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  1. Table Des Matières de l'Année 1969.Carlos E. Alchourrôn, Leo Apostel, F. G. Asenjo, E. M. Barth, J. Evenden, H. G. Hubbeling, Paul Gochet, Joseph Gruenfeld, Hugues Leblanc & H. Montgomery - forthcoming - Logique Et Analyse.
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  2. II Elements of the Philosophy of Right.Eva Bockenheimer - forthcoming - Hegel-Studien.
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  3. Adsorption of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metal Atoms and Dimers on Monolayer Germanium Carbide.Aytaç Gürhan Gökçe & Fatih Ersan - forthcoming - Philosophical Magazine:1-13.
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  4. Causal Explanation and the Periodic Table.Lauren N. Ross - forthcoming - Synthese 198 (1):79-103.
    The periodic table represents and organizes all known chemical elements on the basis of their properties. While the importance of this table in chemistry is uncontroversial, the role that it plays in scientific reasoning remains heavily disputed. Many philosophers deny the explanatory role of the table and insist that it is “merely” classificatory The structure of scientific theories, University of Illinois Press, Illinois, 1977; Scerri in Erkenntnis 47:229–243, 1997). In particular, it has been claimed that the table does not figure (...)
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  5. Mendeleev’s Periodic Law and the 19th Century Debates on Atomism.Pieter Thyssen - forthcoming - In Martin Eisvogel & Klaus Ruthenberg (eds.), Wald, Positivism and Chemistry. Würzburg, Germany:
    The heated debates and severe conflicts between the atomists and the anti-atomists of the latter half of the nineteenth century are well known to the historian of science. The position of Dmitrii Ivanovich Mendeleev towards these nineteenth century debates on atomism will be studied in this paper. A first attempt will thus be offered to reconcile Mendeleev’s seemingly contradictory comments and ambiguous standpoints into one coherent view.
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  6. The generalization of the Periodic table. The "Periodic table" of dark matter.Vasil Penchev - 2021 - Computational and Theoretical Chemistry eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 4 (4):1-12.
    The thesis is: the “periodic table” of “dark matter” is equivalent to the standard periodic table of the visible matter being entangled. Thus, it is to consist of all possible entangled states of the atoms of chemical elements as quantum systems. In other words, an atom of any chemical element and as a quantum system, i.e. as a wave function, should be represented as a non-orthogonal in general (i.e. entangled) subspace of the separable complex Hilbert space relevant to the system (...)
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  7. Particular Symmetries: Group Theory of the Periodic System.Pieter Thyssen & Arnout Ceulemans - 2020 - Substantia 4 (1):7-22.
    To this day, a hundred and fifty years after Mendeleev's discovery, the overal structure of the periodic system remains unaccounted for in quantum-mechanical terms. Given this dire situation, a handful of scientists in the 1970s embarked on a quest for the symmetries that lie hidden in the periodic table. Their goal was to explain the table's structure in group-theoretical terms. We argue that this symmetry program required an important paradigm shift in the understanding of the nature of chemical elements. The (...)
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  8. Reporting the discovery of new chemical elements: working in different worlds, only 25 years apart.K. Brad Wray & Line Edslev Andersen - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (2):137-146.
    In his account of scientific revolutions, Thomas Kuhn suggests that after a revolutionary change of theory, it is as if scientists are working in a different world. In this paper, we aim to show that the notion of world change is insightful. We contrast the reporting of the discovery of neon in 1898 with the discovery of hafnium in 1923. The one discovery was made when elements were identified by their atomic weight; the other discovery was made after scientists came (...)
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  9. The Atomic Number Revolution in Chemistry: A Kuhnian Analysis.K. Wray - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (3):209-217.
    This paper argues that the field of chemistry underwent a significant change of theory in the early twentieth century, when atomic number replaced atomic weight as the principle for ordering and identifying the chemical elements. It is a classic case of a Kuhnian revolution. In the process of addressing anomalies, chemists who were trained to see elements as defined by their atomic weight discovered that their theoretical assumptions were impediments to understanding the chemical world. The only way to normalize the (...)
