The Passage of Time

Edited by Stephan Torre (University of Aberdeen)
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  1. On the Question: How Fast Does Time Pass.Mahmoud Jalloh - 2017 - Aporia 17.
    In this paper, I take up the question of “how fast does time flow?” This question is usually asked as a rejoinder to the view that time is irreducibly tensed, which is motivated by the fact that we experience the passage of time. I consider what the meaning of this question could be and provide a defence of the view that the passage of time is meaningless (due to its rate of passage being dimensionless), undercutting the motivation for a tensed (...)
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  2. A model of the ontology of time.Marian Călborean - manuscript
    I this paper I give minimal axioms for the ontology of time, especially A-theories and B-theories and I derive philosophically interesting lemmas. The exercise is set-theoretical, defining all notions and indicating assumptions and philosophical points of disagreement, while being easy to translate to other formal expressions . The issue of a logic for A-theories of time is treated towards the end, where I sketch ‘copresent’ operators for capturing the idea of temporal passage. The main conclusion will be that, while circularity (...)
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  3. How to think about time.Graeme A. Forbes - 2024 - Psyche Guides.
    This philosopher’s introduction to the nature of time could radically alter how you see your past and imagine your future.
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  4. Mental Time Travel in Animals: The “When” of Mental Time Travel.Andrew J. Latham, Kristie Miller & Rasmus Pedersen - forthcoming - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.
    While many aspects of cognition have been shown to be shared between humans and non-human animals, there remains controversy regarding whether the capacity to mentally time travel is a uniquely human one. In this paper, we argue that there are four ways of representing when some event happened: four kinds of temporal representation. Distinguishing these four kinds of temporal representation has five benefits. First, it puts us in a position to determine the particular benefits these distinct temporal representations afford an (...)
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  5. Is present-bias a distinctive psychological kind?Natalja Deng, Batoul Hodroj, Andrew J. Latham, Jordan Lee-Tory & Kristie Miller - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    Present-bias is the preference, all else being equal, for positive events to be located in the present rather than the non-present, and for negative events to be located in the non-present rather than the present. Very little attention has been given to present-bias in the contemporary literature on time biases. This may be because it is often assumed that present-bias is not a distinctive psychological kind; that what explains people’s being present-biased is just what explains them displaying various other time-biases. (...)
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  6. Is future bias a manifestation of the temporal value asymmetry?Eugene Caruso, Andrew J. Latham & Kristie Miller - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology.
    Future-bias is the preference, all else being equal, for positive states of affairs to be located in the future not the past, and for negative states of affairs to be located in the past not the future. Three explanations for future-bias have been posited: the temporal metaphysics explanation, the practical irrelevance explanation, and the three mechanisms explanation. Understanding what explains future-bias is important not only for better understanding the phenomenon itself, but also because many philosophers think that which explanation is (...)
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  7. Productive Laws in Relativistic Spacetimes.Chris Dorst - forthcoming - Philosophers' Imprint.
    One of the most intuitive views about the metaphysics of laws of nature is Tim Maudlin's idea of a Fundamental Law of Temporal Evolution. So-called FLOTEs are primitive elements of the universe that produce later states from earlier states. While FLOTEs are at home in traditional Newtonian and non-relativistic quantum mechanical theories (not to mention our pre-theoretic conception of the world), I consider here whether they can be made to work with relativity. In particular, shifting to relativistic spacetimes poses two (...)
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  8. Ajankulku virheteoreettisesta näkökulmasta.Matias Slavov - forthcoming - Ajatus.
    Ajan luonnetta koskevissa käsityksissä on tyypillistä erottaa kaksi eriävää kantaa: A-teoreettinen presentismi ja B-teoreettinen eternalismi. Edeltävän väitetään tyypillisesti sopivan yhteen inhimillisen ajallisen kokemuksen kanssa ja jälkimmäisen ontologisesti perustavanlaatuisen luonnontieteen kanssa. Ilmikuvamme ajasta sisältää ehdottoman nykyisyyden ja yksisuuntaisen ajan kulun menneestä tulevaan. Tieteellinen kuva ajasta ei sisällä erityistä nykyisyyttä eikä ajan kulun edellyttämää dynaamista aikamuotojen muutosta. Monet ovat pitäneet kokemustamme ajan kulusta illuusiona. Tässä artikkelissa keskitytään A-sarjan mukaisen ajankulun virheteoreettiseen tulkintaan. Tarkastellaan mahdollisuutta, jonka mukaan meillä ei ole kyseistä kokemusta vaan kuvailemme (...)
