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  1. added 2020-05-31
    Call Me Irresponsible Is Psychopaths' Responsibility a Matter of Preference?Jalava Jarkko & Griffiths Stephanie - 2017 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 24 (1):21-24.
    The philosophical debate over psychopaths’ moral and criminal responsibility is increasingly evidence based. However, as we noted, such arguments are misleading if philosophers only consider evidence that supports their own positions. In his response, Glannon counters our argument by introducing new evidence—neuroimaging data—and so demonstrates the exact problem we outlined; Strijbos, in contrast, offers a workable solution.Glannon’s response is a succinct summation of the strengths and weaknesses that philosophers bring to the debate. Although Glannon accurately portrays the potential role of (...)
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  2. added 2019-11-08
    Reliability and Validity in Psychiatric Classification: Values and Neo-Humeanism.Timothy Thornton - 2002 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 9 (3):229-235.
  3. added 2019-11-08
    Epistemic Value Commitments in the Debate Over Categorical Vs. Dimensional Personality Diagnosis.John Z. Sadler - 1996 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 3 (3):203-222.
    Contemporary philosophy of science tells us that scientific theories are “underdetermined” by their accompanying data in a variety of ways. Briefly put, theories are not constructed on data alone. Psychiatric classification is subject to this same kind of underdetermination. Theories may be determined by a combination of data, historical factors, practical constraints, value commitments, and other factors. While practical constraints (like user-friendliness or compatibility across diagnostic systems) are commonly admitted to be influential in shaping psychiatric classification, the idea that values (...)
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  4. added 2019-11-08
    Commentary on "Epistemic Value Commitments&Quot.Michael Luntley - 1996 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 3 (3):227-229.
  5. added 2019-11-08
    Commentary on "Epistemic Value Commitments&Quot.W. J. Livesley - 1996 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 3 (3):223-226.
  6. added 2019-10-23
    Psychopathy Treatment and the Stigma of Yesterday's Research.Rasmus Rosenberg Larsen - 2020 - In Sandra L. Borden & J. D. Allhoff (eds.), Ethics and Error in Medicine. New York: Routledge.
  7. added 2019-07-16
    Soortgelijke stoornissen. Over nut en validiteit van classificatie in de psychiatrie.Olivier Lemeire - 2014 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 76 (2):217-246.
    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders was published in 2013. This manual classifies all known mental disorders and provides operationalized criteria for their diagnosis. The goal of this manual is to facilitate communication, treatment and research with reliable and valid diagnoses. This article will provide a study of what this diagnostic validity actually entails. Firstly, it will include a discussion of the different conceptions of validity that have appeared in the literature so far. To (...)
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  8. added 2019-06-06
    Clinical Ethics: NICE Guidelines, Clinical Practice and Antisocial Personality Disorder: The Ethical Implications of Ontological Uncertainty.M. D. Pickersgill - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (11):668-671.
    The British National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence has recently released new guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the psychiatric category antisocial personality disorder. Evident in these recommendations is a broader ambiguity regarding the ontology of ASPD. Although, perhaps, a mundane feature of much of medicine, in this case, ontological uncertainty has significant ethical implications as a product of the profound consequences for an individual categorised with this disorder. This paper argues that in refraining from emphasising uncertainty, (...)
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  9. added 2019-04-19
    Treating High Risk Mentally Disordered Offenders; the Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder Initiative.Val Hawes - 2009 - In Annie Bartlett & Gillian McGauley (eds.), Forensic Mental Health: Concepts, Systems, and Practice. Oxford University Press. pp. 215.
  10. added 2019-04-19
    “Just So” Stories and Sociopathy.Andrew Futterman & Garland E. Allen - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):557-558.
