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  1. What Even is 'Gender'?B. R. George - manuscript
    This paper presents a new taxonomy of sex/gender concepts based on the idea of starting with a few basic components of the sex/gender system, and exhausting the possible types of simple associations and identities based on these. The resulting system is significantly more fine-grained than most competitors, and helps to clarify a number of points of confusion and conceptual tension in academic and activist conversations about feminism, transgender politics, and the social analysis of gender.
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  2. Not the Social Kind: Anti-Naturalist Mistakes in the Philosophical History of Womanhood.Kathleen Stock - manuscript
    I trace a brief history of philosophical discussion of the concept WOMAN and identify two key points at which, I argue, things went badly wrong. The first was where when it was agreed that the concept WOMAN must identify a social not biological kind. The second was where it was decided that the concept WOMAN faced a legitimate challenge of being insufficiently “inclusive”, understood in a certain way. I’ll argue that both of these moves are only intelligible, if at all, (...)
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  3. Evaluating Arguments for the Sex/Gender Distinction.Tomas Bogardus - 2020 - Philosophia 48 (3):873-892.
    Many philosophers believe that our ordinary English words man and woman are “gender terms,” and gender is distinct from biological sex. That is, they believe womanhood and manhood are not defined even partly by biological sex. This sex/gender distinction is one of the most influential ideas of the twentieth century on the broader culture, both popular and academic. Less well known are the reasons to think it’s true. My interest in this paper is to show that, upon investigation, the arguments (...)
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  4. Are women adult human females?Alex Byrne - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (12):3783-3803.
    Are women (simply) adult human females? Dictionaries suggest that they are. However, philosophers who have explicitly considered the question invariably answer no. This paper argues that they are wrong. The orthodox view is that the category *woman* is a social category, like the categories *widow* and *police officer*, although exactly what this social category consists in is a matter of considerable disagreement. In any event, orthodoxy has it that *woman* is definitely not a biological category, like the categories *amphibian* or (...)
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  5. Man as Woman : Beauvoir’s Gender Theory in terms of a Sartrian Philosophy.Yusuke Kaneko - 2019 - Journal of Humanities Chiba University 48:1-30.
    Although written in Japanese, this article deals with what the gender theory is all about by reference to Beauvoir's Le Deuxième Sexe. Sartre's works are also heavily cited to clarify the background of Beauvoir's philosophy.
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  6. Monsters of Sex: Foucault and the Problem of Life.Sarah K. Hansen - 2018 - Foucault Studies 24 (2):102-124.
    This article argues, contra-Derrida, that Foucault does not essentialize or precomprehend the meaning of life or bio- in his writings on biopolitics. Instead, Foucault problematizes life and provokes genealogical questions about the meaning of modernity more broadly. In The Order of Things, the 1974-75 lecture course at the Collège de France, and Herculine Barbin, the monster is an important figure of the uncertain shape of modernity and its entangled problems (life, sex, madness, criminality, etc). Engaging Foucault’s monsters, I show that (...)
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  7. The History of Biology and its Importance for Gender Studies.Yusuke Kaneko - 2016 - GÉNEROS –Multidisciplinary Journal of Gender Studies 5 (2).
    The aim of this paper is to call the attention, especially that of feminists, to the current progress in biology. It appears gender studies still confine themselves to outdated ideas of sex chromosomes like XX, XY (§10). However, science has been making progress. It no longer sticks to such matters as XX, XY. Its interest is now in Sry, a kind of gene (§11), and MIS, a kind of sex hormone (§14). Abnormalities of sex chromosomes are no longer evidence to (...)
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  8. From 'Brain Drain' to 'Care Drain': Women's Labor Migration and Methodological Sexism.Speranta Dumitru - 2014 - Women's Studies International Forum 47:203-212.
    The metaphor of “care drain” has been created as a womanly parallel to the “brain drain” idea. Just as “brain drain” suggests that the skilled migrants are an economic loss for the sending country, “care drain” describes the migrant women hired as care workers as a loss of care for their children left behind. This paper criticizes the construction of migrant women as “care drain” for three reasons: 1) it is built on sexist stereotypes, 2) it misrepresents and devalues care (...)
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  9. Heteronormativity and/as Violence: The “Sexing” of Gwen Araujo.Moya Lloyd - 2013 - Hypatia 28 (4):818-834.
    This paper will examine the violence of heteronormativity: the violence that constitutes and regulates bodies according to normative notions of sex, gender, and sexuality. This violence, I will argue, requires more than a focus on gendered or sexualized physical harms of the kinds normally examined when studying violence against sexual minorities or women. Rather, it necessitates focusing on the multiple modalities through which heteronormativity performs its violence on, through, and against bodies and persons, including through the production of certain bodies (...)