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  10. Quantum Diffusion of Electrons in Quasiperiodic and Periodic Approximant Lattices in the Rare Earth-Cadmium System.N. M. R. Armstrong, K. D. Mortimer, T. Kong, S. L. Bud’ko, P. C. Canfield, D. N. Basov & T. Timusk - 2016 - Philosophical Magazine 96 (11):1122-1130.
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  11. Eka-Elements as Chemical Pure Possibilities.Amihud Gilead - 2016 - Foundations of Chemistry 18 (3):183-194.
    From Mendeleev’s time on, the Periodic Table has been an attempt to exhaust all the chemical possibilities of the elements and their interactions, whether these elements are known as actual or are not known yet as such. These latter elements are called “eka-elements” and there are still some of them in the current state of the Table. There is no guarantee that they will be eventually discovered, synthesized, or isolated as actual. As long as the actual existence of eka-elements is (...)
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  12. Spiral as the Fundamental Graphic Representation of the Periodic Law. Blocks of Elements as the Autonomic Parts of the Periodic System.Naum Imyanitov - 2016 - Foundations of Chemistry 18 (2):153-173.
    The spiral form of the Periodic Law is proposed as its fundamental graphic representation. This idea is based on the fact that the spiral is the most appropriate form in description transitions from simple to complicated. The spiral is easily obtained from the linear succession of the elements when they are ranged by growing nuclear charge. The spiral can be simply transformed into many other graphic representations, including tables. This paper suggests the conception of the autonomy of blocks. This autonomy (...)
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  13. Dialectics and Synergetics in Chemistry. Periodic Table and Oscillating Reactions.Naum Imyanitov - 2016 - Foundations of Chemistry 18 (1):21-56.
    This work utilizes examples from chemical sciences to present fundamentals of dialectics and synergetics. The laws of dialectics remain appropriate at the level of atoms, at the level of molecules, at the level of the reactions, and at the level of ideas. The law of the unity and conflict of opposites is seen, for instance, in the relationships between the ionization energy and electron affinity of atoms, between the forward and back reactions, as well as in the differentiation and integration (...)
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  14. The 4s and 3d Subshells: Which One Fills First in Progressing Through the Periodic Table and Which One Fills First in Any Particular Atom? [REVIEW]Sadegh Salehzadeh & Farahnaz Maleki - 2016 - Foundations of Chemistry 18 (1):57-65.
    In this paper, first we discuss an old problem in teaching electron configuration of transition metals and the order in which the orbitals are filled. Then we propose two simple computational experiments, in order to show that in the case of first row transition metals and the main group elements after them, the electrons occupy the 3d subshell before the 4s. It is shown that if we begin with the bare nucleus of above elements in the vacuum and then continue (...)
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  15. Displacement Field of Doubly Periodic Array of Dislocation Dipoles in Elastically Anisotropic Media.Siamak Soleymani Shishvan & Babak Moghaddam - 2016 - Philosophical Magazine 96 (3):230-252.
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  16. The Periodic Table and the Model of Emerging Truth.Mark Weinstein - 2016 - Foundations of Chemistry 18 (3):195-212.
    The periodic table may be seen as the most successful example of inquiry in the history of science, both in terms of practical application and theoretic understanding. As such, it serves as a model for truth as it emerges from inquiry. This paper offers a sketch of a central moment in the history of chemistry that illustrates an intuitive metamathematical construction, a model of emerging truth. The MET, reflecting the structure the surrounds the periodic table, attempts to capture the salient (...)
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  17. The Positions of Lanthanum and Lutetium in the Periodic Table: An Update.William B. Jensen - 2015 - Foundations of Chemistry 17 (1):23-31.
    This article updates the author’s 1982 argument that lutetium and lawrencium, rather than lanthanum and actinium, should be assigned to the d-block as the heavier analogs of scandium and yttrium, whereas lanthanum and actinium should be considered as the first members of the f-block with irregular configurations. This update is embedded within a detailed analysis of Lavelle’s abortive 2008 attempt to discredit this suggestion.
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  18. The Brazilian Contribution of Alcindo Flores Cabral to the Periodic Classification.Juergen Heinrich Maar & Eder João Lenardão - 2015 - Foundations of Chemistry 17 (1):5-22.
