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  1. Remarks on the Argument From Design.Joseph S. Fulda - manuscript
    Gives two pared-down versions of the argument from design, which may prove more persuasive as to a Creator, discusses briefly the mathematics underpinning disbelief and nonbelief and its misuse and some proper uses, moves to why the full argument is needed anyway, viz., to demonstrate Providence, offers a theory as to how miracles (open and hidden) occur, viz. the replacement of any particular mathematics underlying a natural law (save logic) by its most appropriate nonstandard variant. -/- Note: This is an (...)
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  2. On What Hilbert Aimed at in the Foundations.Besim Karakadılar - manuscript
    Hilbert's axiomatic approach was an optimistic take over on the side of the logical foundations. It was also a response to various restrictive views of mathematics supposedly bounded by the reaches of epistemic elements in mathematics. A complete axiomatization should be able to exclude epistemic or ontic elements from mathematical theorizing, according to Hilbert. This exclusion is not necessarily a logicism in similar form to Frege's or Dedekind's projects. That is, intuition can still have a role in mathematical reasoning. Nevertheless, (...)
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  3. The Consistency of Arithmetic.Storrs McCall - manuscript
    The paper presents a proof of the consistency of Peano Arithmetic (PA) that does not lie in deducing its consistency as a theorem in an axiomatic system. PA’s consistency cannot be proved in PA, and to deduce its consistency in some stronger system PA+ is self-defeating, since the stronger system may itself be inconsistent. Instead, a semantic proof is constructed which demonstrates consistency not relative to the consistency of some other system but in an absolute sense.
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  4. From Phenomenology to the Philosophy of the Concept: Jean Cavaillès as a Reader of Edmund Husserl.Jean-Paul Cauvin - 2020 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 10 (1):24-47.
    The article reconstructs Jean Cavaillès’s polemical engagement with Edmund Husserl’s phenomenological philosophy of mathematics. I argue that Cavaillès’s encounter with Husserl clarifies the scope and ambition of Cavaillès’s philosophy of the concept by identifying three interrelated epistemological problems in Husserl’s phenomenological method: (1) Cavaillès claims that Husserl denies a proper content to mathematics by reducing mathematics to logic. (2) This reduction obliges Husserl, in turn, to mischaracterize the significance of the history of mathematics for the philosophy of mathematics. (3) Finally, (...)
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  5. Fermat’s Last Theorem Proved by Induction (and Accompanied by a Philosophical Comment).Vasil Penchev - 2020 - Metaphilosophy eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 12 (8):1-8.
    A proof of Fermat’s last theorem is demonstrated. It is very brief, simple, elementary, and absolutely arithmetical. The necessary premises for the proof are only: the three definitive properties of the relation of equality (identity, symmetry, and transitivity), modus tollens, axiom of induction, the proof of Fermat’s last theorem in the case of.
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  6. Hard, Harder, and the Hardest Problem: The Society of Cognitive Selves.Venkata Rayudu Posina - 2020 - Tattva - Journal of Philosophy 12 (1):75-92.
    The hard problem of consciousness is explicating how moving matter becomes thinking matter. Harder yet is the problem of spelling out the mutual determinations of individual experiences and the experiencing self. Determining how the collective social consciousness influences and is influenced by the individual selves constituting the society is the hardest problem. Drawing parallels between individual cognition and the collective knowing of mathematical science, here we present a conceptualization of the cognitive dimension of the self. Our abstraction of the relations (...)
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  7. Indeterminism in Physics, Classical Chaos and Bohmian Mechanics.\\ Are Real Numbers Really Real?Nicolas Gisin - 2019 - Erkenntnis:1-13.
    It is usual to identify initial conditions of classical dynamical systems with mathematical real numbers. However, almost all real numbers contain an infinite amount of information. I argue that a finite volume of space can’t contain more than a finite amount of information, hence that the mathematical real numbers are not physically relevant. Moreover, a better terminology for the so-called real numbers is “random numbers”, as their series of bits are truly random. I propose an alternative classical mechanics, which is (...)
