About this topic
Summary Christianity claims that there is a God and that he is or consists of three persons. There is a range of views: some take the three persons to be nearly identical or to be three aspects of the one God, others take the three persons to be three distinct persons who form a unity which makes it right to say that there is one God. The texts in this category discuss how the doctrine of the trinity is to be spelled out.
Key works Davis et al 1999 contains recent articles about the trinity. Swinburne 1994 contains a social theory of the trinity. Brower & Rea 2005 discusses material constitution and the trinity.
Introductions Rea 2009
Related categories
Siblings:See also:History/traditions: The Trinity

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  1. Disputed Questions on the Mystery of the Trinity.B. W. A. - 1981 - Review of Metaphysics 35 (1):117-118.
  2. The Twelve Patriarchs, the Mystical Ark, Book Three of the Trinity.B. W. A. - 1979 - Review of Metaphysics 33 (2):445-447.
  3. Praying the Trinity: Transforming Feminist Trinitarian Theologies.Susan Abraham - 2014 - Modern Theology 30 (4):582-590.
  4. The Doctrine of Divine Person Considered Both Historically and in the Contemporary Theologies of Karl Barth and Juergen Moltmann.David Reynolds Adams - 1991 - Dissertation, Fuller Theological Seminary, School of Theology
    This dissertation is an analysis of the concept of divine Person. It is discussed both in its historical development, and in the twentieth century theologies of Karl Barth and Jurgen Moltmann. This historic overview is structured towards a coherent systematic theological overview. The first part is a broad historical analysis of the establishment of the doctrine of the Trinity. It considers the doctrinal development of the concept of divine Person from the unsystematic trinitarian belief of the Early Church through the (...)
  5. The Metaphysics of the Trinity in Some Fourteenth Century Franciscans.Marilyn McCord Adams - 2008 - Franciscan Studies 66:101 - 168.
  6. Maqalah Fi Al-Tawhid.Khalil Yahyá ibn Adi & Samir - 1980 - Al-Maktabah Al-Bulusiyah.
  7. The Indwelling of the Holy Spirit.William Alston - 1988 - In Thomas V. Morris (ed.), Philosophy and the Christian Faith. Univ. Of Notre Dame Press. pp. 121--131.
  8. Recent theories of the Trinity.José Tomás Alvarado Marambio - 2013 - Veritas: Revista de Filosofía y Teología 29:189-217.
    Este trabajo presenta y discute diferentes intentos recientes para resolver el así llamado «problema de la Trinidad». Las declaraciones dogmáticas han asumido que (a) sólo hay un Dios; (b) que hay tres personas diferentes, el Padre, el Hijo y el Espíritu Santo; y (c) que esas tres personas son un solo Dios. Pero si hay tres personas diferentes y esas tres personas diferentes son Dios, entonces parece que, o bien no hay un único Dios, o no hay realmente tres personas (...)
  9. Teorías Recientes de la Trinidad.José Tomás Alvarado Marambio - 2013 - Veritas 29:189-217.
    Este trabajo presenta y discute diferentes intentos recientes para resolver el así llamado «problema de la Trinidad». Las declaraciones dogmáticas han asumido que (a) sólo hay un Dios; (b) que hay tres personas diferentes, el Padre, el Hijo y el Espíritu Santo; y (c) que esas tres personas son un solo Dios. Pero si hay tres personas diferentes y esas tres personas diferentes son Dios, entonces parece que, o bien no hay un único Dios, o no hay realmente tres personas (...)
  10. In Defence of Mystery: A Reply to Dale Tuggy.James Anderson - 2005 - Religious Studies 41 (2):145.
    In a recent article, Dale Tuggy argues that the two most favoured approaches to explicating the doctrine of the Trinity, Social Trinitarianism and Latin Trinitarianism, are unsatisfactory on either logical or biblical grounds. Moreover, he contends that appealing to ‘mystery’ in the face of apparent contradiction is rationally and theologically unacceptable. I raise some critical questions about Tuggy's assessment of the most relevant biblical data, before defending against his objections the rationality of an appeal to mystery in the face of (...)