    Sociobiological explanation requires both a reliable and a valid definition of the sociopathy phenotype. Mealey assumes that such reliable and valid definition of sociopathy exists in her A review of psychiatric literature on the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder clearly demonstrates that this assumption is faulty. There is substantial disagreement among diagnostic systems (e.g., RDC, DSM-III) over what constitutes the antisocial phenotype, different systems identify different individuals as sociopathic. Without a valid definition of sociopathy, sociobiological theories like Mealey's should be (...)
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  11. added 2019-04-19
    Sociopathy or Hyper-Masculinity?Anne Campbell - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):548-549.
    Definitional slippage threatens to equate secondary sociopathy with mere criminality and leaves the status of noncriminal sociopaths ambiguous. Primary sociopathy appears to show more environmental contingency than would be implied by a strong genetic trait approach. A reinterpretation in terms of hypermasculinity and hypofemininity is compatible with the data.
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  12. added 2019-04-19
    Adolescence-Limited and Life-Course-Persistent Antisocial Behavior: A Developmental Taxonomy.Terrie E. Moffitt - 1993 - Psychological Review 100 (4):674-701.
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  13. added 2019-04-19
    A New Understanding of Psychopathy: The Contribution of Phenomenological Psychopathology.Jérôme Englebert - unknown
    The objective of this study is to present a theoretical paper about a clinical issue. Our aim is to propose some clinical and semiological considerations for a psychopathological conception of psychopathy. We will discuss several major theoretical works dedicated to this nosographic entity. We will also examine a significant issue raised by Cooke et al., namely whether psychopathic functioning is consistently related to antisocial behavior. This theoretical essay is informed by clinical situations. The method applied a phenomenological psychopathology analysis to (...)
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  14. added 2019-01-23
    AN INTIMATE INSIGHT ON PSYCHOPATHY AND A NOVEL HERMENEUTIC PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE.E. Taku - 2016 - SSRN Electronic Journal 9 (7):entire issue.
    This paper is rather a profound hermeneutic enunciation putting into question our present understanding of psychopathy. It further articulates, in complement, a novel theoretical and methodological conceptualisation for a hermeneutic psychological science. Methodology-wise, it puts into question a traditional more or less categorical and mechanical approach to the social and behavioural sciences as it strives to introduce a creative and insightful approach for the articulation of ideas. It rather seeks to construe the scientific method as being more about falsifiability and (...)
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  15. added 2019-01-23
    A Grave Problem of Conscience: Kantian Morality in the Face of Psychopathy.Norman K. Swazo - 2014 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 28 (1):89-106.
    Clinical psychologists remain puzzled about the diagnostic basis and therapeutic disposition of individuals who present with a clinical profile of psychopathy. Psychopaths have been characterized as lacking in conscience and presenting a mask of sanity, thus differentiating them from psychotics and neurotics. The clinical profile of the psychopathic personality seems at odds with Kant’s moral philosophy, in which Kant characterizes not only the central role of conscience in moral judgment, but in which Kant also insists that every person has a (...)
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  16. added 2019-01-23
    Psychopathy Could Use a Little Skepticism.John A. Fennel - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 4 (2):14-15.
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  17. added 2019-01-04
    Complex Relations Between Psychopathy and Fitness May Indicate Adaptive Trade-Offs.Janko Međedović - forthcoming - Evolutionary Psychological Science.
    In order to assess the potential of psychopathy to increase evolutionary fitness, we examined the relations between psychopathy and fitness indicators (number of children and grandchildren, problems in physical health both in parents and offspring) in a sample of post-reproductive individuals (N = 187; Mage = 66.52). Specifically, we explored the possibility that psychopathy traits are involved in evolutionary trade-offs: both positive and negative relations with different fitness components. Psychopathy was measured via three traits—interpersonal, affective, and lifestyle characteristics, which are (...)
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  18. added 2019-01-04
    Can Psychopathic Traits Be Adaptive? Sex Differences in Relations Between Psychopathy and Emotional Distress.Janko Međedović & Katarina Sokić - 2018 - Psychological Topics 27 (3):481-497.
