferir a validade da falácia naturalista no contexto atual, bem como de seus limites na aplicação contra o naturalismo moral. Apresento então o naturalismo moral numa versão humeana, que sugere uma abordagem descritivista (...)
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  20. added 2018-08-14
    It Does Not Matter Whether We Can Derive 'Ought' From 'Is'.Alison Jaggar - 1974 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 3 (3):373 - 379.
    In this paper, I want to discuss the recent attempts by Professor John R. Searle to cast doubt on the traditional empiricist distinction between fact and value. Searle's first attack on this distinction was made in 1964 in his now classic article, “How to derive ‘ought’ from ‘is’.” In that paper, he presented what he claimed to be a counter-example to the thesis that statements of fact may not entail statements of value. Searle's argument aroused much controversy and inspired many (...)
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  21. added 2018-07-31
    Introduction.Neil Sinclair - 2018 - In The Naturalistic Fallacy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
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  22. added 2018-07-30
    The Naturalistic Fallacy and the History of Metaethics.Neil Sinclair - 2018 - In The Naturalistic Fallacy. Cambridge University Press.
    This chapter -- the first in the edited collection "The Naturalistic Fallacy" (Cambridge University Press 2019) -- locates the naturalistic fallacy within the context of the other claims Moore defends in Principia Ethica. I explore the notions of “definition” and “analysis” as Moore understood them and set out in detail the multiple interpretations of the fallacy and open question argument. I then take a broad view of the influence of the fallacy on the Century of metaethics that came after Moore, (...)
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  23. added 2018-04-30
    Contemporary Ethical Naturalism : A Comparative Metaethical Evaluation of Expressivism and Cornell Realism.Jorn Sonderholm - 2005 - Dissertation, St. Andrews
    This thesis contains a critical discussion of two metaethical theories: expressivism, as developed in the works of Simon Blackburn, and Cornell realism, as presented by Richard Boyd and David Brink. In the introduction, a distinction is made between external and internal accommodation projects for moral discourse and it is argued that the external accommodation project should be guided by acceptance of methodological naturalism. Expressivism and Cornell realism are then subjected to an extended comparative evaluation, and an answer is sought to (...)
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  24. added 2018-04-17
    Anthropologischer und ethischer Naturalismus.Geert Keil - 2004 - In Bernd Goebel, Anna Maria Hauk & Gerhard Kruip (eds.), Probleme des Naturalismus. Philosophische Beiträge. Mentis. pp. 65-100.
    1. Naturalismus in der theoretischen Philosophie 2. Anthropologischer Naturalismus 3. Die Natur des ethischen Naturalismus – einige Unterscheidungen 4. Naturalismus und die Natur des Menschen 5. Wie hängen ethischer und anthropologischer Naturalismus zusammen?
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  25. added 2018-04-12
    Naturalismus Und Menschliche Natur.Geert Keil - 2008 - In Wolf-Jürgen Cramm & Geert Keil (eds.), Der Ort der Vernunft in einer natürlichen Welt. Logische und an­thro­pologi­sche Ortsbestimmungen. Velbrück Wissenschaft. pp. 192-215.
    Der Naturalismus in der theoretischen Philosophie tritt in drei Varianten auf. Der metaphysische Naturalismus behauptet, dass nur Natürliches existiert. Der Scientia mensura-Naturalismus behauptet, dass die Methoden der Naturwissenschaft der einzige Weg zur Wahrheit sind. Der analytische Naturalismus versucht, in nichtintentionalen Begriffen formulierte hinreichende Bedingungen für das Vorliegen eines intentionalen Phänomens anzugeben. Im Beitrag wird gezeigt, dass diese drei Varianten des Naturalismus nicht miteinander konkurrieren, sondern Ausarbeitungsstufen eines und desselben Grundgedankens sind. Der Naturalismus in der Ethik, wie er aus den Debatten (...)
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  26. added 2018-03-22
    The Evolutionary Manifesto.John E. Stewart - manuscript
    The Evolutionary Manifesto shows that evolution is directional and demonstrates that this has major implications for humanity. The Manifesto shows that humanity must align its social systems and behaviour with the trajectory of evolution if we are to survive and thrive into the future. The Manifesto goes on to demonstrate that humanity has an essential role to play in the future evolution of life on this planet. It demonstrates that life on Earth has reached a critical stage in evolution’s trajectory. (...)
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  27. added 2017-05-30
    The Naturalistic Fallacy and Theological Ethics.Christian Miller - forthcoming - In Neil Sinclair (ed.), The Naturalistic Fallacy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    What views are the primary target of Moore’s fallacy and his open question argument? A common answer, I suspect, would be naturalistic approaches to morality. It is the naturalistic fallacy, after all. But in fact both his fallacy and his argument apply just as straightforwardly to supernatural approaches to morality as well. In this chapter, I focus specifically on how philosophers of religion have tried to grounds morality in God in ways that are clearly relevant to Moore’s project.
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  28. added 2017-02-13
    GE Moore's Contribution to the Discussion of the Concept of Good in Ethics.Z. Palovicova - 2001 - Filozofia 56 (2):82-89.
