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1 — 50 / 114
  1. added 2020-05-28
    What is Life?Guenther Witzany - 2020 - Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences 7:1-13.
    In searching for life in extraterrestrial space, it is essential to act based on an unequivocal definition of life. In the twentieth century, life was defined as cells that self-replicate, metabolize, and are open for mutations, without which genetic information would remain unchangeable, and evolution would be impossible. Current definitions of life derive from statistical mechanics, physics, and chemistry of the twentieth century in which life is considered to function machine like, ignoring a central role of communication. Recent observations show (...)
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  2. added 2020-05-01
    An Observation About Truth.David Kashtan - 2017 - Dissertation, University of Jerusalem
    Tarski's analysis of the concept of truth gives rise to a hierarchy of languages. Does this fragment the concept all the way to philosophical unacceptability? I argue it doesn't, drawing on a modification of Kaplan's theory of indexicals.
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  3. added 2020-04-08
    Distributed Utterances.Mark McCullagh - 2020 - In The Architecture of Context and Context-sensitivity. Dordrecht: pp. 113-24.
    I propose an apparatus for handling intrasentential change in context. The standard approach has problems with sentences with multiple occurrences of the same demonstrative or indexical. My proposal involves the idea that contexts can be complex. Complex contexts are built out of (“simple”) Kaplanian contexts by ordered n-tupling. With these we can revise the clauses of Kaplan’s Logic of Demonstratives so that each part of a sentence is taken in a different component of a complex context. I consider other applications (...)
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  4. added 2019-11-16
    Really Expressive Presuppositions and How to Block Them.Teresa Marques & Manuel García-Carpintero - 2020 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 97 (2020):138-158.
    Kaplan (1999) argued that a different dimension of expressive meaning (“use-conditional”, as opposed to truth-conditional) is required to characterize the meaning of pejoratives, including slurs and racial epithets. Elaborating on this, writers have argued that the expressive meaning of pejoratives and slurs is either a conventional implicature (Potts 2007) or a presupposition (Macià 2002 and 2014, Schlenker 2007, Cepollaro and Stojanovic 2016). We argue that an expressive presuppositional theory accounts well for the data, but that expressive presuppositions are not just (...)
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  5. added 2019-11-03
    Disagreement with a Bald‐Faced Liar.Teresa Marques - 2020 - Ratio:1-14.
    How can we disagree with a bald-faced liar? Can we actively disagree if it is common ground that the speaker has no intent to deceive? And why do we disapprove of bald-faced liars so strongly? Bald-faced lies pose problems for accounts of lying and of assertion. Recent proposals try to defuse those problems by arguing that bald-faced lies are not really assertions, but rather performances of fiction-like scripts, or different types of language games. In this paper, I raise two objections (...)
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  6. added 2019-09-06
    One's Modus Ponens: Modality, Coherence and Logic.Una Stojnić - 2017 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 95 (1):167-214.
    Recently, there has been a shift away from traditional truth-conditional accounts of meaning towards non-truth-conditional ones, e.g., expressivism, relativism and certain forms of dynamic semantics. Fueling this trend is some puzzling behavior of modal discourse. One particularly surprising manifestation of such behavior is the alleged failure of some of the most entrenched classical rules of inference; viz., modus ponens and modus tollens. These revisionary, non-truth-conditional accounts tout these failures, and the alleged tension between the behavior of modal vocabulary and classical (...)
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  7. added 2019-09-06
    Meaning and Demonstration.Matthew Stone & Una Stojnic - 2015 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 6 (1):69-97.
    In demonstration, speakers use real-world activity both for its practical effects and to help make their points. The demonstrations of origami mathematics, for example, reconfigure pieces of paper by folding, while simultaneously allowing their author to signal geometric inferences. Demonstration challenges us to explain how practical actions can get such precise significance and how this meaning compares with that of other representations. In this paper, we propose an explanation inspired by David Lewis’s characterizations of coordination and scorekeeping in conversation. In (...)
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  8. added 2019-09-06
    Deixis (Even Without Pointing).Una Stojnic, Matthew Stone & Ernie Lepore - 2013 - Philosophical Perspectives 27 (1):502-525.
  9. added 2019-07-05
    Художня література, кіно і пісні в інтертексті роману С. Оксеника «Вбивство п’яної піонерки»: кодифікація ретрочасу.Ludmyla Danylenko - 2018 - NaUKMA Researh Papers. Literary Studies 1:66-69.