    One of the most prominent models of psychopathy operationalizes this construct as consisting of four factors: interpersonal, affective, lifestyle and antisocial traits. These traits show different relationship patterns with other constructs, and these relations may differ in men and women. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the relations between psychopathic traits and indicators of emotional distress (depression, anxiety and stress), differ between men and women. Data was collected on 650 students (60% women) at the University of Zagreb. (...)
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  19. added 2019-01-04
    Exploring the Links Between Psychopathy and Life History in a Sample of College Females: A Behavioral Ecological Approach.Janko Međedović - 2018 - Evolutionary Psychological Science 4 (466).
    In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that psychopathy emerges as an adaptive behavioral response to a harsh environment: psychopathy could represent a mediator in the link between a harsh environment and fast life history pathway. We measured environmental harshness, psychopathy (boldness, meanness, and disinhibition), and a wide range of life history parameters (expected longevity, covitality, age at first menstruation, age at first sex, mating success, planned age at first reproduction, and expected total fertility) in a sample of young (...)
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  20. added 2018-12-24
    Sentiment or Reason?: Can Research on Offenders Tell Us?Simon Wilson - 2011 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (4):365-366.
    Tankersley has provided an interesting collection of data about various groups of antisocial individuals. Is this a paper about the moral reasoning of psychopaths, or is it an attempt to address a philosophical question—whether moral behavior is primarily driven by emotions (moral sentimentalism) or by reasons (moral rationalism)—empirically? I think it attempts a little of both, although I concentrate on the latter. -/- The trouble with much of the literature on psychopathy is the terminological confusion, and Tankersley has not escaped (...)
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  21. added 2018-11-16
    Psychopathy, Identification and Mental Time Travel.Luca Malatesti & Filip Čeč - 2018 - Free Will and Action.
    Recently some have argued that psychopaths might suffer generalised cognitive impairments that affect their capacity for mental time travel. In relation to the past, mental time travel is the capacity to have memories of past episodes in which the agent was personally involved. In relation to the future, mental time travel involves prospection, the capacity to imagine future situations where the agent might be involved. The authors argue that certain studies on the instrumental learning of psychopaths show that, in relation (...)
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  22. added 2018-11-07
    False-Positives in Psychopathy Assessment: Proposing Theory-Driven Exclusion Criteria in Research Sampling.Rasmus Rosenberg Larsen - 2018 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 14 (1):33-52.
    Recent debates in psychopathy studies have articulated concerns about false-positives in assessment and research sampling. These are pressing concerns for research progress, since scientific quality depends on sample quality, that is, if we wish to study psychopathy we must be certain that the individuals we study are, in fact, psychopaths. Thus, if conventional assessment tools yield substantial false-positives, this would explain why central research is laden with discrepancies and nonreplicable findings. This paper draws on moral psychology in order to develop (...)
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  23. added 2018-11-07
    Psychopathic Personality Disorder: Capturing an Elusive Concept.David J. Cooke - 2018 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 14 (1):15-32.
    The diagnosis of psychopathic personality disorder has salience for forensic clinical practice. It influences decisions regarding risk, treatability and sentencing, indeed, in certain jurisdictions it serves as an aggravating factor that increases the likelihood of a capital sentence. The concatenation of symptom that is associated with modern conceptions of the disorder can be discerned in early writings, including the book of Psalms. Despite its forensic clinical importance and historical pedigree the concept remains elusive and controverted. In this paper I describe (...)
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  24. added 2018-11-07
    Delineating Psychopathy From Cognitive Empathy: The Case of Psychopathic Personality Traits Scale.Janko Međedović, Tara Bulut, Drago Savić & Nikola Đuričić - 2018 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 14 (1):53-62.
    There is an ongoing debate regarding the content of psychopathy, especially about the status of antisocial behavior and disinhibition characteristics as core psychopathy features. Psychopathic Personality Traits Scale (PPTS) represents a novel model of psychopathy based on core psychopathy markers such as Interpersonal manipulation, Egocentricity and Affective responsiveness. However, this model presupposes another narrow trait of psychopathy: cognitive responsiveness, which represents a lack of cognitive empathy. Since previous models of psychopathy do not depict this feature as a core psychopathy trait, (...)