    This paper presents the contributions of Alcindo Flores Cabral, professor of Chemistry at the Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel, nowadays part of the Universidade Federal de Pelotas, to chemistry teaching. It is a contribution almost unknown to the Brazilian chemical community, although recognized as valuable by several renowned chemists abroad, like W. Hückel, G. Charlot, F. Strong, E. Fessenden and others. Cabral’s innovative helical representation is presented in connection not only with contemporary representations, but also an incursion is made into (...)
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  19. Mendeleev and the Rare-Earth Crisis.Pieter1 Thyssen & Koen Binnemans - 2015 - In Eric Scerri & Lee McIntyre (eds.), Philosophy of Chemistry: Growth of a New Discipline. Dordrecht, Netherlands: pp. 155-182.
    Since its inception in 1869, the periodic system — icon of modern chemistry — has suffered from the problematic accommodation of the rare-earth elements. The substance of this paper intends to retrace Mendeleev’s shifting attitudes with regard to the rare-earth crisis during the period 1869–1871. Based on a detailed examination of Mendeleev's research papers from that period, it will be argued that the rare-earth crisis played a key role in inducing a number of important changes in Mendeleev’s philosophical viewpoints with (...)
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  20. A Generalised Model of Hydrogen Diffusion in Metals with Multiple Trap Types.Jesús Toribio & Viktor Kharin - 2015 - Philosophical Magazine 95 (31):3429-3451.
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  21. Periodic Contact Between Piezoelectric Materials and a Rigid Body with a Wavy Surface.Yue-Ting Zhou & Tae-Won Kim - 2015 - Philosophical Magazine 95 (2):167-185.
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  22. How Can We Teach the Chemical Elements to Make the Memorization Task More Enjoyable?Antonio Joaquín Franco-Mariscal - 2014 - Foundations of Science 19 (2):185-188.
    In this commentary to Leal (2013), we argue that the memorization of the names and symbols of the chemical elements is necessary in the study of that topic because this task is the key for the later understanding of the Periodic Table. We can make the memorization task in an enjoyable, but effective way, using some educational games in chemistry class. Some recent puzzles, card games, mnemonics rules or games based on drawings to learn the chemical elements are addressed in (...)
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  23. The First Metals in Mendeleiev’s Table: Part II. A New Argument Against the Placement of Hydrogen Atop the Alkali Metal Column. [REVIEW]Raymundo Hernández & Octavio Novaro - 2014 - Foundations of Chemistry 16 (3):177-180.
    Every so often an experiment trying to give reliable evidence for a metallic hydrogen solid is reported. Such evidence is, however, not too convincing. As Eric Scerri has recently reiterated, “the jury is still out on that issue” . This search stems from the common spectroscopy shared by the hydrogen atom and all the alkali metal atoms, and perhaps is guided by a desire to place hydrogen atop the alkali metals, in Mendeleiev’s Table, reinforced by the fact pointed out by (...)
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  24. Adequacy of the New Formulation of the Periodic Law When Fundamental Variations Occur in Blocks and Periods.Naum S. Imyanitov - 2014 - Foundations of Chemistry 16 (3):235-247.
    In the Periodic Tables the transition from atoms to double-charged cations is accompanied by alterations in the composition of s and p blocks and reciprocal location of blocks, as well as by changes in the composition and length of periods. We have previously described the relationship between the atom properties and the total number of differentiating electrons. This paper demonstrates that, despite the above transition-related alterations, this relationship is also valid for the description of the properties of double-charged cations. This (...)
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  25. Eric R. Scerri: The Periodic Table: A Very Short Introduction: Oxford University Press, Oxford, England; New York, NY, 2011, Xx+ 147 Pp., ISBN: 978-0-19-958249-5 $11.95; £7.99.George B. Kauffman - 2014 - Foundations of Chemistry 16 (2):171-172.
    A quick question! Who’s the first name that comes to mind when the periodic table is mentioned? Dmitrii Ivanovich Mendeleev is the obvious and universal answer. And the second name? Most of you would probably agree with my answer: Eric R. Scerri, Lecturer in Chemistry and History and Philosophy of Science at the University of California, Los Angeles, and founding editor of this journal, devoted to the philosophy of chemistry, another of his specialties.Through the years I have followed Scerri’s work (...)
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  26. Eric Scerri: A Tale of 7 Elements: Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK; New York, NY, 2013, Xxxiii + 270 Pp, $19.95; £12.99 , ISBN: 978-0-19-539131-2.George B. Kauffman - 2014 - Foundations of Chemistry 16 (3):253-256.