  11. Leibniz de Deo Trino: Philosophical Aspects of Leibniz's Conception of the Trinity.Maria Rosa Antognazza - 2001 - Religious Studies 37 (1):1-13.
    This paper discusses Leibniz's Trinitarian doctrine in the light of his philosophy, as revealed by a set of virtually unstudied texts. The first part of the paper examines Leibniz's defence of the Trinity against the charge of contradiction as a necessary precondition to the development of his own conception of the Trinity. The second part discusses some of the key features of Leibniz's Trinitarian doctrine, notably his conception of person, the analogy between the human mind and the Trinity, and the (...)
  12. The Defence of the Mysteries of the Trinity and the Incarnation: An Example of Leibniz's 'Other' Reason.Maria Rosa Antognazza - 2001 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 9 (2):283 – 309.
    In this paper I will discuss certain aspects of Leibniz's theory and practice of 'soft reasoning' as exemplified by his defence of two central mysteries of the Christian revelation: the Trinity and the Incarnation. By theory and practice of 'soft' or 'broad' reasoning, I mean the development of rational strategies which can successefully be applied to the many areas of human understanding which escape strict demonstration, that is, the 'hard' or 'narrow' reasoning typical of mathematical argumentation. These strategies disclose an (...)
  13. An Asterisk Denotes a Publication by a Member of the American Catholic Philosophical Association. The Editors Welcome Suggestions for Reviews. Antognazza, Maria Rosa. Leibniz on the Trinity and the Incarnation: Reason and Revelation in the Seventeenth Century. Trans. Gerald Parks. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008. Pp. Xxv+ 322. Hard Cover $60.00, ISBN: 978-0-300-10074-7. [REVIEW]Theodore J. Antry, Carol Neel, Barry Bercier & Erin Lothes Biviano - 2008 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 82 (1).
  14. Holy, Holy, Holy: Proclaiming the Perfections of God.Thabiti M. Anyabwile (ed.) - 2010 - Reformation Trust.
  15. How Do You Know God's Your Father?Kay Arthur - 2001 - Waterbrook Press.
    Each book in the series includes six 40-minute studies designed to draw you into God’s Word through basic inductive Bible study.
  16. Trinitarian Roots of Francis Bacon's Pragmatism.Aderemi Artis - 2015 - Heythrop Journal 56 (2):n/a-n/a.
  17. Book Review: The Holy Spirit and Spiritual Gifts in the New Testament Church and Today. [REVIEW]Richard S. Ascough - 1999 - Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 53 (4):428-428.
  18. The Neoplatonic One and the Trinitarian Arche.P. J. Atherton - 1976 - In R. Baine Harris (ed.), The Significance of Neoplatonism. State University of New York Press.
  19. The Trinity. Augustine - 1963 - Catholic University of America Press.
  20. On the Trinity.Gareth B. Augustine & Matthews - 2002
  21. Augoustinou Peri Triados Vivlia Pentekaideka.Maximus Augustine, Manoles Planudes, Isavella Papathomopoulos, Gianpaolo Tsavare & Rigotti - 1995
  22. The Trinity and the Life of the Christian: A Liturgical Catechism.Lewis Ayres - 2011 - New Blackfriars 92 (1037):3-17.
  23. Augustine and the Trinity.Lewis Ayres - 2011 - Augustinian Studies 42 (1):87 - 90.
  24. Not Three People: The Fundamental Themes of Gregory of Nyssa's Trinitarian Theology as Seen in To Ablabius: On Not Three Gods.Lewis Ayres - 2002 - Modern Theology 18 (4):445-474.
  25. Forward Looking Universal Bioethics: Polytheism and Monotheism.Jayapul Azariah - 2001 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 11 (5):157-158.
  26. A Changing of the Christian God The Doctrine of the Trinity in the Seventeenth Century.William S. Babcock - 1991 - Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 45 (2):133-146.
    In the interval between the time of the Reformation and today, large numbers of Christians seem quietly to have shifted their allegiance from one God to another, leaving themselves with the doctrine of the Trinity but no longer retaining the God whom it adumbrates.