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  25. added 2018-11-07
    Psychopathy: Philosophical and Empirical Challenges.Marko Jurjako, Luca Malatesti & John McMillan - 2018 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 14 (1):5-14.
    Editorial introduction to the special issue of the European Journal of Analytic Philosophy.
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  26. added 2018-11-07
    What Can Philosophers Learn From Psychopathy?Heidi L. Maibom - 2018 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 14 (1):63-78.
    Many spectacular claims about psychopaths are circulated. This contribution aims at providing the reader with the more complex reality of the phenomenon (or phenomena), and to point to issues of particular interest to philosophers working in moral psychology and moral theory. I first discuss the current evidence regarding psychopaths’ deficient empathy and decision-making skills. I then explore what difference it makes to our thinking whether we regard their deficit dimensionally (as involving abilities that are on or off) and whether we (...)
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  27. added 2018-07-16
    Electrophysiological Correlates of Empathic Processing in Individuals with Psychopathic Meanness Traits.J. D. M. Van Dongen, Inti A. Brazil, F. M. van der Veen & I. H. A. Franken - forthcoming - Neuropsychology.
  28. added 2018-07-11
    Is Sociopathy a Type or Not? Will the “Real” Sociopathy Please Stand Up?James Snyder - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):575.
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  29. added 2018-06-14
    Some Ethical Considerations About the Use of Biomarkers for the Classification of Adult Antisocial Individuals.Marko Jurjako, Luca Malatesti & Inti Brazil - 2019 - International Journal of Forensic Mental Health 18 (3):228-242.
    It has been argued that a biomarker-informed classification system for antisocial individuals has the potential to overcome many obstacles in current conceptualizations of forensic and psychiatric constructs and promises better targeted treatments. However, some have expressed ethical worries about the social impact of the use of biological information for classification. Many have discussed the ethical and legal issues related to possibilities of using biomarkers for predicting antisocial behaviour. We argue that prediction should not raise the most pressing ethical worries. Instead, (...)
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  30. added 2018-06-05
    Responsibility and Psychopathy: Interfacing Law, Psychiatry and Philosophy.Luca Malatesti & John McMillan (eds.) - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    The discussion of whether psychopaths are morally responsible for their behaviour has long taken place in philosophy. In recent years this has moved into scientific and psychiatric investigation. Responsibility and Psychopathy discusses this subject from both the philosophical and scientific disciplines, as well as a legal perspective.
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  31. added 2018-03-31
    Il modello medico forte e i disturbi antisociali della personalità (Eng. The strong medical model and antisocial personality disorders)).Zdenka Brzović, Marko Jurjako & Luca Malatesti - 2018 - Sistemi Intelligenti 30 (1):175-188.
    Dominic Murphy in several influential publications has formulated and defended what he calls the strong medical model of mental illness. At the core of this project is the objectivist requirement of classifying mental illness in terms of their aetiologies, preferably characterised by multilevel mechanistic explanations of dysfunctions in neurocomputational processes. We are sympathetic to this project and we devise an argument to support it based on a conception of psychiatric kinds. Murphy has, moreover, maintained that there are some open issues (...)
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  32. added 2018-03-08
    The Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised (2nd Ed.).Robert D. Hare - 2003 - Multi-Health Systems.
  33. added 2018-02-21
    The Kindness of Psychopaths.Zdenka Brzović, Marko Jurjako & Predrag Šustar - 2017 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 31 (2):189-211.
    Psychopathy attracts considerable interdisciplinary interest. The idea of a group of people with abnormal morality and interpersonal relations raises important philosophical, legal, and clinical issues. However, before engaging these issues, we ought to examine whether this category is scientifically grounded. We frame the issue in terms of the question whether ‘psychopathy’ designates a natural kind according to the cluster approaches. We argue that currently there is no sufficient evidence for an affirmative answer to this question. Furthermore, we examine three ways (...)