    The paper focuses on G. E. Moore's contribution to the discussion of the concept of good. Its aim is to explain Moore's understanding of this concept and his argument against naturalism and to call the attention to the more problematic aspects of his philosophical analysis of ethical concepts. The author also tries to show, why Moore's philosophy, in spite of its limitations, is still living in contemporary ethical dicourse.
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  29. added 2017-02-07
    Book Review:Principia Ethica. George Edward Moore. [REVIEW]J. S. Mackenzie - 1904 - Ethics 14 (3):377-.
  30. added 2017-01-26
    «I Deal I St Icf» Os Iti Ons Im Naturalistic Ethics.Jacek Jastal - 1995 - In Eugeniusz Kulwicki (ed.), Selected Problems of Economics, Sociology and Philosophy. Politechnika Krakowska. pp. 7--65.
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  31. added 2017-01-19
    Animadversions on Naturalistic Ethics.Eliseo Vivas - 1945 - Ethics 56 (3):157-177.
  32. added 2017-01-17
    Comments on the Naturalistic Fallacy, Biology and Politics.Frank Salter - 1995 - Social Science Information 34 (2):333-345.
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  33. added 2017-01-14
    Nietzsche's Answer to the Naturalistic Fallacy: Life as Condition, Not Criterion, of Morality.Donovan Miyasaki - manuscript
    Nietzsche’s late writings present a value opposition of health and decadence based in his conception of organic life. While this appears to be a moral ideal that risks the naturalistic fallacy of directly deriving norms from facts, it instead describes a meta-ethical ideal: the necessary conditions for any kind of moral agency. Nietzsche’s ideal of health not only evades but also dissolves the naturalistic fallacy by suggesting that the specific content of morality is irrelevant. If health is measured by power (...)
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  34. added 2017-01-03
    Pūrva Mīmāṃsā: Non-Natural, Moral Realism (Ethics-1, M14).Ranganathan Shyam - 2016 - In A. Raghuramaraju (ed.), Philosophy, E-PG Pathshala. Delhi: India, Department of Higher Education (NMEICT).
    In this module I set out the Moral Non-Naturalism of Pūrva Mīmāṃsā as a version of Deontology that defines duty in terms of its beneficent properties. It elucidates the scheme of right living according to ordinance or command. Whereas natural accounts of moral terms suffer from circularity (by merely re-naming of a natural property with a moral term, which then serves to justify its moral appraisal), proponents of Mīmāṃsā defend their position by offering the Vedas as constituting independent evidence about (...)
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  35. added 2016-12-12
    Two Puzzles in Metaethics.Susana Nuccetelli - 2010 - Journal of Theoretical and Applied Ethics 1 (1):15-16.
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  36. added 2016-08-30
    Quel rapport entre science et justice? - La leçon de Léon Bourgeois.Simon-Pierre Chevarie-Cossette - 2016 - In Daoust Marc-Kevin (ed.), Capitalisme, propriété et solidarité. Les Cahiers D'Ithaque.
    Le solidarisme de Léon Bourgeois constitue une tentative convaincante de surmonter l’opposition traditionnelle entre libertés individuelles et justice sociale. Bourgeois tente de relever ce défi en faisant appel aux nouvelles découvertes scientifiques en sociologie comme en biologie. En bref, l’observation de la nature nous montrerait que les humains sont en rapport de solidarité les uns avec les autres. De ce fait, on pourrait tirer un devoir de solidarité que l’État serait à même d’imposer aux individus. Fonder une théorie politique sur (...)
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  37. added 2016-08-29
    Ethics and Nature.Jay Elliott - 2006 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 3 (3):321-334.
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  38. added 2016-07-26
    The Naturalistic Fallacy in Ethical Discourse on the Social Determinants of Health.Daniel Goldberg - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (3):58-60.
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  39. added 2016-07-26
    Biologicization of Ethics: Beyond Naturalistic Fallacy and Counter-Naturalistic Fallacy.Jihan Lyou - 2015 - Journal of Ethics 1 (103):1-30.
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  40. added 2016-07-26
    St. Thomas and the Naturalistic Fallacy.Michael Augros & Christopher Oleson - 2013 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 13 (4):637-661.
    Certain scholars wish to acquit St. Thomas Aquinas of the “illicit inference from facts to norms” commonly referred to as the naturalistic fallacy. Seeing in certain passages his awareness of illegitimate ways to derive morality from natural ends, many have come to read Aquinas as agreeing with the view that knowledge of the moral order does not derive from knowledge of human nature and of the natural ends of its parts and powers. This paper aims to expose the deficiencies of (...)
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  41. added 2016-07-26
    The Naturalness of the Naturalistic Fallacy and the Ethics of Nanotechnology.Mauro Dorato - 2013 - In The Role of Technology in Science: Philosophical Perspectives. Springer Verlag.