    У статті розглянуто інтертекстуальне тло в романі Сергія Оксеника «Вбивство п’яноï піонерки». Ідеться про використання художньоï літератури, кіно і пісень як джерела зображення ретрочасу. Виявлено, що система мікротекстів в основному тексті відображає атмосферу 1960-х років. Проаналізовано цитати, алюзіï, стилізацію як прийоми для художнього конструювання суспільних і моральних проблем того часу. Визначено, що цитування чужих текстів у романі забезпечує своєрідну поліфонічність основного тексту, увиразнює часовий пласт мистецьких пріоритетів і рівня культури персонажів. Використовуючи чужі тексти, автор розраховував на ерудицію і мистецькі уподобання (...)
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  10. added 2019-06-06
    Context of Thought and Context of Utterance: A Note on Free Indirect Discourse and the Historical Pr.Philippe Schlenker - 2004 - Mind and Language 19 (3):279-304.
    Based on the analysis of narrations in Free Indirect Discourse and the Historical Present, we argue that the grammatical notion of context of speech should be ramified into a Context of Thought and a Context of Utterance. Tense and person depend on the Context of Utterance, while all other indexicals are evaluated with respect to the Context of Thought. Free Indirect Discourse and the Historical Present are analyzed as special combinatorial possibilities that arise when the two contexts are distinct, and (...)
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  11. added 2019-03-07
    Lewisian Scorekeeping and the Future.Derek Ball - 2018 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 18 (3):375-383.
    The purpose of this paper is to draw out a little noticed, but correct and important, consequence of David Lewis’s theory of how the values of contextual parameters are determined. According to Lewis, these values are often determined at least in part by accommodation; to a first approximation, the idea is that contextual parameters tend to take on the values they need to have in order for our utterances to be true. The little-noticed consequence of Lewis’s way of developing these (...)
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  12. added 2019-02-24
    The Representation of Context: Ideas From Artificial Intelligence.James Franklin - 2003 - Law, Probability and Risk 2:191-199.
    To move beyond vague platitudes about the importance of context in legal reasoning or natural language understanding, one must take account of ideas from artificial intelligence on how to represent context formally. Work on topics like prior probabilities, the theory-ladenness of observation, encyclopedic knowledge for disambiguation in language translation and pathology test diagnosis has produced a body of knowledge on how to represent context in artificial intelligence applications.
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  13. added 2019-01-31
    Occasion-Sensitivity: Selected Essays. [REVIEW]Alexander Davies - 2011 - Disputatio 4 (31):309-315.
    This is not a critical review of Travis' book. It's an attempt to summarize the key thesis (occasion-sensitivity) in a way that makes the book accessible and distinguishes it from similar looking theses (such as relevance theory and truth-conditional pragmatics).
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  14. added 2018-10-31
    Content in a Dynamic Context.Una Stojnić - 2019 - Noûs 53 (2):394-432.
    The standing tradition in theorizing about meaning, since at least Frege, identifies meaning with propositions, which are, or determine, the truth-conditions of a sentence in a context. But a recent trend has advocated a departure from this tradition: in particular, it has been argued that modal claims do not express standard propositional contents. This non-propositionalism has received different implementations in expressivist semantics and certain kinds of dynamic semantics. They maintain that the key aspect of interpretation of modal claims is the (...)
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  15. added 2018-09-16
    Criticizing a Difference of Contexts: On Reichenbach’s Distincition Between “Context of Discovery” and “Context of Justification”.Gregor Schiemann - 2002 - In Schickore J. & Steinle F. (eds.), Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook. Max-Planck-Institut. pp. 237-251.
    With his distinction between the "context of discovery" and the "context of justification", Hans Reichenbach gave the traditional difference between genesis and validity a modern standard formulation. Reichenbach's distinction is one of the well-known ways in which the expression "context" is used in the theory of science. My argument is that Reichenbach's concept is unsuitable and leads to contradictions in the semantic fields of genesis and validity. I would like to demonstrate this by examining the different meanings of Reichenbach's context (...)
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  16. added 2018-06-19
    The Mind-Independence of Contexts for Knowledge-Attributions.Giovanni Mion & Christopher Gauker - 2017 - In Jonathan Ichikawa (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Epistemic Contextualism. New York, USA: Routledge. pp. 455-464.