    The iconic status of the periodic table of the elements has been recognized by a variety of prominent chemists and historians of science. For example, John Emsley proclaimed: “As long as chemistry is studied there will be a periodic table. And even if someday we communicate with another part of the universe, we can be sure that one thing that both cultures will have in common is an ordered system of the elements that will be instantly recognizable by both intelligent (...)
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  27. Eric Scerri : 30-Second Elements: The 50 Most Significant Elements, Each Explained in Half a Minute: Ivy Press, Lewes, UK, 2013, 160 Pp, $19.34; £12.99, ISBN: 978-184831-594-5.George B. Kauffman - 2014 - Foundations of Chemistry 16 (3):257-258.
    Besides the book under review here, the “30-Second” series of books includes numerous titles such as those on anatomy, architecture, astronomy, the Bible, brain, economics, maths, mythology, philosophies, politics, psychology, religion, and theories.Together with eight contributors, each a leading authority with a proven track record for successfully explaining science to a general audience, Eric Scerri, Lecturer in Chemistry at the University of California, Los Angeles; founder and editor of this journal; and the undisputed world authority on the history and philosophy (...)
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  28. Ulf Lagerkvist: Erling Norrby : The Periodic Table and a Missed Nobel Prize: World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore/Hackensack, NJ/London, 2012, Xii + 122 Pp, ISBN: 978-981-4295-95-6 , $22, £15.George B. Kauffman - 2014 - Foundations of Chemistry 16 (3):249-251.
    The “story behind the story” of the genesis of this book is an involved and fascinating one. In May the Sven and Dagmar Salén Foundation decided to give a grant to Ulf Lagerqvist to permit publication of his manuscript titled The Bewildered Nobel Committee by the World Scientific Publishing Company . This decision was based on a thorough review by Torbjörn Norin, Professor of Organic Chemistry at the Royal School of Technology in Stockholm and a member of the board of (...)
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  29. Chemical Elements, Discoveries, and Disputes: Eric Scerri: A Tale of 7 Elements. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013, Xxxiii+270pp, $19.95, £12.99 HB.Helge Kragh - 2014 - Metascience 23 (2):373-375.
    Among the subjects that attract historians of chemistry and philosophers of chemistry alike are the chemical elements and their classification within the periodic system. In 2007, Eric Scerri, a distinguished philosopher of the chemical sciences, published The Periodic Table (Oxford University Press), a comprehensive and critical account of the subject. He describes the present work as “a follow-up book,” and a few of the chapters are indeed condensed versions of chapters appearing in the 2007 book. Nonetheless, A Tale of 7 (...)
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  30. The Forgotten Names of Chemical Elements.João P. Leal - 2014 - Foundations of Science 19 (2):175-183.
    Chemical elements are the bricks with which Chemistry is build. Their names had a history, but part of it is forgotten or barely known. In this article the forgotten, no more used, never used, and alternatively used names and symbols of the elements are reviewed, bringing to us some surprises and deeper knowledge about the richness of Chemistry. It should be stressed that chemical elements are important not only for chemists but for all people dealing with science. As in any (...)
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  31. The First Metals in Mendeleiev’s Table: Further Arguments to Place He Above Ne and Not Above Be. [REVIEW]Alejandro Ramírez-Solís & Octavio Novaro - 2014 - Foundations of Chemistry 16 (2):87-91.
    In a recent paper in this Journal, one of us argued against placing He above Be in Mendeleiev’s system of the elements. In it the goal was to dispute the notion that in Mendeleiev’s system of the elements the location of He should in fact lie above Be, which has a very similar electronic configuration, rather than above the noble gas column. That paper was based on rather old, Hartree–Fock limit studies on the strikingly limited non-additive contributions in the He3 (...)
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  32. Novelty, Coherence, and Mendeleev’s Periodic Table.Samuel Schindler - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 45:62-69.
    Predictivism is the view that successful predictions of “novel” evidence carry more confirmational weight than accommodations of already known evidence. Novelty, in this context, has traditionally been conceived of as temporal novelty. However temporal predictivism has been criticized for lacking a rationale: why should the time order of theory and evidence matter? Instead, it has been proposed, novelty should be construed in terms of use-novelty, according to which evidence is novel if it was not used in the construction of a (...)