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  34. added 2018-02-08
    Deux mesures de psychopathie chez les patients médicolégaux.Denis Delannoy, Xavier Saloppé, Luca A. Tiberi, Christelle Delescluse & Thierry H. Pham - 2017 - Annales Médico-Psychologiques, Revue Psychiatrique 175 (3):297-299.
    In the forensic field, psychopathy is a disorder that raises many questions. Indeed, the diagnostic evaluation by the PCL-R offers no opportunity to assess the variability of the disorder on the entire life. However, the dimensional scales used to assess this fluctuation, at least in the medium term. This study helps to validate the CAPP-IRS using the PCL-R with forensic patients.
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  35. added 2018-01-23
    La psychopathie et son évaluation.Denis Delannoy, Xavier Saloppé, Vicenzutto Audrey, Vanessa Majois, Claire Ducro & T. H. Pham - forthcoming - EMC - Psychiatrie.
    L’évaluation de la psychopathie reste incontournable tant dans le domaine de l’expertise, de l’orientation, du traitement, que de l’évaluation et la gestion du risque. Le profil psychopathique et le niveau de risque de récidive associé constituent des indicateurs pertinents pour les professionnels de terrain. Cet article se propose de compléter le premier datant de 2011 en apportant des connaissances supplémentaires relatives aux modèles d’évaluation de la psychopathie ainsi qu’un éclairage optimiste sur l’efficacité des traitements auprès d’adultes délinquants. Il décrit, d’une (...)
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  36. added 2017-12-04
    A Drifting Concept for an Unruly Menace: A History of Psychopathy in Germany.Greg Eghigian - 2015 - Isis 106 (2):283-309.
    The term “psychopath” has enjoyed wide currency both in popular culture and among specialists in forensic psychiatry. Historians, however, have generally neglected the subject. This essay examines the history of psychopathy in the country that first coined the term, developed the concept, and debated its treatment: Germany. While the notion can be traced to nineteenth-century psychiatric ideas about abnormal, yet not completely pathological, character traits, the figure of the psychopath emerged out of distinctly twentieth-century preoccupations and institutions. The vagueness and (...)
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  37. added 2017-12-04
    The Dark Triad of Personality Traits, Diurnal Cortisol Variations and Sleep-Wake Cycles.Atkinson Bronte, Thomas Susan & Fernandez-Enright Francesca - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
    There is growing interest in examining dark personality traits, to better explain malevolent and self-serving behaviour patterns commonly observed in clinical and non-clinical settings. Recently, taxonomies of dark personalities have been developed, along with psychometric tools to measure and delineate between traits including psychopathy, Machiavellianism and narcissism. The extent to which these constructs are distinct or overlapping remains controversial. Psychophysiological research can improve understanding of biological mechanisms contributing to personality that may help to evaluate taxonomies. This study investigated diurnal variations (...)
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  38. added 2017-10-23
    Psychopathic Traits Are Associated with Reduced Attention to the Eyes of Emotional Faces Among Adult Male Non-Offenders.Steven M. Gillespie, Pia Rotshtein, Laura J. Wells, Anthony R. Beech & Ian J. Mitchell - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  39. added 2017-09-11
    Psychopaths Show Enhanced Amygdala Activation During Fear Conditioning.Douglas H. Schultz, Nicholas L. Balderston, Arielle R. Baskin-Sommers, Christine L. Larson & Fred J. Helmstetter - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into “primary” and “secondary” psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional “fearlessness,” while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental deficit in amygdala function, and previous studies have provided support for a low-fear model of psychopathy. (...)
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  40. added 2017-07-26
    A Comprehensive Neuroimaging Review of PCL-R Defined Psychopathy.Stephanie Y. Griffiths & Jarkko V. Jalava - 2017 - Aggression and Violent Behavior:DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.07.002.