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  10. Sex/Gender: Biology in a Social World.Anne Fausto-Sterling - 2012 - Routledge.
    Sex/Gender presents a relatively new way to think about how biological difference can be produced over time in response to different environmental and social experiences. -/- This book gives a clearly written explanation of the biological and cultural underpinnings of gender. Anne Fausto-Sterling provides an introduction to the biochemistry, neurobiology, and social construction of gender with expertise and humor in a style accessible to a wide variety of readers. In addition to the basics, Sex/Gender ponders the moral, ethical, social and (...)
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  11. Explaining, or Sustaining, the Status Quo? The Potentially Self-Fulfilling Effects of 'Hardwired' Accounts of Sex Differences.Cordelia Fine - 2012 - Neuroethics 5 (3):285-294.
    In this article I flesh out support for observations that scientific accounts of social groups can influence the very groups and mental phenomena under investigation. The controversial hypothesis that there are hardwired differences between the brains of males and females that contribute to sex differences in gender-typed behaviour is common in both the scientific and popular media. Here I present evidence that such claims, quite independently of their scientific validity, have scope to sustain the very sex differences they seek to (...)
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  12. Ontological Commitments, Sex and Gender.Mari Mikkola - 2011 - In Charlotte Witt (ed.), Feminist Metaphysics. Springer. pp. 67--83.
    This paper develops an alternative for (what feminists call) ‘the sex/gender distinction’. I do so in order to avoid certain problematic implications that the distinction underpins. First, the sex/gender distinction paradigmatically holds that some social conditions determine one’s gender (whether one is a woman or a man), and that some biological conditions determine one’s sex (whether one is female or male). Further, sex and gender come apart. Since gender is socially constructed, this implies that women exist mind-dependently, or due to (...)
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  13. The Metaphysics of Sex and Gender.Ásta Kristjana Sveinsdóttir - 2011 - In Charlotte Witt (ed.), Feminist Metaphysics. Springer.
    In this chapter I offer an interpretation of Judith Butler’s metaphysics of sex and gender and situate it in the ontological landscape alongside what has long been the received view of sex and gender in the English speaking world, which owes its inspiration to the works of Simone de Beauvoir. I then offer a critique of Butler’s view, as interpreted, and subsequently an original account of sex and gender, according to which both are constructed—or conferred, as I would put it— (...)
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  14. Ethical Principles and Recommendations for the Medical Management of Differences of Sex Development (DSD) / Intersex In.Claudia Wiesemann - 2010 - European Journal of Pediatrics 169:671-679.
    The medical management of DSD/ Intersex in early childhood has been criticized by patients' advocates as well as bioethicists from an ethical point of view. Some call for a moratorium of any feminizing or masculinizing operations before the age of consent except for medical emergencies. No exhaustive ethical guidelines have been published until now. In particular, the role of the parents as legal representatives of the child is controversial. In the article, we develop, discuss and present ethical principles and recommendations (...)
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  15. Die Ontologie des Geschlechts.Ludger Jansen - 2009 - In Hella Ehlers, Beate Rudlof, Heike Trappe, Gabriele Linke & Heike Kahlert (eds.), Geschlechterdifferenz – und kein Ende? Sozial- und geisteswissenschaftliche Beiträge zur Genderforschung. LIT-Verlag. pp. 19-39.
  16. The Gift of the Other: Levinas and the Politics of Reproductionby Lisa Guenther.Ewa Plonowska Ziarek - 2008 - Hypatia 23 (4):225-228.
  17. Review of 'The Ontology of Sex: A Critical Inquiry Into the Deconstruction and Reconstruction of Categories' by Carrie Hull. [REVIEW]Ross Morrow - 2007 - Journal of Critical Realism 6 (1):158-164.
  18. The Ontology of Sex: A Critical Inquiry Into the Deconstruction and Reconstruction of Categories. By Carrie Hull.Ross Morrow - 2007 - Journal of Critical Realism 6 (1):158-164.
  19. Changing Race, Changing Sex: The Ethics of Self-Transformation.Cressida J. Heyes - 2006 - Journal of Social Philosophy 37 (2):266-282.