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  8. Independence of the Grossone-Based Infinity Methodology From Non-Standard Analysis and Comments Upon Logical Fallacies in Some Texts Asserting the Opposite.Yaroslav D. Sergeyev - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (1):153-170.
    This paper considers non-standard analysis and a recently introduced computational methodology based on the notion of ①. The latter approach was developed with the intention to allow one to work with infinities and infinitesimals numerically in a unique computational framework and in all the situations requiring these notions. Non-standard analysis is a classical purely symbolic technique that works with ultrafilters, external and internal sets, standard and non-standard numbers, etc. In its turn, the ①-based methodology does not use any of these (...)
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  9. ¿Qué significa paraconsistente, indescifrable, aleatorio, computable e incompleto? Una revisión de’ la Manera de Godel: explota en un mundo indecible’ (Godel’s Way: Exploits into an Undecidable World) por Gregory Chaitin, Francisco A Doria, Newton C.A. da Costa 160p (2012) (revisión revisada 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - In Delirios Utópicos Suicidas en el Siglo 21 La filosofía, la naturaleza humana y el colapso de la civilización Artículos y reseñas 2006-2019 4a Edición. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 263-277.
    En ' Godel’s Way ', tres eminentes científicos discuten temas como la indecisión, la incompleta, la aleatoriedad, la computabilidad y la paracoherencia. Me acerco a estas cuestiones desde el punto de vista de Wittgensteinian de que hay dos cuestiones básicas que tienen soluciones completamente diferentes. Existen las cuestiones científicas o empíricas, que son hechos sobre el mundo que necesitan ser investigados Observacionalmente y cuestiones filosóficas en cuanto a cómo el lenguaje se puede utilizar inteligiblemente (que incluyen ciertas preguntas en matemáticas (...)
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  10. Constructive Mathematics and Equality.Bruno Bentzen - 2018 - Dissertation, Sun Yat-Sen University
    The aim of the present thesis is twofold. First we propose a constructive solution to Frege's puzzle using an approach based on homotopy type theory, a newly proposed foundation of mathematics that possesses a higher-dimensional treatment of equality. We claim that, from the viewpoint of constructivism, Frege's solution is unable to explain the so-called ‘cognitive significance' of equality statements, since, as we shall argue, not only statements of the form 'a = b', but also 'a = a' may contribute to (...)
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  11. Can Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem Be a Ground for Dialetheism?Seungrak Choi - 2017 - Korean Journal of Logic 20 (2):241-271.
    Dialetheism is the view that there exists a true contradiction. This paper ventures to suggest that Priest’s argument for Dialetheism from Gödel’s theorem is unconvincing as the lesson of Gödel’s proof (or Rosser’s proof) is that any sufficiently strong theories of arithmetic cannot be both complete and consistent. In addition, a contradiction is derivable in Priest’s inconsistent and complete arithmetic. An alternative argument for Dialetheism is given by applying Gödel sentence to the inconsistent and complete theory of arithmetic. We argue, (...)
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  12. The (Metaphysical) Foundations of Arithmetic?Thomas Donaldson - 2017 - Noûs 51 (4):775-801.
    Gideon Rosen and Robert Schwartzkopff have independently suggested (variants of) the following claim, which is a varian of Hume's Principle: -/- When the number of Fs is identical to the number of Gs, this fact is grounded by the fact that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the Fs and Gs. -/- My paper is a detailed critique of the proposal. I don't find any decisive refutation of the proposal. At the same time, it has some consequences which many will (...)
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  13. A New Theorem Introduced by Piyush Goel with Four Proof(Piyush Theorem).Goel Piyush - 2016 - Edupediapublications 3:1-5.
    Abstract -/- Mathematics for Piyush is a Passion from his childhood he was so passionate about Mathematics used to play with Numbers draw figures and try to get sides distance one day I draw a AP SERIES Right Angle Triangle (thinking that the distance between the point of intersection of median & altitude at the base must be sum of rest sides that was in My Mind). And at last Piyush Succeed. This new Theorem proved with Four Proof (Trigonometry/Co-ordinates Geometry/Acute (...)