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  9. On metaphysical explanations of psychological asymmetries.Natalja Deng - 2022 - In Christoph Hoerl, Teresa McCormack & Alison Fernandes (eds.), Temporal Asymmetries in Philosophy and Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    What is the relation between metaphysical and psychological insights into temporal asymmetries? This chapter examines that question on the basis of a case study concerning the temporal Doppler effect (Caruso, Van Boven, Chin, & Ward, 2013). Caruso et al. propose that future events seem closer than past ones at an equal objective temporal distance because we experience subjective movement through time. I explore ways of interpreting their discussion in the light of the metaphysical debate between A- and B-theorists over whether (...)
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  10. Time and Time Again. [REVIEW]Graeme A. Forbes - 2023 - Analysis Reviews 2023.
    What is time? When no-one asks you, you know, but when you read the recent literature in philosophy of time, you don’t know. Out of Time, by Sam Baron, Kristie Miller and Jonathan Tallant, and Dynamic Realism, by Tina Röck, present very different accounts of time. They differ methodologically, with a focus on experimental philosophy, in the form of the Sydney Time Studies, and live hypotheses in the theoretical physics of quantum gravity on the one hand, and phenomenology combined with (...)
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  11. Can we turn people into pain pumps?: On the Rationality of Future Bias and Strong Risk Aversion.David Braddon-Mitchell, Andrew J. Latham & Kristie Miller - 2023 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 1:1-32.
    Future-bias is the preference, all else being equal, for negatively valenced events be located in the past rather than the future, and positively valenced ones to be located in the future rather than the past. Strong risk aversion is the preference to pay some cost to mitigate the badness of the worst outcome. People who are both strongly risk averse and future-biased can face a series of choices that will guarantee them more pain, for no compensating benefit: they will be (...)
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  12. Five New Arguments for The Dynamic Theory of Time.Ned Markosian - 2022 - Philosophical Perspectives 36 (1):158-181.
    According to The Static Theory of Time, time is like space in various ways, and there is no such thing as the passage of time. According to The Dynamic Theory of Time, on the other hand, time is very different from space, and the passage of time is an all-too-real phenomenon. This paper first offers some suggestions about how we should understand these two theories, and then introduces five new arguments for The Dynamic Theory of Time.
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  13. Future Bias and Regret.Sayid Bnefsi - 2023 - In David Jakobsen, Peter Øhrstrøm & Per Hasle (eds.), Logic and Philosophy of Time: The History and Philosophy of Tense-Logic. Aalborg: Aalborg University Press. pp. 1-13.
    The rationality of future bias figures crucially in various metaphysical and ethical arguments (Prior 1959; Parfit 1984; Fischer 2019). Recently, however, philosophers have raised several arguments to the effect that future bias is irrational (Dougherty 2011; Suhler and Callender 2012; Greene and Sullivan 2015). Particularly, Greene and Sullivan (2015) claim that future bias is irrational because future bias leads to two kinds of irrational planning behaviors in agents who also seek to avoid regret. In this paper, I join others who (...)
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  14. Henri Bergson and the Philosophy of Religion: God, Freedom, and Duration.Matyáš Moravec - 2024 - New York: Routledge.
    This book connects the philosophy of Henri Bergson to contemporary debates in metaphysics and analytic philosophy of religion. More specifically, the book demonstrates how Bergson’s philosophy of time can respond to the problem of foreknowledge and free will. The question of how humans can be free if God knows everything has been a perennial issue of debate in analytic philosophy of religion. The solution to this problem relies heavily on what one thinks about time. The problem of time is central (...)
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  15. Bergson on the immediate experience of time.Yaron Wolf - 2022 - In Mark Sinclair & Yaron Wolf (eds.), The Bergsonian Mind. Abingdon: Routledge. pp. 55-71.
    Bergson’s influential discussion of durée—the concept at the heart of his dynamic view of time’s reality—emerges from an inquiry into the nature of temporal experience. In this chapter, I outline Bergson’s view of the non-inferential or immediate experience of time, and mark out the place of durée within his account. I underscore the relation between Bergson’s controversial argument concerning number and his view of temporal experience, and contrast Bergson’s notion of ‘immediate experience’ with immediacy as typically understood in contemporary thought. (...)
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  16. Constructing Condensed Memories in Functorial Time.Shanna Dobson & Chris Fields - manuscript
    If episodic memory is constructive, experienced time is also a construct. We develop an event-based formalism that replaces the traditional objective, agent-independent notion of time with a constructive, agent-dependent notion of time. We show how to make this agent-dependent time entropic and hence well-defined. We use sheaf-theoretic techniques to render agent-dependent time functorial and to construct episodic memories as sequences of observed and constructed events with well-defined limits that maximize the consistency of categorizations assigned to objects appearing in memories. We (...)