    Neurobiological theories of psychopathy typically include abnormalities in paralimbic circuits, and a neurobiological profile of paralimbic dysfunction in increasingly invoked in applied legal settings. The current study systematically evaluated whether sMRI and fMRI findings in PCL-R defined psychopaths suggest paralimbic dysfunction. Our review indicates diffuse and variable neural correlates of psychopathy, with numerous issues complicating the interpretation of these heterogeneous data. Our review also extends previous discussions concerning how this heterogeneity may be related to sample characteristics, methodological variations, and statistical (...)
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  41. added 2017-06-28
    Classification and Treatment of Antisocial Individuals: From Behavior to Biocognition.Inti A. Brazil, J. D. M. van Dongen, J. H. R. Maes, R. B. Mars & Arielle R. Baskin-Sommers - 2018 - Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 91:259-277.
    Antisocial behavior is a heterogeneous construct that can be divided into subtypes, such as antisocial personality and psychopathy. The adverse consequences of antisocial behavior produce great burden for the perpetrators, victims, family members, and for society at-large. The pervasiveness of antisocial behavior highlights the importance of precisely characterizing subtypes of antisocial individuals and identifying specific factors that are etiologically related to such behaviors to inform the development of targeted treatments. The goals of the current review are to briefly summarize research (...)
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  42. added 2017-06-28
    The Neural Signatures of Distinct Psychopathic Traits.Justin M. Carré, Luke W. Hyde, Craig S. Neumann, Essi Viding & Ahmad R. Hariri - 2013 - Social Neuroscience 8 (2):122-135.
    Recent studies suggest that psychopathy may be associated with dysfunction in the neural circuitry supporting both threat- and reward-related processes. However, these studies have involved small samples and often focused on extreme groups. Thus, it is unclear to what extent current findings may generalize to psychopathic traits in the general population. Furthermore, no studies have systematically and simultaneously assessed associations between distinct psychopathy facets and both threat- and reward-related brain function in the same sample of participants. Here, we examined the (...)
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  43. added 2017-06-19
    Secondary Sociopathy and Opportunistic Reproductive Strategy.Jay Belsky - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):545-546.
    Mealey's analysis of secondary sociopathy has much in common with Belsky, Steinberg, and Draper's (1991) evolutionary theory of socialization. Both draw attention to the potential influence of early rearing in the promotion of a cold, detached, manipulative, and opportunistic style of relating to others and, in so doing, raise the question of whether secondary sociopathy represents a facultative reproductive strategy.
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  44. added 2017-04-01
    Philosophers On Psychopaths: A Cautionary Tale in Interdisciplinarity.Jarkko Jalava & Stephanie Griffiths - 2017 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 24 (1):1-12.
    Philosophers typically rely on empirical data when they comment on psychopaths’ moral responsibility. Many argue that psychopaths, as per the data, suffer from significant impairments in the precursors of moral reasoning and behavior, and therefore they should not be held morally responsible for their actions. However, careful analysis of these studies shows that this view is mistaken. We discuss how several philosophers— perhaps following the lead of social scientists—have systematically misinterpreted or simplified psychological data to support their conclusions about psychopaths’ (...)
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  45. added 2017-01-09
    The Linguistic Output of Psychopathic Offenders During a PCL-R Interview.Marina T. Le, Michael Woodworth, Lisa Gillman, Erin Hutton & Robert D. Hare - 2016 - Criminal Justice and Behavior:1-15.
    We used text analysis software to examine the linguistic features of the speech of 21 psychopathic and 45 other offenders during the interview part of a Psychopathy Checklist–Revised (PCL-R) assessment. Regression analysis was run on the linguistic categories to determine which were the best predictors of psychopathy scores. Relative to the other offenders, psychopaths used more disfluencies (“you know”) and personal pronouns, made fewer references to other people (e.g., personal names, family), and were also less emotionally expressive. In particular, a (...)