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  14. Review of The Art of the Infinite by R. Kaplan, E. Kaplan 324p(2003).Michael Starks - 2016 - In Suicidal Utopian Delusions in the 21st Century: Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization-- Articles and Reviews 2006-2017 2nd Edition Feb 2018. Michael Starks. pp. 619.
    This book tries to present math to the millions and does a pretty good job. It is simple and sometimes witty but often the literary allusions intrude and the text bogs down in pages of relentless math--lovely if you like it and horrid if you don´t. If you already know alot of math you will still probably find the discussions of general math, geometry, projective geometry, and infinite series to be a nice refresher. If you don´t know any and don´t (...)
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  15. Semantical Mutation, Algorithms and Programs.Porto André - 2015 - Dissertatio (S1):44-76.
    This article offers an explanation of perhaps Wittgenstein’s strangest and least intuitive thesis – the semantical mutation thesis – according to which one can never answer a mathematical conjecture because the new proof alters the very meanings of the terms involved in the original question. Instead of basing our justification on the distinction between mere calculation and proofs of isolated propositions, characteristic of Wittgenstein’s intermediary period, we generalize it to include conjectures involving effective procedures as well.
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  16. PAC Learning, VC Dimension, and the Arithmetic Hierarchy.Wesley Calvert - 2015 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 54 (7-8):871-883.
    We compute that the index set of PAC-learnable concept classes is m-complete Σ30\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\Sigma^{0}_{3}}$$\end{document} within the set of indices for all concept classes of a reasonable form. All concept classes considered are computable enumerations of computable Π10\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\Pi^{0}_{1}}$$\end{document} classes, in a sense made precise here. This family of concept classes is sufficient to cover all standard examples, and also has the property that PAC learnability (...)
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  17. The Helpmekaar: Rescuing the "Volk" Through Reading, Writing and Arithmetic, C. 1916-C. 1965.Anton Ehlers - 2015 - História 60 (2):87-108.
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  18. Uwagi o arytmetyce Grassmanna.Jerzy Hanusek - 2015 - Diametros 45:107-121.
    Hermann Grassmann’s 1861 work [2] was probably the first attempt at an axiomatic approach to arithmetic. The historical significance of this work is enormous, even though the set of axioms has proven to be incomplete. Basing on the interpretation of Grassmann’s theory provided by Hao Wang in [4], I present its detailed discussion, define the class of models of Grassmann’s arithmetic and discuss a certain axiom system for integers, modeled on Grassmann’s theory. At the end I propose to modify the (...)
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  19. A New Computation of the Σ-Ordinal of KPω.Fernando Ferreira - 2014 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 79 (1):306-324.
  20. Quantity and Number.James Franklin - 2014 - In Daniel D. Novotný & Lukáš Novák (eds.), Neo-Aristotelian Perspectives in Metaphysics. New York, USA: Routledge. pp. 221-244.
    Quantity is the first category that Aristotle lists after substance. It has extraordinary epistemological clarity: "2+2=4" is the model of a self-evident and universally known truth. Continuous quantities such as the ratio of circumference to diameter of a circle are as clearly known as discrete ones. The theory that mathematics was "the science of quantity" was once the leading philosophy of mathematics. The article looks at puzzles in the classification and epistemology of quantity.
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  21. The Consistency of Arithmetic: And Other Essays.Storrs McCall - 2014 - Oxford University Press USA.
    This volume contains six new and fifteen previously published essays -- plus a new introduction -- by Storrs McCall. Some of the essays were written in collaboration with E. J. Lowe of Durham University. The essays discuss controversial topics in logic, action theory, determinism and indeterminism, and the nature of human choice and decision. Some construct a modern up-to-date version of Aristotle's bouleusis, practical deliberation. This process of practical deliberation is shown to be indeterministic but highly controlled and the antithesis (...)
