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Summary Theories of free will focus on two basic questions: its possibility and its nature. The possibility question is almost always concerned principally with whether freedom is compatible with causal determinism, as well as with closely related (putative) threats like God's foreknowledge. Philosophers may be either compatibilists or incompatibilists with regard to the relation between freedom and determinism. Of course philosophers are particularly concerned with whether free will is actual. Questions of the nature of free will are usually addressed in conjunction with the compatibility question: philosophers develop accounts of free will in order to show that it is or is not compatible with causal determinism. The typology of these accounts appears under the sibling category "topics in free will".
Key works Contemporary theorists of free will divide into compatibilists, incompatibilists and impossibilists in the main. The most important contemporary compatibilist is probably John Martin Fischer (Fischer & Ravizza 1998) though real self views are increasingly influential (Arpaly 2002Scanlon 2008). Incompatibilists traditionally divide into hard determinists, who hold that free will is incompatible with determinism and determinism is true and libertarians. Libertarians, in turn, divide into agent-causal theorists (e.g. O'Connor 2000) and event-causal theorists (e.g. Kane 1996). Impossibilism has never been popular but seems to be growing slightly (see for instance Strawson 1994). Derk Pereboom's near-impossibilism is also influential (Pereboom 2001). 
Introductions O'Connor & Franklin 2018;McKenna 2008; Clarke & Capes ms; Levy & McKenna 2009
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  1. Determinism, Freedom, and Moral Responsibility.Susanne Bobzien - 2021 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Determinism, Freedom, and Moral Responsibility brings together nine substantial essays on determinism, freedom, and moral responsibility in antiquity by Susanne Bobzien. The essays present the main ancient theories on these subjects, ranging historically from Aristotle followed by the Epicureans, the early Stoics, several later Stoics, and up to Alexander of Aphrodisias in the third century CE. -/- The author discusses questions about rational and autonomous human agency and their compatibility with a large range of important philosophical issues, including their compatibility (...)
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  2. Me, My Will, and I: Kant's Republican Conception of Freedom of the Will and Freedom of the Agent.Pauline Kleingeld - 2020 - Studi Kantiani 33:103-123.
    Kant’s theory of freedom, in particular his claim that natural determinism is compatible with absolute freedom, is widely regarded as puzzling and incoherent. In this paper I argue that what Kant means by ‘freedom’ has been widely misunderstood. Kant uses the definition of freedom found in the republican tradition of political theory, according to which freedom is opposed to dependence, slavery, and related notions – not to determinism or to coercion. Discussing Kant’s accounts of freedom of the will and freedom (...)
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  3. Freedom and Confinement in Modernity: Kafka’s Cages.Dimitris Vardoulakis & Kiarina Kordela (eds.) - 2011 - New York, NY, USA: Palgrave.
    Kafka's literary universe is organized around constellations of imprisonment. Freedom and Confinement in Modernity proposes that imprisonment does not signify a tortured state of the individual in modernity. Rather, it provides a new reading of imprisonment suggesting it allows Kafka to perform a critique of a modernity instead.
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  4. Carving a Life From Legacy: Frankfurt’s Account of Free Will and Manipulation in Greg Egan’s “Reasons to Be Cheerful”.Taylor W. Cyr - 2018 - Journal of Science Fiction and Philosophy 1:1-15.
    Many find it intuitive that having been manipulated undermines a person's free will. Some have objected to accounts of free will like Harry Frankfurt's (according to which free will depends only on an agent's psychological structure at the time of action) by arguing that it is possible for manipulated agents, who are intuitively unfree, to satisfy Frankfurt's allegedly sufficient conditions for freedom. Drawing resources from Greg Egan's "Reasons to Be Cheerful" as well as from stories of psychologically sophisticated artificial intelligence (...)
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  5. Moreau’s Law in The Island of Doctor Moreau in Light of Kant’s Reciprocity Thesis.Daniel Paul Dal Monte - 2018 - Journal of Science Fiction and Philosophy 1:1-12.
    In this paper, I explore a tension between the Law in the novel The Island of Doctor Moreau, by H. G. Wells, and Kant's reciprocity thesis. The Law is a series of prohibitions that Moreau has his beasts recite. Moreau devotes his time to transforming animals through a painful surgery into beings that resemble humans, but the humanized beasts are constantly slipping back into animalistic habits, and so Moreau promulgates the Law to maintain decorum. Kant's reciprocity thesis states that free (...)
