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Summary Theories of personal identity are, most often, theories of what makes X, a person, at one time numerically identical to Y at another time.  Such theories fall into two very general categories.  On reductionist views, the facts about identity across time simply consist in facts about brains, bodies, or interrelated physical or mental events.  On nonreductionist views, the facts about identity do not consist simply in such facts, but also consist in facts about, e.g., souls or Cartesian egos.  Among reductionist theories, there are two general approaches: psychological and biological.  On psychological approaches, what makes X and Y identical is typically continuity of some subset of psychological features.  On biological approaches, what makes X and Y identical is typically continuity of the person's biological (animal) organism.
Key works Derek Parfit offers and explains the distinction between nonreductionist and reductionist views of personal identity in Parfit 1984 (a distinction he originally labeled as between "simple" and "complex" views in Parfit 1973).  For the original statement of a psychological criterion of identity, see John Locke's "persistence of consciousness" view in Locke & Nidditch 1979.  For nonreductionist rejoinders, see Thomas Reid's Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man and Butler 1736.  For contemporary advocacy of a psychological criterion, see, in addition to Parfit, Harold Noonan's Personal Identity and Sydney Shoemaker's contribution in Shoemaker & Swinburne 1984 (and for contemporary nonreductionism about identity, see Swinburne's contribution).  For contemporary advocacy of a biological criterion, see Olson 1997.
Introductions Good introductions include Perry 1977, Perry 1975, and Olson 2002.
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  1. Forgetting Oneself or Personal Identity in Relation to Time and Otherness in the Zhuangzi.Youru Wang - forthcoming - Asian Philosophy:1-21.
    This article is one of the author’s serial writings to assimilate Ricoeur’s three-fold ethical investigation into various areas of human acts of forgetting, including 1) the therapeutic or patholog...
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  2. Development of Personal Identity Among Sami Adolescents Living in the Arctic Territories of Russia.Natalia Flotskaya, Irina Aryabkina, Svetlana Bulanova, Maria Ponomareva & Nikolay Flotskiy - 2021 - Wisdom 19 (3):84-99.
    The article is devoted to the problem of studying the personal identity of Sami adolescents living in the Arctic territories of Russia. The study aims to study the characteristics of the personal identity of Sami boys and Sami girls in adolescence. The article presents the results of an empirical study carried out according to the methodology developed based on the test “Who am I?” developed by Kuhn and McPartland. The respondents were 39 Sami adolescents aged 12-13 years and 40 Sami (...)
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  3. Survivalism, Suitably Modified.James Dominic Rooney - forthcoming - The Thomist.
    A well-known problem seems to beset views on which humans are essentially material, but where I can survive my death: they seem incoherent or reducible to substance dualism. Thomas Aquinas held a unique hylomorphic view of the human person as essentially composed of body and soul, but where the human soul can survive the death of the body. ‘Survivalists’ have argued that, post mortem, a human person comes to be composed of their soul alone. ‘Corruptionists’ point to Thomas’ texts, where (...)
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  4. Generic Animalism.Andrew M. Bailey & Peter van Elswyk - 2021 - Journal of Philosophy 118 (8):405-429.
    The animalist says we are animals. This thesis is commonly understood as the universal generalization that all human persons are human animals. This article proposes an alternative: the thesis is a generic that admits of exceptions. We defend the resulting view, which we call ‘generic animalism’, and show its aptitude for diagnosing the limits of eight case-based objections to animalism.
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  5. Covid-19 Threat to Extroverts and Calming to Introverts.Ramez El-Shishy - manuscript
    Covid-19 pandmeic represents a big challenge to personality theory of introverts and extroverts nowadays, The pandemic has worked unequivocally flexibly to change the societal perception of these poles, particularly introverts. For this reason, the impact of the pandemic is addressed as an inevitable crisis, and how such a crisis can be transformed into a possibility suitable for introverted and extroverted personality.
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  6. The Non-Identity Problem and the Psychological Account of Personal Identity.Bruce P. Blackshaw - 2021 - Philosophia:1-12.