    If we say that the truth of a statement of the form “S knows that p” depends on the pertinent context, that raises the question, what determines the pertinent context? One answer would be: the speaker. Another would be: the speaker and the hearer jointly somehow. Yet a third answer would be: no one gets to decide; it is a matter of what the conversation is supposed to achieve and how the world really is, and it can happen that all (...)
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  17. added 2018-02-17
    Nonindexical Context-Dependence and the Interpretation as Abduction Approach.Erich Rast - 2011 - Lodz Papers in Pragmatics 7 (2):259-279.
    Nonindexical Context-Dependence and the Interpretation as Abduction Approach Inclusive nonindexical context-dependence occurs when the preferred interpretation of an utterance implies its lexically-derived meaning. It is argued that the corresponding processes of free or lexically mandated enrichment can be modeled as abductive inference. A form of abduction is implemented in Simple Type Theory on the basis of a notion of plausibility, which is in turn regarded a preference relation over possible worlds. Since a preordering of doxastic alternatives taken for itself only (...)
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  18. added 2018-02-17
    ‘I’.K. Romdenh-Romluc - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 128 (2):257-283.
    It has traditionally been maintained that every token of ‘I’ refers to its utterer. However, certain uses of indexicals conflict with this claim, and its counterparts with respect to ‘here’ and ‘now’, suggesting that the traditional account of indexical reference should be abandoned. In this paper, I examine some proposed alternatives and the difficulties they face, before offering a new account of indexical reference. I endorse Kaplan’s view that the reference of an indexical is determined on any occasion it is (...)
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  19. added 2017-04-07
    Monsters and the Theoretical Role of Context.Brian Rabern & Derek Ball - 2019 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 98 (2):392-416.
    Kaplan (1989) famously claimed that monsters--operators that shift the context--do not exist in English and "could not be added to it". Several recent theorists have pointed out a range of data that seem to refute Kaplan's claim, but others (most explicitly Stalnaker 2014) have offered a principled argument that monsters are impossible. This paper interprets and resolves the dispute. Contra appearances, this is no dry, technical matter: it cuts to the heart of a deep disagreement about the fundamental structure of (...)
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  20. added 2017-03-02
    Contexts as Shared Commitments.Manuel García-Carpintero - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
    Contemporary semantics assumes two influential notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989), on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originating in Stalnaker (1978), on which contexts are sets of propositions that are “common ground”. The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility in accounting for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals) requires (...)
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  21. added 2017-03-01
    Protagonist Projection.Andreas Stokke - 2013 - Mind and Language 28 (2):204-232.
    This article provides a semantic analysis of Protagonist Projection, the phenomenon by which things are described from a point of view different from that of the speaker. Against what has been argued by some, the account vindicates the intuitive idea that Protagonist Projection does not give rise to counterexamples to factivity, and similar plausible principles. A pragmatics is sketched that explains the attitude attributions generated by Protagonist Projection. Further, the phenomenon is compared to Free Indirect Discourse, and the proposed account (...)
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  22. added 2017-02-14
    Context.Gary Webster - forthcoming - Arion 7 (2).
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  23. added 2017-02-14
    What Is Context?Tom Sgouros - 2004 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 14 (2):235-251.
    An explanation for the uncertain progress of formalist linguistics is sought in an examination of the concept of syntax. The idea of analyzing language formally was made possible by developments in 20th century logic. It has been pointed out by many that the analogy between natural language and a formal system may be imperfect, but the objection made here is that the very concept of syntax, when applied to any non-abstract system of communication, is flawed as it is commonly used. (...)
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  24. added 2017-02-14
    Context'.Knowledge Assertion - 2002 - Philosophical Review 111:167-203.
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  25. added 2017-02-13
    A Very Different Context.Eric Alliez - 2008 - Radical Philosophy 149:18-21.
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  26. added 2017-02-13
    Context Modeling: Context as a Dressing of a Focus.Juliette Brézillon & Patrick Brézillon - 2007 - In D. C. Richardson B. Kokinov (ed.), Modeling and Using Context. Springer. pp. 136--149.
  27. added 2017-02-13
    Europeaniseren Vraagt Om Een Actieve Ruimtelijke Ordening; De Provinciale Ruimtelijke Ordening in Europese Context.A. De Wit - 2006 - Topos: Periodiek Over Landschapsarchitectuur, Ruimtelijke Planning En Sociaal-Ruimtelijke Analyse 16.
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  28. added 2017-02-13
    Context Creation in Discourse Understanding.Gillian Brown - 1998 - In Kirsten Malmkjær & John Williams (eds.), Context in Language Learning and Language Understanding. Cambridge University Press. pp. 171--192.