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  6. Power and Agency. [REVIEW]Robert Allen - manuscript
    E.J. Lowe attempts to meld elements of volitionalism and agent causalism in his recent essay on philosophy of action, Personal Agency. United in the belief that our mental states are inefficacious when it comes to producing volitions, agent causalists disagree over just how to formulate an alternative understanding of mental agency. We exercise self-control so as to appropriate objects of reactive attitudes by being the ultimate sources of our behavior- here they concur. But the precise nature of the relation between (...)
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  7. The Problem of Determinism - Freedom as Self-Determination.Dieter Wandschneider - 2010 - Psychotherapie Forum 18:100-107.
    There are arguments for determinism. Admittedly, this is opposed by the fact of everyday experience of autonomy. In the following, it is argued for the compatibility of determinism and autonomy. Taking up considerations of Donald MacKay, a fatalistic attitude can be refuted as false. Repeatedly, attempts have been made to defend the possibility of autonomy with reference to quantum physical indeterminacy. But its statistical randomness clearly misses the meaning of autonomy. What is decisive, on the other hand, is the possibility (...)
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  8. Optimistic Molinism.Andre Leo Rusavuk - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):371-387.
    Some Molinists claim that a perfectly good God would actualize a world that is salvifically optimal, that is, a world in which the balance between the saved and damned is optimal and cannot be improved upon without undesirable consequences. I argue that given some plausible principles of rationality, alongside the assumptions Molinists already accept, God’s perfect rationality necessarily would lead him to actualize a salvifically optimal world; I call this position “Optimistic Molinism.” I then consider objections and offer replies, concluding (...)
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  9. Determinismus der Natur und Freiheit des Geistes. Die Rezeption Fichtes in Frankreich und die Ursprünge des französischen Spiritualismus, in Helmut Girndt (a cura di), „Natur“ in der Transzendentalphilosophie. Eine Tagung zum Gedenken an Reinhard Lauth, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, 2015, s. 373-406. [ISBN: 978-3-428-14535-5].Tommaso Valentini - 2015 - In Helmut Girndt (ed.), «Begriff und Konkretion. Beiträge zur Gegenwart der klassischen deutschen Philosphie». Berlino, Germania: pp. 373-406.
    In diesem Beitrag betrachte ich die Rezeption des Denkens von J.G. Fichte bei zwei Philosophen, die als die »Begründer des französischen Spiritualismus« gesehen werden können. Es geht um François-Pierre Maine de Biran (Bergerac 1766 - Paris 1824) und Joseph-Luis-Jules Lequier (Quintin 1814 - Saint-Briec 1862). Nach einer kurzen Gesamtdarstellung der Schwerpunkte beider beschäftige ich mich - in zwei verschieden Teilen - mit der historischen und philologischen Frage, was die französischen Philosophen wirklich von den Werken Fichtes gekannt beziehungsweise verstanden haben. Beide (...)
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  10. Elbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth Wanting . By Daniel C. Dennett. Pp. Xiv, 227. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 2015, $22.13/£12.99. [REVIEW]Benjamin Murphy - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (2):360-361.
  11. Free Will: Real or Illusion - A Debate.Gregg D. Caruso, Christian List & Cory J. Clark - 2020 - The Philosopher 108 (1).
    Debate on free will with Christian List, Gregg Caruso, and Cory Clark. The exchange is focused on Christian List's book Why Free Will Is Real.
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  12. To Be Able to, or to Be Able Not To? That is the Question. A Problem for the Transcendental Argument for Freedom.Nadine Elzein & Tuomas K. Pernu - 2019 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 15 (2):13-32.
    A type of transcendental argument for libertarian free will maintains that if acting freely requires the availability of alternative possibilities, and determinism holds, then one is not justified in asserting that there is no free will. More precisely: if an agent A is to be justified in asserting a proposition P (e.g. "there is no free will"), then A must also be able to assert not-P. Thus, if A is unable to assert not-P, due to determinism, then A is not (...)
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  13. Why Free Will is Real.Christian List - 2019 - Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard University Press.
    Philosophers have argued about the nature and the very existence of free will for centuries. Today, many scientists and scientifically minded commentators are skeptical that it exists, especially when it is understood to require the ability to choose between alternative possibilities. If the laws of physics govern everything that happens, they argue, then how can our choices be free? Believers in free will must be misled by habit, sentiment, or religious doctrine. Why Free Will Is Real defies scientific orthodoxy and (...)
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  14. Hegel.Christopher Yeomans - 2017 - In Kevin Timpe (ed.), Routledge Companion to Free Will. New York, NY, USA: Routledge. pp. 356-363.
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  15. Were You a Zygote?G. E. M. Anscombe - 1984 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 18:111-115.