    According to the psychological account of personal identity, our identity is based on the continuity of psychological connections, and so we do not begin to exist until these are possible, some months after conception. This entails the psychological account faces a challenge from the non-identity problem—our intuition that someone cannot be harmed by actions that are responsible for their existence, even if these actions seem clearly to cause them harm. It is usually discussed with regard to preconception harms, but in (...)
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  7. Personal Identity and the Hybrid View: A Middle Way.Harold W. Noonan - 2021 - Metaphysica 22 (2):263-283.
    Two of the main contenders in the debate about personal persistence over time are the neo-Lockean psychological continuity view and animalism as defended by Olson and Snowdon. Both are wrong. The position I shall argue for, which I call, following Olson, the hybrid view, takes psychological continuity as a sufficient but, pace the neo-Lockeans, not necessary condition for personal persistence. It sides with the animalist in allowing that mere biological continuity is also sufficient. So I am, in a sense, a (...)
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  8. Becoming Artificial: A Philosophical Exploration Into Artificial Intelligence and What It Means to Be Human.Alessandro Colarossi & Danial Sonik - 2020 - London, UK: Imprint Academic.
    Becoming Artificial is a collection of essays about the nature of humanity, technology, artifice, and the irreducible connections between them. -/- Artificial Intelligence (AI) was once the stuff of pure fantasy. Ideas about machines that could think seemed as plausible as space travel or inexpensive communication technology. The last two decades have introduced a number of game-changing innovations that make discussion of AI no longer a mere armchair speculation, but rather a serious topic of debate for everyone who will be (...)
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  9. Three Buddhist Distinctions of Great Consequence for Cross-Cultural Philosophy of Personal Identity.Antoine Panaïoti - 2021 - Comparative Philosophy 12 (2).
    This paper seeks to lay down the theoretical groundwork for the emergence of holistic cross-cultural philosophical investigations of personal identity ¾ investigations that approach the theoretical, phenomenological, psychological, and practical-ethical dimensions of selfhood as indissociable. My strategy is to discuss three closely connected conceptual distinctions that the Buddhist approach to personal identity urges us to draw, and a lucid understanding of which is essential for the emergence of appropriately comprehensive and thus genuinely cosmopolitan discussions at the cross-road between Western and (...)
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  10. Social Roles and Psychological Continuity: Developing a Confucian-Psychological Continuity Hybrid Account of Personal Identity and Ontology.Sammuel Byer - 2021 - Comparative Philosophy 12 (2).
    In this paper, I delineate a variety of questions related to personal identity and ontology. I develop and compare the Confucian conception of the person and the view of the person developed throughout Derek Parfit’s work on personal identity and ontology. I will demonstrate that the Confucian conception of the person has numerous instructive similarities with Parfit’s work on personal identity, despite a number of differences. I argue, briefly, that this project is worthwhile as a piece of comparative philosophy. One (...)
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  11. Memory as Evidence of Personal Identity. A Study on Reincarnation Beliefs.Vilius Dranseika - forthcoming - In Kevin Tobia (ed.), Experimental Philosophy of Identity and the Self.
  12. Personal Identity and Dual Character Concepts.Joshua Knobe - forthcoming - In Kevin Tobia (ed.), Experimental Philosophy of Identity and the Self. Bloomsbury.
  13. Personal Identity, Immortality, and the Soul.L. Nathan Oaklander - 2001 - Philo 4 (2):185-194.
    The soul has played many different roles in philosophy and religion. Two of the primary functions of the soul are the bearer of personal identity and the foundation of immortality. In this paper I shall consider different interpretations of what the soul has been taken to be and argue that however we interpret the soul we cannot consistently maintain the soul is both what we are and what continues after our bodily death.
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  14. Lyric Self-Fashioning: Sonnet 35 as Formal Model.Joshua Landy - 2021 - Philosophy and Literature 45 (1):224-248.
    Each of us is not just a set of actions, experiences, and plans but also a set of traits, capacities, and attitudes; we are as much our character as our life. And while story form can help unify a messy life, when it comes to a messy character, we may need something like the form of a poem. Could we model our self-conception, then, on a work like Sonnet 35? In finding deep-going unity—and even bittersweet beauty—beneath surface-level ambivalence, Sonnet 35 (...)