  20. Gender and Race.Jennifer Saul - 2006 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 80 (1):119-143.
  21. Luce Irigaray and the Philosophy of Sexual Difference.Alison Stone - 2006 - Cambridge University Press.
    Alison Stone offers a feminist defence of the idea that sexual difference is natural, providing a new interpretation of the later philosophy of Luce Irigaray. She defends Irigaray's unique form of essentialism and her rethinking of the relationship between nature and culture, showing how Irigaray's ideas can be reconciled with Judith Butler's performative conception of gender, through rethinking sexual difference in relation to German Romantic philosophies of nature. This is the first sustained attempt to connect feminist conceptions of embodiment to (...)
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  22. When Sex Became Gender.Shira Tarrant - 2006 - Routledge.
    This book is a study of post World War II feminist theory from the viewpoint of intellectual history. The key theme is that the social construction of gender has its origins in the feminist theorists of this period. This paradigm is a key foundational element to both second and third wave feminist thought. It will focus on the five key scholars of the period: Komarovsky, de Beauvoir, Mead, Klein and Herschberger. This has been a somewhat overlooked period in the development (...)
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  23. Artificial Ef-Femination: Female Bodybuilding and Gender Disruption.Marla Morton-Brown - 2004 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 11 (1):27-34.
    Many feminist and queer scholars believe that one way to fight racism, sexism and homophobia is to challenge identity labels---ideas of what it means to be “black,” “gay,” “white,” “woman,” “lesbian.” Biology, however, continues to thwart this political agenda; the Body---the biological reality of skin color and sex chromosomes---makes it difficult to propose the idea that identity labels are merely social constructs, not natural facts. Female bodybuilding is a performance that literalizes the body as a site of artificial construction, of (...)
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  24. Body Talk: Philosophical Reflections on Sex and Gender. Jacquelyn N. Zita New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.Christa Davis Acampora - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (3):212-215.
  25. Race, Gender, and Sexuality: Philosophical Issues of Identity and Justice.Jami L. Anderson (ed.) - 2003 - Prentice-Hall.
    This anthology of contemporary articles (and court cases provides a philosophical analysis of race, sex and gender concepts and issues. Divided into three relatively independent yet thematically linked sections, the anthology first addresses identity issues, then injustices and inequalities, and then specific social and legal issues relevant to race, sex and gender. By exposing readers to both theoretical foundations, opposing views, and "real life" applications, the anthology prepares them to make critically reasoned decisions concerning today's race, gender and sex social (...)
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  26. Feminist Thought: Androcentrism, Communication, and Objectivity.Shefali Moitra - 2002 - Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers in Association with Centre of Advanced Study in Philosophy, Jadavpur University, Kolkata.
  27. Resisting Sex/Gender Conflation: A Rejoinder to John Hood-Williams.Robert Archer - 1996 - The Sociological Review 44 (4):728-745.
    The irony of the rejection of the sex/gender distinction is that it renders sociology per se an impossible enterprise. For it is my submission that, contra Hood-Williams (1996) and others, the biological and the social constitute distinct, irreducible levels of reality: to conflate (in a ‘downwards’ or ‘upwards’ direction) the two levels is immediately to render analysis of their relative interplay at best intractable. It is indeed arguable that Hood-Williams is not so much concerned with (rightly) rejecting the so-called ‘additive’ (...)
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  28. The Unholy Alliance of Sex and Gender.Marilyn Friedman - 1996 - Metaphilosophy 27 (1-2):78-91.
  29. Questions to Luce Irigaray.Kate Ince - 1996 - Hypatia 11 (2):122 - 140.
    This article traces the "dialogue" between the work of the philosophers Luce Irigaray and Emmanuel Levinas. It attempts to construct a more nuanced discussion than has been given to date of Irigaray's critique of Levinas, particularly as formulated in "Questions to Emmanuel Levinas" (Irigaray 1991). It suggests that the concepts of the feminine and of voluptuosity articulated by Levinas have more to contribute to Irigaray's project of an ethics of sexual difference than she herself sometimes appears to think.
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  30. Reclaiming the Sex/Gender Distinction.Marilyn Friedman - 1991 - Noûs 25 (2):200-201.
  31. Blood at the Root: Motherhood, Sexuality and Male Dominance.Ann Ferguson - 1989 - Pandora/Unwin & Hyman.
    This is a book on feminist theory from a socialist-feminist (materialist feminist) perspective. I categorize existing paradigms of Western feminist theory in the 1980s and contrast them with my own view, which adds to a critique of capitalism inspired by Marxism another system in which male domination persists, which I call the system of "sex-affective production" (inspired but going beyond Freud, Foucault and Deleuze and Guattari). I also discuss motherhood and sexuality using my paradigm personally, politically and philosophically.
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