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  16. The Cards That Are Dealt You.John Martin Fischer - 2006 - The Journal of Ethics 10 (1-2):107-129.
    Various philosophers have argued that in order to be morally responsible, we need to be the "ultimate sources'' of our choices and behavior. Although there are different versions of this sort of argument, I identify a "picture'' that lies behind them, and I contend that this picture is misleading. Joel Feinberg helpfully suggested that we scale down what might initially be thought to be legitimate demands on "self-creation,'' rather than jettison the idea that we are truly and robustly responsible. I (...)
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  17. I Involutional Determinism.Mark Bernstein - 1988 - The Monist 71 (3):358-364.
    One tolerably clear statement of Determinism has it that all events are caused. Expanded upon, this thesis has been taken as the claim that the existence of any event E1, has a set of events, E2 … En which antedate E1, and which are causally sufficient for the occurrence of E1. That is, given the occurrence of E2 … En, E1 is causally necessary. I would hardly wish to claim that this is the only plausible statement of the doctrine of (...)
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  18. Freedom, Gratitude, and Resentment: Olivi and Strawson.Daniel Coren - 2019 - Res Philosophica 96 (3):1-21.
    I argue that by attending to a distinction among perspectives on the root causes of our reactive attitudes, we can better understand the bases and limitations of long-standing debates about free will and moral responsibility. I characterize this distinction as “objectivism vs. subjectivism.” I bring out this distinction by, first, scrutinizing an especially sharp divergence between Peter Strawson and Peter John Olivi: for Olivi, our ordinary human attitudes make it obvious that we have free will, and our attitudes would be (...)
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  19. Free Actions as a Natural Kind.Oisín Deery - 2021 - Synthese 198 (1):823-843.
    Do we have free will? Understanding free will as the ability to act freely, and free actions as exercises of this ability, I maintain that the default answer to this question is “yes.” I maintain that free actions are a natural kind, by relying on the influential idea that kinds are homeostatic property clusters. The resulting position builds on the view that agents are a natural kind and yields an attractive alternative to recent revisionist accounts of free action. My view (...)
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  20. A Metaphysics For Freedom, by Steward Helen: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, Pp. Xii + 267, £36.00. [REVIEW]Antony Eagle - 2013 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (4):833-833.
  21. Agent-Causal Libertarianism, Statistical Neural Laws and Wild Coincidences.Jason Runyan - 2018 - Synthese 195 (10):4563-4580.
    Agent-causal libertarians maintain we are irreducible agents who, by acting, settle matters that aren’t already settled. This implies that the neural matters underlying the exercise of our agency don’t conform to deterministic laws, but it does not appear to exclude the possibility that they conform to statistical laws. However, Pereboom (Noûs 29:21–45, 1995; Living without free will, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001; in: Nadelhoffer (ed) The future of punishment, Oxford University Press, New York, 2013) has argued that, if these neural (...)
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  22. Human Communion and Difference in Gregory of Nyssa: From Trinitarian Theology to the Philosophy of Human Person and Free Decision.Francisco Bastitta-Harriet - 2011 - In Volker H. Drecoll & Margitta Berghaus (eds.), Gregory of Nyssa: The Minor Treatises on Trinitarian Theology and Apollinarism (Vigiliae Christianae Supplements, 106). Leiden, Netherlands: pp. 337-349.
    In the Philosophical Anthropology of Gregory of Nyssa, inspired by his Trinitarian Theology, the new concept of hypostasis as a unique self implies for the first time the irreducibility of human person to the universal. Moreover, Gregory manages to account for both a deep communion of life and nature among all men and a clear distinction between persons, in a truly harmonious dynamism of the physical and the hypostatic. This union and distinction will also inspire his original conception of proaíresis, (...)
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  23. El yo y la libertad: raíces patrísticas de la antropología renacentista y moderna.Francisco Bastitta-Harriet - 2012 - RIIM 56:35-56.
    Humanists and philosophers in the Quattrocento find inspiration for their treatises on human dignity not only in Classical Antiquity, but also in the works of the Church Fathers. The present paper examines the influence of the latter on the theories of freedom at the dawn of Modernity, especially regarding the Patristic conception of human self as person or hypostasis, whose free decision is considered inviolable, creative and irreducible to its own nature or essence.
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  24. Does God ‘Follow’ Human Decision? An Interpretation of a Passage From Gregory of Nyssa’s De Vita Moysis (II 86).Francisco Bastitta-Harriet - 2013 - Studia Patristica 67 (15):101-112.