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  15. The Legacy of Humeanism: Unity of Mind, Temporal Awareness, and Personal Identity.Daniel R. Siakel - 2016 - Dissertation, University of California, Irvine
    David Hume’s thought has interrupted entire disciplines from dogmatic slumbers. Yet Hume’s influence is even more expansive and continuous than we might have thought. There are two significant areas of inquiry where Hume’s influence has not been adequately appreciated or articulated: analytic phenomenology and analytic process philosophy. My dissertation explores these traditions’ indebtedness to Hume by engaging with the work of Edmund Husserl and Alfred North Whitehead, who introduce consequential changes into their systems in direct response to what they see (...)
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  16. “As Long As I’M Me”: From Personhood to Personal Identity in Dementia and Decisionmaking.James Toomey - 2021 - Canadian Journal of Bioethics / Revue canadienne de bioéthique 4 (1).
    As older people begin to develop dementia, we confront ethical questions about when and how to intervene in their increasingly compromised decision-making. The prevailing approach in bioethics to tackling this challenge has been to develop theories of “decision-making capacity” based on the same characteristics that entitle the decisions of moral persons to respect in general. This article argues that this way of thinking about the problem has missed the point. Because the disposition of property is an identity-dependent right, what matters (...)
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  17. Dimensions of the Threat to the Self Posed by Deep Brain Stimulation: Personal Identity, Authenticity, and Autonomy.Przemysław Zawadzki - 2021 - Diametros 18 (69):71-98.
    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an invasive therapeutic method involving the implantation of electrodes and the electrical stimulation of specific areas of the brain to modulate their activity. DBS brings therapeutic benefits, but can also have adverse side effects. Recently, neuroethicists have recognized that DBS poses a threat to the very fabric of human existence, namely, to the selves of patients. This article provides a review of the neuroethical literature examining this issue, and identifies the crucial dimensions related to the (...)
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  18. Biomemetics: The Tokenization of Reality.Ilexa Yardley - 2021
    The integration of biomimetics and memetics produces non-fungible tokens. Proving the Conservation of a Circle is the core, and, thus the only, dynamic in Nature, resulting in the tokenization of reality. Explaining the notion of 'self.' Across all disciplines.
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  19. Mentalization and Embodied Selfhood in Borderline Personality Disorder.E. S. Neustadter, A. Fotopoulou, S. K. Fineberg & M. Steinfeld - 2021 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 28 (3-4):126-157.
    Aberrations of self-experience are considered a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). While prominent aetiological accounts of BPD, such as the mentalization-based approach, appeal to the developmental constitution of self in early infant–caregiver environments, they often rely on a conception of self that is not explicitly articulated. Moreover, self-experience in BPD is often theorized at the level of narrative identity, thus minimizing the role of embodied experience. In this article, we present the hypothesis that disordered self and interpersonal functioning (...)
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  20. No Work for a Theory of Personal Identity.John Schwenkler - 2021 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 69 (1):57-65.
    A main element in Richard Swinburne’s (2019) argument for substance dualism concerns the conditions of a person’s continued existence over time. In this commentary I aim to question two things: first, whether the kind of imaginary cases that Swinburne relies on to make his case should be accorded the kind of weight he supposes; and second, whether philosophers should be concerned to give any substantial theory, of the sort that dualism and its competitors are apparently meant to provide, to explain (...)
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  21. There Is Nothing to Identity.M. Oreste Fiocco - forthcoming - Synthese:1-17.
    Several have denied that there is, specifically, a criterion of identity for persons and some deny that there are, for any kind, diachronic criteria of identity. I argue, however, that there are no criteria of identity, either synchronic or diachronic, for any kind whatsoever (and could be none). I begin by elaborating the notion of a criterion of identity in order to clarify what exactly is being denied when I maintain there are none. I examine the motivation of those who (...)