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  29. added 2017-02-13
    An Otogizõshi in Context.Lone Takeuchi - 1996 - Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 23 (1-2):1-2.
  30. added 2017-02-13
    The Individuum and the Context of Individua.V. Tomek - 1989 - Filosoficky Casopis 37 (6):812-826.
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  31. added 2017-02-12
    Context in Context.Peter Burke - 2002 - Common Knowledge 8 (1):152-177.
  32. added 2017-02-07
    Maximising, Satisficing and Context.C. S. Jenkins & Daniel Nolan - 2010 - Noûs 44 (3):451-468.
  33. added 2017-02-02
    The Ideology of Context : Uses and Abuses of Context in the Historiography of Philosophy.Yves Charles Zarka - 2005 - In Tom Sorell & G. A. J. Rogers (eds.), Analytic Philosophy and History of Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
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  34. added 2017-02-01
    Formalizing Context (Expanded Notes).John McCarthy & Sasa Buvac - 1998 - CSLI Lecture Notes 81:13-50.
    These notes discuss formalizing contexts as first class objects. The basic relationships are: ist(c,p) meaning that the proposition p is true in the context c, and value(c,p) designating the value of the term e in the context c Besides these, there are lifting formulas that relate the propositions and terms in subcontexts to possibly more general propositions and terms in the outer context. Subcontextx are often specialised with regard to time, place and terminology. Introducing contexts as formal objects will permit (...)
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  35. added 2017-02-01
    The Use of Situation Theory in Context Modeling.Varol Akman & Mehmet Surav - 1997 - Computational Intelligence 12 (4):1-13.
    At the heart of natural language processing is the understanding of context dependent meanings. This paper presents a preliminary model of formal contexts based on situation theory. It also gives a worked-out example to show the use of contexts in lifting, i.e., how propositions holding in a particular context transform when they are moved to another context. This is useful in NLP applications where preserving meaning is a desideratum.
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  36. added 2017-02-01
    Hypotheticals in a Context.Alfred Sidgwick & W. E. Johnson - 1895 - Mind 4 (13):143-144.
  37. added 2017-01-26
    2 Deixis and Context.Charles J. Fillmore - 1998 - In Kirsten Malmkjær & John Williams (eds.), Context in Language Learning and Language Understanding. Cambridge University Press. pp. 27.
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  38. added 2017-01-17
    Getting Expression‐Based Semantics Right: Its Proper Objects of Evaluation and Limits.David C. Spewak Jr - 2016 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 54 (3):393-410.
    Often those attempting to resolve the answering machine paradox appeal to Kaplan's claim that the objects of semantic evaluation are expression-types evaluated with respect to indices, instead of utterances, as part of their solution. This article argues that Dylan Dodd and Paula Sweeney exemplify the kind of mistakes theorists make in applying such expression-based semantic theories in that they conflate what is asserted with semantic content, and they take their approach to utterance interpretation as having semantic significance. In light of (...)
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  39. added 2017-01-15
    Context-Dependent Abduction and Relevance.Dov Gabbay, Rolf Nossum & John Woods - 2006 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 35 (1):65-81.
    Based on the premise that what is relevant, consistent, or true may change from context to context, a formal framework of relevance and context is proposed in which • contexts are mathematical entities • each context has its own language with relevant implication • the languages of distinct contexts are connected by embeddings • inter-context deduction is supported by bridge rules • databases are sets of formulae tagged with deductive histories and the contexts they belong to • abduction and revision (...)
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  40. added 2016-12-10
    Can Metalinguistic Negotiations and 'Conceptual Ethics' Rescue Legal Positivism?Teresa Marques - 2017 - In Alessandro Capone & Francesca Poggi (eds.), Pragmatics and Law: Practical and Theoretical Perspectives. Barcelona: Springer. pp. 223-241.
    In recent years, David Plunkett and Tim Sundell have published a series of interesting articles that made an original use of resources from linguistics and philosophy of language to reply to arguments for legal antipositivism, the thesis according to which moral or value facts are part of what determines what the law is in a given jurisdiction at a given time. Plunkett and Sundell’s strategy for resisting antipositivism appeals to the notion of a metalinguistic negotiation, which incorporates the notion of (...)
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  41. added 2016-12-08
    Intention-Sensitive Semantics.A. Stokke - 2010 - Synthese 175 (3):383-404.