    The peculiar emphases of Gregory of Nyssa’s thought earned him all kinds of charges, in his own lifetime and onwards: among others, that he falls into Tritheism, Modalism, Synergism, Pelagianism or Semi-Pelagianism. The purpose of this paper is to interpret one of these theoretical audacities. It can be found in a passage from his late treatise De vita Moysis (II 86), where he refers to the evils suffered by the Egyptians in the book of Exodus, and he attributes their cause (...)
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  25. An Introduction to Real Possibilities, Indeterminism, and Free Will: Three Contingencies of the Debate.Thomas Müller, Antje Rumberg & Verena Wagner - 2019 - Synthese 196 (1):1-10.
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  26. Manipulation: Theory and Practice.Christian Coons & Michael Weber (eds.) - 2014 - Oup Usa.
    A great deal of scholarly attention has been paid to coercion. Less attention has been paid to what might be a more pervasive form of influence: manipulation. The essays in this volume address this relative imbalance by focusing on manipulation, examining its nature, moral status, and its significance in personal and social life.
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  27. Colloquium 5: The Αristotelian Origins of Stoic Determinism.Priscilla Sakezles - 2009 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 24 (1):163-196.
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  28. Taking Responsibility for Ourselves: A Kierkegaardian Account of the Freedom-Relevant Conditions Necessary for the Cultivation of Character.Paul E. Carron - 2011 - Dissertation, Baylor University
    What are the freedom-relevant conditions necessary for someone to be a morally responsible person? I examine several key authors beginning with Harry Frankfurt that have contributed to this debate in recent years, and then look back to the writings or Søren Kierkegaard to provide a solution to the debate. In this project I investigate the claims of semi-compatibilism and argue that while its proponents have identified a fundamental question concerning free will and moral responsibility—namely, that the agential properties necessary for (...)
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  29. Causation and Free Will, by Carolina Sartorio: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016, Pp. Viii + 188, £35. [REVIEW]Helen Beebee - 2018 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 96 (1):207-208.
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  30. Da filosofia antiga à filosofia contemporânea da acção.Ricardo Santos - 2011 - In Sofia Miguens & Susana Cadilha (eds.), Acção e Ética: Conversas sobre racionalidade prática. Lisboa: Edições Colibri. pp. 143-162.
    In this chapter, the author presents and develops his views on the philosophy of action. One main theme is the problem of acrasia: how is it possible that a person sometimes acts freely and intentionally against his own better judgement? The author criticizes Donald Davidson’s solution to this problem for being unrealistic and exaggerating the rationality of the agent. He also presents his original way of reading Aristotle’s most famous text on this subject, in Ethica Nicomachea VII 3. The role (...)
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  31. Between Contumacy and Obsequiousness.Daniel Kapust - 2009 - European Journal of Political Theory 8 (3):293-311.
    This article explores Tacitus’ negotiation of the dilemmas of writing due to the emergence of the Principate and the displacement of Republican politics. These developments constrained the orator and the historian, and required a distinctive approach to the writing of history. I argue that Tacitus develops a conception of the historian’s task that centers on the historian’s moral freedom and educative role in the Principate. This freedom is evident in Tacitus’ depiction of good and bad principes, as well as his (...)
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  32. Causes, Laws, and Free Will.Storrs McCall - 2016 - Philosophical Quarterly 66 (265):870-871.
  33. Relational Creativity and the Symmetry of Freedom and Nature.Philip Michael Rose - 2005 - Cosmos and History : The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 1 (1):3-16.
    One of the more important and persistent of problems in speculative philosophy is reconciling the relation between freedom and nature. This is often referred to as the problem of freedom and determinism, but this way of formulating the problem assumes, uncritically, that nature is and must necessarily be a purely deterministic framework. As I hope to show, the so-called problem of freedom and determinism lies precisely in this deterministic assumption. By reorienting the question in terms of the relation between freedom (...)
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  34. Morality and Freedom.Alan Carter - 2003 - Philosophical Quarterly 53 (211):161 - 180.
    What might be termed 'the problem of morality' concerns how freedom-restricting principles may be justified, given that we value our freedom. Perhaps an answer can be found in freedom itself. For if the most obvious reason for rejecting moral demands is that they invade one's personal freedom, then the price of freedom from invasive demands that others would otherwise make may well require everyone accepting freedom in general, say, as a value that provides sufficient reason for adhering to principles that (...)
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  35. Irreducible Freedom in Nature.Jennifer Campbell - 2014 - Philosophy 89 (2):301-323.