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  17. Stebbing and Eddington in the Shadow of Bergson.Peter West & Matyas Moravec - 2023 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 40 (1):59-84.
    In this paper, we argue that the French philosopher Henri Bergson was a hidden interlocutor in Susan Stebbing’s critique of Arthur Eddington in her Philosophy and the Physicists. First, we outline Stebbing’s critique of Eddington’s philosophical- physical writings with a particular emphasis on her case against Eddington’s account of the passage of time. Second, we provide evidence that Eddington’s philosophy is, at its core, Bergsonian and make the case that Eddington was directly influenced by Bergson’s philosophy of la durée. Third, (...)
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  18. The Quantum Wave Function Isn't Real.Eddy Keming Chen - 2022 - The Institute of Art and Ideas.
    In this popular article, I suggest that the task of interpreting quantum mechanics becomes easier if we reject the view that the quantum universe must be described by a wave function. We should zoom out from the wave function and represent the universe with something more coarse-grained, one that naturally arises from considerations about the Past Hypothesis. The new proposal is called the Wentaculus.
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  19. Exploring Arbitrariness Objections to Time-Biases.Andrew J. Latham, Kristie Miller, Jordan Oh, Sam Shpall & Wen Yu - forthcoming - Journal of the American Philosophical Association.
    There are two kinds of time-bias: near-bias and future-bias. While philosophers typically hold that near-bias is rationally impermissible, many hold that future-bias is rationally permissible. Call this normative hybridism. According to arbitrariness objections, certain patterns of preference are rationally impermissible because they are arbitrary. While arbitrariness objections have been levelled against both near-bias and future-bias, the kind of arbitrariness in question has been different. In this paper we investigate whether there are forms of arbitrariness that are common to both kinds (...)
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  20. Is Endurantism the Folk Friendly View of Persistence?Sam Baron, Andrew Latham, Kristie Miller & Jordan Oh - manuscript
    Many philosophers have thought that our folk, or pre-reflective, view of persistence is one on which objects endure. This assumption not only plays a role in disputes about the nature of persistence itself, but is also put to use in several other areas of metaphysics, including debates about the nature of change and temporal passage. In this paper, we empirically test three broad claims. First, that most people (i.e. most non-philosophers) believe that, and it seems to them as though, objects (...)
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  21. (TC* ،زمان فازی ) تاثیر و تاثر منطق و پارادوکسها بر نظریه محاسبات عام. [REVIEW]Didehvar Farzad - manuscript
    در تکوین نظریه محاسبات از اوایل قرن بیستم پارادکسها و خود ارجاعی نقش ویژه ای را بازی کرده اند. هر چند نظریه محاسبات عام بر اساس تعریف ماشین تورینگ، فرض تورینگ_چرچ و کاربردهای آن بنا شده ،اما از همان ابتدا تا به امروز منطق و حوزه های مختلف این علم در ارتباط تنگاتنگ با این تیوری و در ابتدا نظریه محاسبات خاص بوده و این ارتباط روز به روز گسترده و گسترده تر گشته است. از تاثیر پارادوکس دروغگو و پارادکس (...)
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  22. Relational Passage of Time.Matias Slavov - 2022 - New York: Routledge.
    This book defends a relational theory of the passage of time. The realist view of passage developed in this book differs from the robust, substantivalist position. According to relationism, passage is nothing over and above the succession of events, one thing coming after another. Causally related events are temporally arranged as they happen one after another along observers’ worldlines. There is no unique global passage but a multiplicity of local passages of time. After setting out this positive argument for relationism, (...)
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  23. In Defence of a Dynamic View of Reality.Jerzy Gołosz - 2022 - Kraków: Jagiellonian University Press.
    This collection of papers consists of mostly previously published articles which develop a scientific research program designed to defend a dynamic view of reality, which is founded on the assumption of the existence of the flow of time. The vindication makes use of a metaphysical theory of the flow of time developed by the author which is based on the notion of dynamic existence. In this book, the author analyzes different aspects of the problem of the flow of time and (...)
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  24. Meaning in Life and the Nature of Time.Ned Markosian - forthcoming - In The Oxford Handbook of Meaning in Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Many of the leading accounts of what makes a life meaningful are goal-based theories, according to which it is the pursuit of some specific goal (such as love for things that are worthy of love) that gives meaning to our lives. In this chapter I consider how these goal-based theories of meaning in life interact with the two main theories of the nature of time that have been defended in the recent metaphysics literature, namely, The Dynamic Theory of Time and (...)
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  25. Against Passage Illusionism.Kristie Miller - 2022 - Ergo 2.