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  33. Concerning Electronegativity as a Basic Elemental Property and Why the Periodic Table is Usually Represented in its Medium Form.Mark R. Leach - 2013 - Foundations of Chemistry 15 (1):13-29.
    Electronegativity, described by Linus Pauling described as “The power of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself” (Pauling in The nature of the chemical bond, 3rd edn, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, p 88, 1960), is used to predict bond polarity. There are dozens of methods for empirically quantifying electronegativity including: the original thermochemical technique (Pauling in J Am Chem Soc 54:3570–3582, 1932), numerical averaging of the ionisation potential and electron affinity (Mulliken in J Chem Phys 2:782–784, 1934), (...)
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  34. Periodicity, Visualization, and Design.Francis T. Marchese - 2013 - Foundations of Chemistry 15 (1):31-55.
    This paper explores the development of the chemical table as a tool designed for chemical information visualization. It uses a historical context to investigate the purpose of chemical tables and charts, analyzing them from the perspective of theory of tables, cartography, and design. It suggests reasons why the two-dimensional periodic table remains the de facto standard for chemical information display.
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  35. Periodicity in the Formulae of Carbonyls and the Electronic Basis of the Periodic Table.Peter G. Nelson - 2013 - Foundations of Chemistry 15 (2):199-208.
    The basis of the Periodic Table is discussed. Electronic configuration recurs in only 21 out of the 32 groups. A better basis is derived by considering the highest classical valency (v) exhibited by an element and a new measure, the highest valency in carbonyl compounds (v*). This leads to a table based on the number of outer electrons possessed by an atom (N) and the number of electrons required for it to achieve an inert (noble) gas configuration (N*). Periodicity of (...)
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  36. Periodic Patterns: The Group (N) and Group (N + 10) Linkage. [REVIEW]Geoff Rayner-Canham - 2013 - Foundations of Chemistry 15 (2):229-237.
    The early Periodic Tables displayed an 8-Group system. Though we now use an 18-Group array, the old versions were based on evidence of similarities between what we now label as Group (n) and the corresponding Group (n + 10). As part of a series on patterns in the Periodic Table, in this contribution, these similarities are explored for the first time in a systematic manner. Pourbaix (Eh–pH) diagrams have been found particularly useful in this context.
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  37. A Place at the Table.Abby Wilkerson - 2013 - The Philosophers' Magazine 61 (61):100-106.
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  38. Reducing Chemistry to Physics: Limits, Models, Consequences.Hinne Hettema - 2012 - Createspace.
    Chemistry and physics are two sciences that are hard to connect. Yet there is significant overlap in their aims, methods, and theoretical approaches. In this book, the reduction of chemistry to physics is defended from the viewpoint of a naturalised Nagelian reduction, which is based on a close reading of Nagel's original text. This naturalised notion of reduction is capable of characterising the inter-theory relationships between theories of chemistry and theories of physics. The reconsideration of reduction also leads to a (...)
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  39. A contribuição brasileira de Alcindo Flores Cabral à classificação periódica dos elementos.Juergen Heinrich Maar & Eder João Lenardão - 2012 - Scientiae Studia 10 (4):773-798.
    Este artigo apresenta a contribuição de Alcindo Flores Cabral (1907-1982) - professor de química da Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel, hoje incorporada à Universidade Federal de Pelotas - ao ensino de química, uma contribuição quase desconhecida pela própria comunidade química brasileira, embora reconhecida como relevante por diversos químicos estrangeiros importantes, como W. Hückel, G. Charlot, F. Strong, E. Fessenden e outros. A inovadora representação helicoidal de Cabral é apresentada não só em conexão com representações contemporâneas, mas também inclui-se uma incursão (...)
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  40. What is an Element? What is the Periodic Table? And What Does Quantum Mechanics Contribute to the Question?Eric R. Scerri - 2012 - Foundations of Chemistry 14 (1):69-81.
    This article considers two important traditions concerning the chemical elements. The first is the meaning of the term “element” including the distinctions between element as basic substance, as simple substance and as combined simple substance. In addition to briefly tracing the historical development of these distinctions, I make comments on the recent attempts to clarify the fundamental notion of element as basic substance for which I believe the term “element” is best reserved. This discussion has focused on the writings of (...)