    In the first part of this paper, I try to clear the ground from frequent misconceptions about the relationship between fact and value by examining some uses of the adjective “natural” in ethical controversies. Such uses bear evidence to our “natural” tendency to regard nature (considered in a descriptive sense, as the complex of physical and biological regularities) as the source of ethical norms. I then try to account for the origin of this tendency by offering three related explanations, the (...)
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  42. added 2016-07-26
    Can Kitcher Avoid the Naturalistic Fallacy?Sinion Derpmann, Dominik Düber, Tim Rojek & Konstantin Schnieder - 2013 - In Marie Kaiser & Ansgar Seide (eds.), Philip Kitcher – Pragmatic Naturalism. Ontos. pp. 61.
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  43. added 2016-07-26
    Is the Naturalistic Fallacy Dead.Oren Harman - 2012 - Journal of the History of Biology 45 (3):557-572.
    Much of modern moral philosophy argued that there are is’s in this world, and there are oughts, but that the two are entirely independent of one another. What this meant was that morality had nothing to do with man’s biological nature, and could not be derived from it. Any such attempt was considered to be a categorical mistake, and plain foolish. Most philosophers still believe this, but a growing group of neo-naturalist thinkers are now challenging their assumptions. Here I consider (...)
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  44. added 2016-07-26
    Is Moore a Metaphysical Ethicist?Sibel Oktar - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 10:317-323.
    “Naturalistic fallacy” is generally associated with Moore’s charge against the naturalists. But for Moore, metaphysical ethics, including those of Kant is as guilty as naturalistic ethics in committing the naturalistic fallacy. Here, the fallacy is identifying “good” with anything metaphysical. Moore appreciates that ‘metaphysical’ propositions provide us with a chance to talk about objects that are not natural. And he thinks that metaphysical ethicists’ do not recognise that these objects do not exist at all, rather they think if the object (...)
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  45. added 2016-07-26
    On G. E. Moore’s View of Hedonistic Utilitarianism.C. L. Sheng & Harrison F. H. Lee - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 10:277-287.
    At Moore’s time, the main-stream ethical theory is the doctrine that pleasure alone is good as an end as held by the hedonistic utilitarianism. Moore, however, asserts that good, not composed of any parts, is a simple notion and indefinable, and naturalistic ethical theories, in particular hedonistic utilitarianism, interpret intrinsic good as a property of a single natural object---pleasure, which is also the sole end of life, thus violates naturalistic fallacy. Moore seems to believe that there exist things other than (...)
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  46. added 2016-07-26
    Igniting the Deontic Consequence Relation: Dilemmas, Trumping, and the Naturalistic Fallacy.Kurt Holukoff - unknown
    In this work, Kurt Holukoff examines three formal approaches to representing valid inferences in reasoning regarding obligation and its cognates: deontic logic. He argues that an appropriate formalization of deontic logic should take genuine moral dilemmas seriously, be capable of representing trumping-like reasoning, and not make the naturalistic fallacy valid as a matter of logic. The three systems he investigates are, the Standard Deontic logic, a Relevant Deontic logic, and Schotch and Jennings’ multiple moral accessibility relations Deontic logic. The Standard (...)
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  47. added 2016-07-26
    Normative-Descriptive and the Naturalistic Fallacy.Laurens Landeweerd - 2004 - Global Bioethics 17 (1):17-23.
    One can discern between two different approaches to reality. One has to do with how things are, the other with how they should be, the descriptive and the normative. The reduction of the latter to the former has often been considered as fallacious. However, the problems sometimes seems to run deeper than a mere superficial question of logical paradoxes. A closer analysis of the problem, in connection with more practical occurrences of it, might help clarify things.
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  48. added 2016-07-26
    On the Inappropriate Use of the Naturalistic Fallacy in Evolutionary Psychology.David Sloan-Wilson, Eric Dietrich & Anne Clark - 2003 - Biology and Philosophy 18 (5):669-681.
    The naturalistic fallacy is mentioned frequently by evolutionary psychologists as an erroneous way of thinking about the ethical implications of evolved behaviors. However, evolutionary psychologists are themselves confused about the naturalistic fallacy and use it inappropriately to forestall legitimate ethical discussion. We briefly review what the naturalistic fallacy is and why it is misused by evolutionary psychologists. Then we attempt to show how the ethical implications of evolved behaviors can be discussed constructively without impeding evolutionary psychological research. A key is (...)
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  49. added 2016-07-26
    Biomedical Ethics, Public-Health Risk Assessment, and the Naturalistic Fallacy.Kevin Elliott - 2002 - Public Affairs Quarterly 16 (4):351-376.
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  50. added 2016-07-26
    Institutional Facts and the Naturalistic Fallacy. Confronting Searle with Searle.Frank A. Hindriks - 2002 - ProtoSociology 16:170-192.
    In 1964 Searle argued against the naturalistic fallacy thesis that an ought-statement can in fact be derived from is-statements. From an analysis of this argument and of Searle’s social ontology of 1995 – which includes a full-blown theory of institutional facts – I conclude that this argument is unsound on his own terms. The conclusion that can now be drawn from Searle’s argument is that social or institutional obligations are epistemically objective even though they are observer-dependent. I go on to (...)
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