  27. Trinity, Generality, and Dominance.H. E. Baber - 2016 - Religious Studies 52 (4):435-449.
    I defend a relative identity solution to the identity puzzle posed by the doctrine of the Trinity. It has been argued that relative identity theories which admit absolute identity, such as the account proposed here, do not succeed in saving the doctrine of the Trinity from logical incoherence. I show that this argument fails. Relative identity theories that admit absolute identity are logically conservative, metaphysically innocent, and unproblematic. And, given the account I propose we can, without incurring any logical or (...)
  28. The Trinity.H. E. Baber - 2015 - Faith and Philosophy 32 (2):161-171.
    Prima facie, relative identity looks like a perfect fit for the doctrine of the Trinity since it allows us to say that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, each of which is a Trinitarian Person, are the same God but not the same Person. Nevertheless, relative identity solutions to logic puzzles concerning the doctrine of the Trinity have not, in recent years, been much pursued. Critics worry that relative identity accounts are unintuitive, uninformative or unintelligible. I suggest that the relative (...)
  29. Trinity, Filioque and Semantic Ascent.H. E. Baber - 2008 - Sophia 47 (2):149-160.
    It is difficult to reconcile claims about the Father's role as the progenitor of Trinitarian Persons with commitment to the equality of the persons, a problem that is especially acute for Social Trinitarians. I propose a metatheological account of the doctrine of the Trinity that facilitates the reconciliation of these two claims. On the proposed account, ‘Father’ is systematically ambiguous. Within economic contexts, those which characterize God's relation to the world, ‘Father’ refers to the First Person of the Trinity; within (...)
  30. Sabellianism Reconsidered.H. E. Baber - 2002 - Sophia 41 (2):1-18.
    Sabellianism, the doctrine that the Persons of the Trinity are roles that a single divine being plays either simultaneously or successively, is commonly thought to entail that the Father is the Son. I argue that there is at least one version of Sabellianism that does not have this result and meets the requirements for a minimally decent doctrine of the Trinity insofar as it affirms that each Person of the Trinity is God and that the Trinity of Persons is God (...)
  31. Abba, Father.H. E. Baber - 1999 - Faith and Philosophy 16 (3):423-432.
    Questions about the use of “inclusive language” in Christian discourse are trivial but the discussion which surrounds them raises an exceedingly important question, namely that of whether gender is theologically salient-whether Christian doctrine either reveals theologically significant differences between men and women or prescribes different roles for them. Arguably both conservative support for sex roles and allegedly progressive doctrines about the theological significance of gender, race, ethnicity and sexual orientation are contrary to the radical teaching of the Gospel that in (...)
  32. Scotus on the Consistency of the Incarnation and the Trinity.Allan Bäck - 1998 - Vivarium 36 (1):83-107.
    Medieval theologians discussed the logical structure of reduplicative propositions in the midst of their discussions of the Incarnation and the Trinity. Aquinas has the usual medieval analyzes of reduplicative propositions: the specificative and the strictly reduplicative. But neither analysis resolves successfully the problems of the consistency of the statements about God while avoiding making the Trinity or the Incarnation a merely accidental feature of Him. However, Scotus introduces another analysis: abstractive. I shall conclude that Scotus’s view of reduplication, one, if (...)
  33. The Messianic Disruption of Trinitarian Theology – By Kornel Zathureczky.Scott Bader‐Saye - 2011 - Modern Theology 27 (1):190-193.
  34. Spirit's Gift: The Metaphysical Insight of Claude Bruaire – By Antonio López, F.S.C.B.Anthony D. Baker - 2008 - Modern Theology 24 (3):528-529.
  35. The Nuṣayrī Doctrine of ‘Alī’s Divinity and the Nuṣayrī Trinity According to an Unpublished Treatise From the 7th/13th Century. [REVIEW]Meir M. Bar-Asher & Aryeh Kofsky - 1995 - Der Islam: Journal of the History and Culture of the Middle East 72 (2):258-292.
  36. Gregory of Nyssa and the Concept of Divine Persons - By Lucian Turcescu.Michel Rene Barnes - 2007 - Modern Theology 23 (4):638-642.
  37. The Visible Christ and the Invisible Trinity: MT. 5:8 in Augustine's Trinitarian Theology of 400.Michel René Barnes - 2003 - Modern Theology 19 (3):329-355.