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  41. A Critique of Weisberg’s View on the Periodic Table and Some Speculations on the Nature of Classifications.Eric R. Scerri - 2012 - Foundations of Chemistry 14 (3):275-284.
    This article carefully analyzes a recent paper by Weisberg in which it is claimed that when Mendeleev discovered the periodic table he was not working as a modeler but instead as a theorist. I argue that Weisberg is mistaken in several respects and that the periodic table should be regarded as a classification, not as a theory. In the second part of the article an attempt is made to elevate the status of classifications by suggesting that they provide a form (...)
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  42. The Philosophical Magazine and the Periodic Table of Elements.Peter Weinberger - 2012 - Philosophical Magazine 92 (13):1727-1732.
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  43. Diffraction of Limit Periodic Point Sets.Michael Baake & Uwe Grimm - 2011 - Philosophical Magazine 91 (19-21):2661-2670.
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  44. Sam Kean. The Disappearing Spoon, and Other True Tales of Madness, Love, and the History of the World From the Periodic Table of the Elements.Julia R. Bursten - 2011 - Spontaneous Generations 5 (1):100-102.
    Sometimes the right book finds you at the right time, and it shifts your perception of a familiar subject just a little, just enough to make a difference. It reminds you of something important you haven’t thought of in a while, or it shows you a new way of looking at and interacting with the world. Last winter, for me, that book was The Disappearing Spoon, by Sam Kean. I heard a very fuzzy description of the book at a holiday (...)
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  45. Solution Growth of a Decagonal Quasicrystal and its Related Periodic Crystals in the Al–Ni–Ru System.Shogo Dasai & Hiroyuki Takakura - 2011 - Philosophical Magazine 91 (19-21):2434-2442.
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  46. The History of the Discovery of Nuclear Fission.Jack E. Fergusson - 2011 - Foundations of Chemistry 13 (2):145-166.
    Following with the discovery of the electron by J. J. Thomson at the end of the nineteenth century a steady elucidation of the structure of the atom occurred over the next 40 years culminating in the discovery of nuclear fission in 1938–1939. The significant steps after the electron discovery were: discovery of the nuclear atom by Rutherford (Philos Mag 6th Ser 21:669–688, 1911 ), the transformation of elements by Rutherford (Philos Mag 37:578–587, 1919 ), discovery of artificial radioactivity by Joliot-Curie (...)
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  47. Sam Kean: The Disappearing Spoon: And Other True Tales of Madness, Love, and the History of the World From the Periodic Table of the Elements: Little, Brown & Co., 1st Edn , ISBN-10: 0316051640, ISBN-13: 978-0316051644. [REVIEW]Michael Laing - 2011 - Foundations of Chemistry 13 (1):77-77.
    Sam Kean: The disappearing spoon: and other true tales of madness, love, and the history of the world from the periodic table of the elements Content Type Journal Article Pages 77-77 DOI 10.1007/s10698-010-9101-x Authors Michael Laing, School of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4041 South Africa Journal Foundations of Chemistry Online ISSN 1572-8463 Print ISSN 1386-4238 Journal Volume Volume 13 Journal Issue Volume 13, Number 1.
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  48. Collected Papers on the Philosophy of Chemistry Selected Papers on the Periodic Table.Arie Leegwater - 2011 - Annals of Science:1-3.
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  49. Observation of Log-Periodic Oscillations in the Quantum Dynamics of Electrons on the One-Dimensional Fibonacci Quasicrystal.Ron Lifshitz & Shahar Even-Dar Mandel - 2011 - Philosophical Magazine 91 (19-21):2792-2800.
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  50. Automatic Detection of Defects on Periodically Patterned Textures.P. Nagabhushan, N. U. Bhajantri & V. Asha - 2011 - Journal of Intelligent Systems 20 (3):279-303.
    Defect detection is a major concern in quality control of various products in industries. This paper presents two different machine-vision based methods for detecting defects on periodically patterned textures. In the first method, input defective image is split into several blocks of size same as the size of the periodic unit of the image and chi-square histogram distances of each periodic block with respect to itself and all other periodic blocks are calculated to get a dissimilarity matrix. This dissimilarity matrix (...)
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