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  22. Towards an Institutional Account of the Objectivity, Necessity, and Atemporality of Mathematics.Julian C. Cole - 2013 - Philosophia Mathematica 21 (1):9-36.
    I contend that mathematical domains are freestanding institutional entities that, at least typically, are introduced to serve representational functions. In this paper, I outline an account of institutional reality and a supporting metaontological perspective that clarify the content of this thesis. I also argue that a philosophy of mathematics that has this thesis as its central tenet can account for the objectivity, necessity, and atemporality of mathematics.
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  23. Hilary Putnam's Consistency Objection Against Wittgenstein's Conventionalism in Mathematics.P. Garavaso - 2013 - Philosophia Mathematica 21 (3):279-296.
    Hilary Putnam first published the consistency objection against Ludwig Wittgenstein’s account of mathematics in 1979. In 1983, Putnam and Benacerraf raised this objection against all conventionalist accounts of mathematics. I discuss the 1979 version and the scenario argument, which supports the key premise of the objection. The wide applicability of this objection is not apparent; I thus raise it against an imaginary axiomatic theory T similar to Peano arithmetic in all relevant aspects. I argue that a conventionalist can explain the (...)
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  24. Study of Analytic Number Theory: Riemann’s Hypothesis and Prime Number Theorem with Addendum on Integer Partitions.Lukasz Andrzej Glinka - 2013 - Cambridge International Science Publishing.
    This monograph explores several classical issues of modern mathematics, and discusses both the historical and research aspects. The brief historical part is focused on Riemann’s zeta function and few related problems. The research part starts from direct formulation of simple proofs of both the prime number theorem and Riemann’s hypothesis, two intriguing problems of modern mathematics, which applies the concept of Mertens’s function and is based on Apostol’s and Littlewood’s criterions of equivalence. The second research problem discussed in this book (...)
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  25. Philosophical and methodological problem of consistency of mathematical theories.N. V. Michailova - 2013 - Liberal Arts in Russia 2 (6):552--560.
    Increased abstraction of modern mathematical theories has revived interest in traditional philosophical and methodological problem of internally consistent system of axioms where the contradicting each other statements can’t be deduced. If we are talking about axioms describing a well-known area of mathematical objects from the standpoint of local consistency this problem does not appear to be as relevant. But these problems are associated with the various attempts of formalists to explain the mathematical existence through consistency. But, for example, with regard (...)
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  26. Infinitesimals as an Issue of Neo-Kantian Philosophy of Science.Thomas Mormann & Mikhail Katz - 2013 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science (2):236-280.
    We seek to elucidate the philosophical context in which one of the most important conceptual transformations of modern mathematics took place, namely the so-called revolution in rigor in infinitesimal calculus and mathematical analysis. Some of the protagonists of the said revolution were Cauchy, Cantor, Dedekind,and Weierstrass. The dominant current of philosophy in Germany at the time was neo-Kantianism. Among its various currents, the Marburg school (Cohen, Natorp, Cassirer, and others) was the one most interested in matters scientific and mathematical. Our (...)
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  27. The Consistency of Arithmetic, Based on a Logic of Meaning Containment.Ross T. Brady - 2012 - Logique Et Analyse 55 (219).
  28. On Some Considerations of Mathematical Physics: May We Identify Clifford Algebra as a Common Algebraic Structure for Classical Diffusion and Schrödinger Equations?Elio Conte - 2012 - Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics 6 (26):1289-1307.
    We start from previous studies of G.N. Ord and A.S. Deakin showing that both the classical diffusion equation and Schrödinger equation of quantum mechanics have a common stump. Such result is obtained in rigorous terms since it is demonstrated that both diffusion and Schrödinger equations are manifestation of the same mathematical axiomatic set of the Clifford algebra. By using both such ( ) i A S and the i,±1 N algebra, it is evidenced, however, that possibly the two basic equations (...)