  38. Divine Unity and the Divided Self: Gregory of Nyssa's Trinitarian Theology in its Psychological Context.Michel René Barnes - 2002 - Modern Theology 18 (4):475-496.
  39. On Earth As It Is in Heaven: Trinitarian Influences on Locke's Account of Personal Identity.John Barresi - 2006 - The Pluralist 1 (1):110 - 128.
    Locke’s concepts of person and self as they first appeared in the 1694 essay were not original to him but had already appeared in the Trinitarian controversy in England in the early 1690s. In particular, William Sherlock, who in 1690 argued that the Trinity might be understood as composed of three distinct self-conscious minds or persons in one God, previously used not only concepts but also phrases that Locke used in his definition of person. Both Sherlock and Locke defined person (...)
  40. Protecting God: The Lexical Formation of Trinitarian Language.Christian J. Barrigar - 1991 - Modern Theology 7 (4):291-310.
  41. Review: Trinity, Incarnation and Philosophy. [REVIEW]T. W. Bartel - 1995 - Religious Studies 31 (3):391 - 397.
  42. Trinity, Incarnation and Philosophy.T. W. Bartel - 1995 - Religious Studies 31 (3):391.
  43. Could There Be More Than One Almighty?T. W. Bartel - 1993 - Religious Studies 29 (4):465.
    If proof is required that yesterday's scandal can become today's fashion, we need look no further than recent discussions of the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. Just a generation ago, Trinitarians typically insisted that the members of the Godhead are not distinct persons in any literal sense. But during the past few years, more and more philosophically sophisticated Christians have unblushingly maintained that the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are not just different persons, but different individuals – that (...)
  44. The Plight of the Relative Trinitarian.Timothy W. Bartel - 1988 - Religious Studies 24 (2):129 - 155.
    SOME PHILOSOPHERS RESORT TO RELATIVE IDENTITY IN ORDER TO DEFEND THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF THE TRINITY AGAINST ACCUSATIONS OF INCOHERENCE: THEY CLAIM THAT FATHER, SON, AND HOLY SPIRIT ARE NUMERICALLY THE SAME DEITY BUT ALSO NUMERICALLY DISTINCT PERSONS. I ARGUE THAT THEIR CLAIM IS EITHER INCOHERENT OR IMPOSSIBLE TO MOTIVATE. I ALSO ARGUE THAT THE SOCIAL INTERPRETATION OF THE TRINITY, ACCORDING TO WHICH FATHER, SON, AND HOLY SPIRIT ARE DISTINCT "SIMPLICITER", IS NOT OBVIOUSLY UNORTHODOX.
  45. The Plight of the Relative Trinitarian: TIMOTHY W. BARTEL.Timothy W. Bartel - 1988 - Religious Studies 24 (2):129-155.
    According to the Law of Non–Contradiction, no statement and its negation are jointly true. According to many critics, Christians cannot serve both the orthodox faith and the Law of Non–Contradiction: if they hold to the one they must despise the other. And according to an impressive number of these critics, Christians who cling to the traditional doctrine of the Trinity must despise the Law of Non–Contradiction. Augustine's statement of this doctrine poses the problem as poignantly as any.
  46. In What Sense Must God Do His Best: A Response to Hasker. [REVIEW]David Basinger - 1985 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 18 (3):161 - 164.
  47. The Trinity.Frederick Christian Bauerschmidt - 2007 - In David Matzko McCarthy & M. Therese Lysaught (eds.), Gathered for the Journey: Moral Theology in Catholic Perspective. William B. Eerdmans.
  48. The Holy Spirit in the Cappadocians: Past and Present.Christopher A. Beeley - 2010 - Modern Theology 26 (1):90-119.
  49. The Breath of the Almighty: The Holy Spirit.Alistair Begg - 2010 - In Thabiti M. Anyabwile (ed.), Holy, Holy, Holy: Proclaiming the Perfections of God. Reformation Trust.
  50. Unity and Trinity in Dionysius and Eriugena.Werner Beierwaltes - 1994 - Hermathena 157:1 - 20.
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