    A number of authors have argued that the fact that certain indexicals depend for their reference-determination on the speaker’s referential intentions demonstrates the inadequacy of associating such expressions with functions from contexts to referents (characters). By distinguishing between different uses to which the notion of context is put in these argument, I show that this line of argument fails. In the course of doing so, I develop a way of incorporating the role played by intentions into a character-based semantics for (...)
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  42. added 2016-12-08
    The Problem with Token-Reflexivity.Stefano Predelli - 2006 - Synthese 148 (1):5-29.
    This essay presents an argument against the token-reflexive approach to the semantics for indexical languages. After some preliminary remarks in section one, sections two and three explain why some traditional arguments against token-reflexivity are ultimately ineffective. Section four puts forth a more persuasive argument, to the effect that token-reflexive views overgenerate with respect to results of analyticity. However, as section five explains, defenders of the alternative, type-oriented view have all too often wasted the advantage offered by their approach: the unmotivated, (...)
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  43. added 2016-09-07
    Conversational Kinematics.Robin McKenna - 2017 - In Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Epistemic Contextualism. Routledge. pp. 321-331.
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  44. added 2016-08-29
    The Communication Desideratum and Theories of Indexical Reference.Jonas Åkerman - 2015 - Mind and Language 30 (4):474–499.
    According to the communication desideratum (CD), a notion of semantic content must be adequately related to communication. In the recent debate on indexical reference, (CD) has been invoked in arguments against the view that intentions determine the semantic content of indexicals and demonstratives (intentionalism). In this paper, I argue that the interpretations of (CD) that these arguments rely on are questionable, and suggest an alternative interpretation, which is compatible with (strong) intentionalism. Moreover, I suggest an approach that combines elements of (...)
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  45. added 2016-06-15
    How to Use (Ordinary) Language Offensively.Alex Davies - 2012 - Nordic Wittgenstein Review 1 (1):55-80.
    One can attack a philosophical claim by identifying a misuse of the language used to state it. I distinguish between two varieties of this strategy: one belonging to Norman Malcolm and the other to Ludwig Wittgenstein. The former is flawed and easily dismissible as misled linguistic conservatism. It muddies the name of ordinary language philosophy. I argue that the latter avoids this flaw. To make perspicuous the kind of criticism of philosophical claims that the second variety makes available, I draw (...)
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  46. added 2016-06-12
    Communicating by Doing Something Else.Alex Davies - 2018 - In Tamara Dobler & John Collins (eds.), The Philosophy of Charles Travis: Language, Thought, and Perception. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 135-154.
    It's sometimes thought that context-invariant linguistic meaning must be a character (a function from context types to contents) i.e. that linguistic meaning must determine how the content of an expression is fixed in context. This is thought because if context-invariant linguistic meaning were not a character then communication would not be possible. In this paper, I explain how communication could proceed even if context-invariant linguistic meaning were not a character.
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  47. added 2016-05-11
    Le Présent Épistolaire: Une Perspective Cognitive.Francois Recanati - 1995 - L'Information Grammaticale 66:38-44.
  48. added 2016-02-16
    D'un contexte a l'autre.Francois Recanati - 2008 - Cahiers Chronos 20:1-14.
    On distingue différents types de "contextes" à l'oeuvre dans l'interprétation des expressions indexicales, de façon à rendre compte du style indirect libre et de phénomènes apparentés.
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  49. added 2016-02-16
    Indexicality, Context, and Pretense.Francois Recanati - 2005 - In Noel Burton-Roberts (ed.), Pragmatics. Palgrave. pp. 213-229.
    In this paper, I argue that the notion of ‘context' that has to be used in the study of indexicals is far from univocal. A first distinction has to be made between the real context of speech and the context in which the speech act is supposed to take place — only the latter notion being relevant when it comes to determining the semantic values of indexicals. Second, we need to draw a distinction between the context of the locutionary act (...)
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  50. added 2016-01-05
    Context Dependence, Perspective and Relativity.François Recanati, Isidora Stojanovic & Neftalí Villanueva (eds.) - 2010 - Mouton de Gruyter.
    Aims and Scope -/- This volume brings together original papers by linguists and philosophers on the role of context and perspective in language and thought. Several contributions are concerned with the contextualism/relativism debate, which has loomed large in recent philosophical discussions. In a substantial introduction, the editors survey the field and map out the relevant issues and positions.
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1 — 50 / 114