    I provide a novel response to scepticism concerning freedom and moral responsibility. This involves my extension to freedom of John McDowell's liberal natural approach to ethics and epistemology. I trace the source of the sceptical problem to an overly restrictive, brute conception of nature, where reality is equated with what figures, directly or indirectly, in natural scientific explanation. I challenge the all encompassing explanatory pretensions of restrictive naturalism, advocating a re-conception of nature such that it already incorporates reasons. This allows (...)
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  36. Freedom and Experience: Self-Determination Without Illusions.Magill Kevin - 1997 - London: author open access, originally MacMillan.
    Most of us take it for granted that we are free agents: that we can sometimes act so as to shape our own lives and those of others, that we have choices about how to do so and that we are responsible for what we do. But are we really justified in believing this? For centuries philosophers have argued about whether free will and moral responsibility are compatible with determinism or natural causation, and they seem no closer to agreeing about (...)
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  37. The Obligation Dilemma.Ishtiyaque Haji - 2017 - The Journal of Ethics 21 (1):37-61.
    I motivate a dilemma to show that nothing can be obligatory for anyone regardless of whether determinism or indeterminism is true. The deterministic horn, to which prime attention is directed, exploits the thesis that obligation requires freedom to do otherwise. Since determinism precludes such freedom, it precludes obligation too. The indeterministic horn allows for freedom to do otherwise but assumes the burden of addressing whether indeterministically caused choices or actions are too much of a matter of luck to be obligatory (...)
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  38. Ii Blasco Disputatio: Does Free Will Require Alternative Possibilities? Blasco Disputatio is a Yearly Workshop Designed to Promote the Discussion on Topics in Epistemology, Metaphysics, the Philosophy of Mind and the Philosophy of Language. Each Edition of This Workshop Focuses on a Particular Issue to Be Disputed by Two Invited Speakers That Will Defend Divergent, If Not Opposing, Views. A Call for Papers Will Be Made for Contributions That Will Explore Further Aspects of the Topic. The 2016 Edition of the Blasco Disputatio Will Be Mainly Focused on the Question of Whether Free Will Requires Alternative Possibilities and on the Role of Causation in a Proper Understanding of Freedom, but It is Open to Discussing Any Related Issues in Metaphysics and the Philosophy of Action. The Invited Papers, Together with a Selection of the Submitted Papers, Will Appear on a Special Issue in the Journal Disputatio. [REVIEW] Admin - 2015 - Disputatio.
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  39. Three Philosophical Dialogues: On Truth, on Freedom of Choice, on the Fall of the Devil.Thomas Anselm & Williams - 2002 - Hackett Publishing Company.
    In these three dialogues, renowned for their dialectical structure and linguistic precision, Anselm sets out his classic account of the relationship between freedom and sin--its linchpin his definition of freedom of choice as the power to preserve rectitude of will for its own sake. In doing so, Anselm explores the fascinating implications for God, human beings, and angels of his conclusion that freedom of choice neither is nor entails the power to sin. In addition to an Introduction, notes, and a (...)
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  40. Rossignol: An Edition And Translation. [REVIEW]Nadia Margolis - 1980 - Speculum 56 (1):94-96.
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  41. Freewill and Determinism.Freedom of Choice Affirmed.The Problem of Freedom and Determinism.R. L. Franklin, Corliss Lamont & Edward D'angelo - 1970 - Journal of Philosophy 67 (7):208-220.
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  42. In Defence of Free Will, with Other Philosophical Essays.M. C. Bradley - 1968 - Journal of Philosophy 65 (11):341-350.
  43. Determinism.E. T. Rakitzis - 1975 - Giornale di Metafisica 30:401-403.
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  44. Time and Free Will: An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness. Henri Bergson, F. L. Pogson.A. E. Taylor - 1911 - International Journal of Ethics 21 (3):350-352.
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  45. Against Dogma and Free Will, and for Weismannism.H. Croft Hiller.D. G. Ritchie - 1895 - International Journal of Ethics 5 (3):399-400.
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  46. THOMAS, GEORGE F. Spirit and its Freedom. [REVIEW]Albert Salomon - 1939 - Journal of Social Philosophy and Jurisprudence 5:82.
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  47. British Philosophy in the Mid-Century. Johnstone - 1958 - Philosophy of Science 25 (4):305-307.
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  48. An Inquiry Into the Freedom of Decision. Harald Ofstad.Leon J. Goldstein - 1964 - Philosophy of Science 31 (2):189-190.
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  49. Locke on Active Power and the Obscure Idea of Active Power From Bodies.R. M. Mattern - 1980 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 11 (1):39.
  50. Philosophers in Spite of Themselves.Douglas N. Morgan - 1951 - Ethics 62:55.
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