    Temporal dynamists typically hold that it seems to us as though time robustly passes, and that its seeming so is explained by the fact that time does robustly pass. Temporal non-dynamists hold that time does not robustly pass. Some non-dynamists nevertheless hold that it seems as though it does: we have an illusory phenomenal state whose content represents robust passage. Call these phenomenal passage illusionists. Other non-dynamists argue that the phenomenal state in question is veridical, and represents something other than (...)
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  26. Irreal Temporality: André Aciman and a New Theory of Time.Oliver Iskandar Banks - 2021 - Broad Street Humanities Review 1 (5):1-15.
    This article argues that we can construct a complex interpretation of the nature of time by linking Aciman’s gnostic thread to aspects of twentieth century theory, from philosophy and psychoanalysis. In brief, it attempts to demonstrate the roles of dislocation, deferral, and Otherness in constituting human temporality. The essay begins by surmising the conceptual history of time, touching on key ideas put forward by Augustine and Bergson. The second section takes a psychoanalytic turn after exploring Homo Irrealis to describe the (...)
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  27. Физическият и философски проблем "Какво е сега?".Vasil Penchev - 1999 - Philosophical Alternatives 8 (1):26-34.
    Сред времевите модуси "Сега" заема особено място между винаги добре нареденото минало и напълно неопределено и неподредено бъдеще. Така същността на настоящия момент може да се определи като избор и така нуждаещ се от свободна воля, способен да превръща неподреденото в подредено: едно свойство постулирано в теорията на множствата като аксиома за избора, а нейната еквивалентност с т. нар. теорема за добрата наредба може да бъде доказана елементарно. Физическата същност на "Сега" може да се представи и като прехода от кохерентно (...)
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  28. Метафизика перед выбором.Alex V. Halapsis - 2007 - Грані 56 (6):43-47.
    Метафизика в лице таких выдающихся мыслителей, как Хайдеггер и Гегель, вплотную подошла к проблеме введения времени в фундаментальное описание бытия. Однако указанная проблема так и не была сформулирована в рамках метафизики. Главная причина этого заключается, на наш взгляд, в том, что сама направленность метафизики на постижение вечных принципов подразумевает неизменность последних, их автономию от времени. Основой для такого воззрения выступает максима: «Что вечно, то неизменно, а что изменчиво, то не вечно». Выше мы попытались показать, что эта максима, по меньшей мере, (...)
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  29. A Study of Time in Modern Physics.Peter W. Evans - 2011 - Dissertation,
    This thesis is a study of the notion of time in modern physics, consisting of two parts. Part I takes seriously the doctrine that modern physics should be treated as the primary guide to the nature of time. To this end, it offers an analysis of the various conceptions of time that emerge in the context of various physical theories and, furthermore, an analysis of the relation between these conceptions of time and the more orthodox philosophical views on the nature (...)
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  30. beyond Presentness. [REVIEW]Paul Lukacs - 1994 - Humanitas 7 (1):73-77.
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  31. Using UML 2.0 in Real-Time Development.Kirsten Berkenkotter - forthcoming - A Critical Review.
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  32. The Time Dimension: Contribution toward a Theory of Sound Change.Matthew Chen - 1972 - Foundations of Language 8 (4):457-498.
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  33. Time: Language, Cognition & Reality.Kasia M. Jaszczolt & Louis de Saussure (eds.) - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    Linguists and philosophers examine the representation of temporal reference; the interaction of the temporal information from tense, aspect, modality, and context; and the representation of the temporal relations between facts, events, states, propositions, and utterances. They link this to current research in psychology and anthropology.
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  34. Time.Jonathan Tallant - 2013 - Analysis 73 (2):369-379.
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  35. Temporalna interpretacja logiki modalnej.Marcin Tkaczyk - 2008 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 56 (2):275-299.
    Temporal interpretation of modal logic consists in replacing possible worlds with temporal states of the world or any time determinates and the accessibility relation with a relation of passage of time. That issue has been raised by A. N. Prior, who was thinking of propositions as things which could change their truth-values (could become true or become false) with the passage of time. Under such interpretation Prior was reading a formula as: it (is and) will always be the case that (...)
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  36. Time and Real - Time in Online Art.Ewa Wójtowicz - 2001 - Art Inquiry. Recherches Sur les Arts 3:215-228.
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  37. Zmiana i czas.Stefan Snihur - 1995 - Filozofia Nauki 3.
    The main thesis of the paper is that change and time depend existentially on a specific property of being, described by the author as the Heraclitean unstability (i.e. a kind ofsusceptibility to non-existence). Change and time are, in substance, quite different aspects of being; but they are mutually connected: time cannot exist without occurence of changes; and vice versa. All these intuitions are logically reconstructed by the author.