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  46. added 2017-01-08
    Smith and Lilienfeld’s Meta-Analysis of the Response Modulation Hypothesis: Important Theoretical and Quantitative Clarifications.Joseph P. Newman & Arielle R. Baskin-Sommers - 2016 - Psychological Bulletin 142 (12):1384-1393.
    In the first meta-analytic review of the response modulation hypothesis (RMH), an attention-based model for understanding the etiology of psychopathy, Smith and Lilienfeld (2015) report that the average effect size for response modulation deficits in psychopathic individuals fell in the small to medium range (r = .20; p. < .001, d = .41). Moreover, support for the RMH extended to both psychopathy dimensions, across diverse assessments and settings, and spanned child, adult, female, and male samples. The analysis also revealed good (...)
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  47. added 2017-01-08
    Secondary Psychopathy, but Not Primary Psychopathy, is Associated with Risky Decision-Making in Noninstitutionalized Young Adults.Andy C. Dean, Lily L. Altstein, Mitchell E. Berman, Joseph I. Constans, Catherine A. Sugar & Michael S. McCloskey - 2013 - Personality and Individual Differences 54:272–277.
    Although risky decision-making has been posited to contribute to the maladaptive behavior of individuals with psychopathic tendencies, the performance of psychopathic groups on a common task of risky decision-making, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; Bechara, Damasio, Damasio, & Anderson, 1994), has been equivocal. Different aspects of psychopathy (personality traits, antisocial deviance) and/or moderating variables may help to explain these inconsistent findings. In a sample of college students (N = 129, age 18–27), we examined the relationship between primary and secondary psychopathic (...)
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  48. added 2016-08-29
    Psychopathy, Adaptation, and Disorder.Daniel Brian Krupp, Lindsay A. Sewall, Martin L. Lalumière, Craig Sheriff & Grant T. Harris - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4:1-5.
    In a recent study, we found a negative association between psychopathy and violence against genetic relatives. We interpreted this result as a form of nepotism and argued that it failed to support the hypothesis that psychopathy is a mental disorder, suggesting instead that it supports the hypothesis that psychopathy is an evolved life history strategy. This interpretation and subsequent arguments have been challenged in a number of ways. Here, we identify several misunderstandings regarding the harmful dysfunction definition of mental disorder (...)
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  49. added 2016-08-29
    Nepotistic Patterns of Violent Psychopathy: Evidence for Adaptation?D. B. Krupp, L. A. Sewall, M. L. Lalumière, C. Sheriff & G. T. Harris - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3:1-8.
    Psychopaths routinely disregard social norms by engaging in selfish, antisocial, often violent behavior. Commonly characterized as mentally disordered, recent evidence suggests that psychopaths are executing a well-functioning, if unscrupulous strategy that historically increased reproductive success at the expense of others. Natural selection ought to have favored strategies that spared close kin from harm, however, because actions affecting the fitness of genetic relatives contribute to an individual’s inclusive fitness. Conversely, there is evidence that mental disorders can disrupt psychological mechanisms designed to (...)
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  50. added 2016-08-25
    Affective Startle Potentiation Differentiates Primary and Secondary Variants of Juvenile Psychopathy.Goulter Natalie, Kimonis Eva, Fanti Kostas & Hall Jason - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
    Background: Individuals with psychopathic traits demonstrate an attenuated emotional response to aversive stimuli. However, recent evidence suggests heterogeneity in emotional reactivity among individuals with psychopathic or callous-unemotional (CU) traits, the emotional detachment dimension of psychopathy. We hypothesize that primary variants of psychopathy will respond with blunted affect to negatively valenced stimuli, whereas individuals marked with histories of childhood trauma/maltreatment exposure, known as secondary variants, will display heightened emotional reactivity. To test this hypothesis, the present study examined fear-potentiated startle between psychopathy (...)
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