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  29. INVENTING LOGIC: THE LÖWENHEIM-SKOLEM THEOREM AND FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER LOGIC.Valérie Lynn Therrien - 2012 - Pensées Canadiennes 10.
  30. Gauss' Quadratic Reciprocity Theorem and Mathematical Fruitfulness.Audrey Yap - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (3):410-415.
  31. Wisdom Mathematics.Nicholas Maxwell - 2010 - Friends of Wisdom Newsletter (6):1-6.
    For over thirty years I have argued that all branches of science and scholarship would have both their intellectual and humanitarian value enhanced if pursued in accordance with the edicts of wisdom-inquiry rather than knowledge-inquiry. I argue that this is true of mathematics. Viewed from the perspective of knowledge-inquiry, mathematics confronts us with two fundamental problems. (1) How can mathematics be held to be a branch of knowledge, in view of the difficulties that view engenders? What could mathematics be knowledge (...)
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  32. Consistency, Models, and Soundness.Matthias Schirn - 2010 - Axiomathes 20 (2-3):153-207.
    This essay consists of two parts. In the first part, I focus my attention on the remarks that Frege makes on consistency when he sets about criticizing the method of creating new numbers through definition or abstraction. This gives me the opportunity to comment also a little on H. Hankel, J. Thomae—Frege’s main targets when he comes to criticize “formal theories of arithmetic” in Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik (1884) and the second volume of Grundgesetze der Arithmetik (1903)—G. Cantor, L. E. (...)
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  33. Carnap's Syntax Programme and the Philosophy of Mathematics.Warren Goldfarb - 2009 - In Pierre Wagner (ed.), Carnap's Logical Syntax of Language. Palgrave-Macmillan.
  34. Numerical Point of View on Calculus for Functions Assuming Finite, Infinite, and Infinitesimal Values Over Finite, Infinite, and Infinitesimal Domains.Yaroslav Sergeyev - 2009 - Nonlinear Analysis Series A 71 (12):e1688-e1707.
    The goal of this paper consists of developing a new (more physical and numerical in comparison with standard and non-standard analysis approaches) point of view on Calculus with functions assuming infinite and infinitesimal values. It uses recently introduced infinite and infinitesimal numbers being in accordance with the principle ‘The part is less than the whole’ observed in the physical world around us. These numbers have a strong practical advantage with respect to traditional approaches: they are representable at a new kind (...)
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  35. Waismann's Critique of Wittgenstein.Anthony Birch - 2007 - Analysis and Metaphysics 6:263-272.
    Friedrich Waismann, a little-known mathematician and onetime student of Wittgenstein's, provides answers to problems that vexed Wittgenstein in his attempt to explicate the foundations of mathematics through an analysis of its practice. Waismann argues in favor of mathematical intuition and the reality of infinity with a Wittgensteinian twist. Waismann's arguments lead toward an approach to the foundation of mathematics that takes into consideration the language and practice of experts.
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  36. Philip Hugly and Charles Sayward, Arithmetic and Ontology: A Non-Realist Philosophy of Arithmetic Reviewed By.Manuel Bremer - 2007 - Philosophy in Review 27 (3):188-191.
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  37. Quadratic Forms in Models of IΔ0+ Ω1. I.Paola D’Aquino & Angus Macintyre - 2007 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 148 (1):31-48.
    Gauss used quadratic forms in his second proof of quadratic reciprocity. In this paper we begin to develop a theory of binary quadratic forms over weak fragments of Peano Arithmetic, with a view to reproducing Gauss’ proof in this setting.
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  38. How to Prove the Consistency of Arithmetic.Jaakko Hintikka & Besim Karakadilar - 2006 - Acta Philosophica Fennica 78:1.
    It is argued that the goal of Hilbert's program was to prove the model-theoretical consistency of different axiom systems. This Hilbert proposed to do by proving the deductive consistency of the relevant systems. In the extended independence-friendly logic there is a complete proof method for the contradictory negations of independence-friendly sentences, so the existence of a single proposition that is not disprovable from arithmetic axioms can be shown formally in the extended independence-friendly logic. It can also be proved by means (...)