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  38. Questions About Time: Time and its Subjective Foundations.Richard Burbank - 2011 - Richard A. Burbank.
    Challenging the modern day assumption of a mind-independent world populated with separate entities, this book regards the universe as an interconnected whole from which we construct simplified patterns to aid our survival. Consistent with this fundamental perspective, time itself is described as one such man-made construction. The true nature of time remains one of the fascinating mysteries of modern philosophy. This book provides unique insight into time as an interconnected mixture of subjective, social and psychologically personal characteristics. Questions About Time (...)
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  39. The Time of Reality and the Time of the Logos.Constantin Noico & Nicolas Slater - 1971 - Diogenes 19 (74):31-48.
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  40. Cambridge Philosophers III: McTaggart.Peter Geach - 1995 - Philosophy 70 (274):567 - 579.
    McTaggart′s father and mother were both members of a prosperous Wiltshire family, the Ellises: in fact they were first cousins, and this inbreeding may account for his premature death from a circulatory disease to which several Ellises succumbed. The Ellises were of yeoman stock, and had enriched themselves by West Indian enterprises; they had risen in the social scale via the practice of law. It is rather reminiscent of the The Forsyte Saga, a saga, as Galsworthy said, of the Sense (...)
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  41. Mctaggart's nature of existence, vol. I. comments and amendments.S. V. Keeling - 1938 - Mind 47 (188):547-550.
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  42. The mathematical passage in the epinomis 1).A. R. Lacey - 1955 - Phronesis 1 (2):81-104.
  43. Time and reality.W. R. Sorley - 1923 - Mind 32 (126):145-159.
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  44. Notes: Dr. Mctaggart and "idealism".L. Susan Stebbing - 1926 - Mind 35 (138):267-b-268.
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  45. Review. Questions of time and tense. R le poidevin [ed].Roger Teichmann - 1999 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (4):781-786.
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  46. Temporal vacua.By Ken Warmbrōd - 2004 - Philosophical Quarterly 54 (215):266–286.
    I show to be unsuccessful several attempts to demonstrate the possibility of time without change. Consideration of the most prominent of these arguments (by Sydney Shoemaker) then leads to the formulation of a general argument: evidence which justifies a claim that a certain amount of time has elapsed also justifies a claim that continuous change has occurred during the period. Hence there is a sound basis for the relationist claim that there is no time without events.
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A-Theories of Time
  1. About time, concisely. [REVIEW]Matias Slavov - forthcoming - Metascience.
    Adrian Bardon has produced a new version of his historical introduction to the philosophy of time. Originally published in 2013, the second edition of 2024 is partly rewritten and supplemented with a more extensive discussion on our disposition to project the passage of time [...] Although the book’s title emphasizes history, most of the chapters are directed at issues in systematic philosophy of time: the realism/antirealism debate, temporal passage, temporal experience, spacetime, direction, time travel, time and free will, and the (...)
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  2. Dialetheism and the A-Theory.Sam Baron - forthcoming - Philosophical Quarterly.
    According to dialetheism, there are some true contradictions. According to the A-theory, the passage of time is a mind-independent feature of reality. On some A-theories, the passage of time involves the movement of the present. I show that by appealing to dialetheism one can explain why the present moves. I then argue that A-theorists should adopt this explanation. To do this, I defend two claims. First, that the dialetheic explanation is an improvement on the only other explanation available for why (...)
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  3. The Moving Spotlight.Ross Cameron & Daniel Deasy - forthcoming - In Nina Emery (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Time. Routledge.
    We examine moving spotlight theories of time: theories according to which there are past and future events and an objective present moment. In Section 1, we briefly discuss the origins of the view. In Section 2, we describe the traditional moving spotlight view, which we understand as an ‘enriched’ B-theory of time, and raise some problems for that view. In the next two sections, we describe versions of the moving spotlight view that we think are better and which solve those (...)
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  4. The Moving Open Future, Temporal Phenomenology, and Temporal Passage.Batoul Hodroj, Andrew J. Latham & Kristie Miller - forthcoming - Asian Journal of Philosophy.
    Empirical evidence suggests that people naïvely represent time as dynamical (i.e. as containing robust temporal passage). Yet many contemporary B-theorists deny that it seems to us, in perceptual experience, as though time robustly passes. The question then arises as to why we represent time as dynamical if we do not have perceptual experiences which represent time as dynamical. We consider two hypotheses about why this might be: the temporally asperspectival replacement hypothesis and the moving open future hypothesis. We then empirically (...)
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