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  39. Chapter 6: Arithmetic and Necessity.Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward - 2006 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 90:159-182.
  40. Chapter 7: Arithmetic and Rules.Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward - 2006 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 90:183-211.
  41. A Defence of Mathematical Pluralism †We Should Like to Thank D. Bridges for Helpful Comments.E. Brian Davies - 2005 - Philosophia Mathematica 13 (3):252-276.
    We approach the philosophy of mathematics via a discussion of the differences between classical mathematics and constructive mathematics, arguing that each is a valid activity within its own context.
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  42. Formalism.Michael Detlefsen - 2005 - In Stewart Shapiro (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic. Oxford University Press. pp. 236--317.
    A comprehensive historical overview of formalist ideas in the philosophy of mathematics.
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  43. Dogmas and the Changing Images of Foundations.José Ferreirós - 2005 - Philosophia Scientiae:27-42.
    I offer a critical review of several different conceptions of the activity of foundational research, from the time of Gauss to the present. These are (1) the traditional image, guiding Gauss, Dedekind, Frege and others, that sees in the search for more adequate basic systems a logical excavation of a priori structures, (2) the program to find sound formal systems for so-called classical mathematics that can be proved consistent, usually associated with the name of Hilbert, and (3) the historicist alternative, (...)
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  44. On Volumes of Arithmetic Quotients SO.Mikhail Belolipetsky - 2004 - Annali della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa- Classe di Scienze 3 (4):749-770.
    We apply G. Prasad’s volume formula for the arithmetic quotients of semi-simple groups and Bruhat-Tits theory to study the covolumes of arithmetic subgroups of $SO$. As a result we prove that for any even dimension $n$ there exists a unique compact arithmetic hyperbolic $n$-orbifold of the smallest volume. We give a formula for the Euler-Poincaré characteristic of the orbifolds and present an explicit description of their fundamental groups as the stabilizers of certain lattices in quadratic spaces. We also study hyperbolic (...)
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  45. Jeremy Avigad. Update Procedures and the 1-Consistency of Arithmetic. Mathematical Logic Quarterly, Vol. 48 , Pp. 3–13.Toshiyasu Arai - 2003 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 9 (1):45-47.
  46. Mathematical Logic Quarterly.Toshiyasu Arai - 2003 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 9 (1):45-47.
  47. Preuves par excellence.Jacques Dubucs & Sandra Lapointe - 2003 - Philosophiques 30 (1):219-234.
    Bolzano fut le premier philosophe à établir une distinction explicite entre les procédés déductifs qui nous permettent de parvenir à la certitude d’une vérité et ceux qui fournissent son fondement objectif. La conception que Bolzano se fait du rapport entre ce que nous appelons ici, d’une part, « conséquence subjective », à savoir la relation de raison à conséquence épistémique et, d’autre part, la « conséquence objective », c’est-à-dire la fondation , suggère toutefois que Bolzano défendait une conception « explicativiste (...)
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  48. Hilbert's Program Revisited.Panu Raatikainen - 2003 - Synthese 137 (1):157-177.
    After sketching the main lines of Hilbert's program, certain well-known and influential interpretations of the program are critically evaluated, and an alternative interpretation is presented. Finally, some recent developments in logic related to Hilbert's program are reviewed.
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  49. Update Procedures and the 1-Consistency of Arithmetic.Jeremy Avigad - 2002 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 48 (1):3-13.
    The 1-consistency of arithmetic is shown to be equivalent to the existence of fixed points of a certain type of update procedure, which is implicit in the epsilon-substitution method.
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  50. The Search for Certainty: A Philosophical Account of Foundations of Mathematics.Marcus Giaquinto - 2002 - Oxford University Press.
    Marcus Giaquinto tells the compelling story of one of the great intellectual adventures of the modern era: the attempt to find firm foundations for mathematics. From the late nineteenth century to the present day, this project has stimulated some of the most original and influential work in logic and philosophy.
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