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  22. Phenomenological Approaches to Personal Identity.Jakub Čapek & Sophie Loidolt - 2021 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 20 (2):217-234.
    This special issue addresses the debate on personal identity from a phenomenological viewpoint, especially contemporary phenomenological research on selfhood. In the introduction, we first offer a brief survey of the various classic questions related to personal identity according to Locke’s initial proposal and sketch out key concepts and distinctions of the debate that came after Locke. We then characterize the types of approach represented by post-Hegelian, German and French philosophies of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. We argue that whereas the (...)
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  23. Comfortably Numb.Ilexa Yardley - 2020 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    Addiction to observation.... There is a circular-linear relationship between observer and observation proving 'pi' is the only observer (a circle is the background state for everything) (making observation possible).
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  24. Personality and Authenticity in Light of the Memory-Modifying Potential of Optogenetics.Przemysław Zawadzki & Agnieszka K. Adamczyk - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (1):3-21.
    There has been a growing interest in research concerning memory modification technologies (MMTs) in recent years. Neuroscientists and psychologists are beginning to explore the prospect of controllable and intentional modification of human memory. One of the technologies with the greatest potential to this end is optogenetics—an invasive neuromodulation technique involving the use of light to control the activity of individual brain cells. It has recently shown the potential to modify specific long-term memories in animal models in ways not yet possible (...)
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  25. Do You Remember Who You Are? The Pillars of Identity in Dementia.Nada Gligorov & Christopher Langston - 2021 - In Veljko Dubljevic & Frances Bottenberg (eds.), Living With Dementia. pp. 39-54.
    Loss of personal identity in dementia can raise a number of ethical considerations, including the applicability of advance directives and the validity of patient preferences that seem incongruous with a previous history of values. In this chapter, we first endorse the self-concept view as the most appropriate approach to personal continuity in healthcare. We briefly describe two different types of dementia, Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) and behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bv-FTD). We identify elements considered important for the continuation of a self-concept, including (...)
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  26. Brain Death: What We Are and When We Die.Lukas Meier - 2020 - Dissertation, University of St. Andrews
    When does a human being cease to exist? For millennia, the answer to this question had remained largely unchanged: death had been diagnosed when heartbeat and breathing were permanently absent. Only comparatively recently, in the 1950s, rapid developments in intensive-care medicine called into question this widely accepted criterion. What had previously been deemed a permanent cessation of vital functions suddenly became reversible. -/- A new criterion of death was needed. It was suggested that the destruction of the brain could indicate (...)
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  27. When Time Becomes Personal. Aging and Personal Identity.Christian Sternad - 2021 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 20 (2):311-319.
    Aging is an integral part of human existence. The problem of aging addresses the most fundamental coordinates of our lives but also the ones of the phenomenological method: time, embodiment, subjectivity and intersubjectivity, and even the social norms that grow into the very notion of aging as such. In my article, I delineate a phenomenological analysis of aging and show how such an analysis connects with the debate concerning personal identity: I claim that aging is not merely a physical process, (...)
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  28. The Billionaire.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    Zero and one. Circumference and diameter. Intelligent anarchy. Explanation for abstraction (as a noun) (as a verb).
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  29. Self, Sense and Autonomy.Matthew Ian Harding - manuscript
    This study advances a refutation of Physicalism. It demonstrates that it cannot, coherently, be maintained. An alternative approach based on Husserl’s ‘transcendental ego’ is developed. This is an account where the physical world is constituted by a freely acting self from a phenomenology that is ontologically neutral. By doing so, the, so-called, ‘hard problem’ of consciousness is dissolved. It will be shown that the self is compelled to attribute moral and aesthetic value to the world that it has constituted. The (...)
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  30. Donald Davidson and the Source of Self-Knowledge.Louise Röska-Hardy - 2011 - In Jeff Malpas (ed.), Dialogues with Davidson: New Perspectives on his Philosophy J. Malpas (ed.), Cambridge, MA: MIT Press 2011, 371-404. Cambridge, MA: pp. 371-404.
    This chapter focuses on Davidson’s discussion regarding the phenomenon of self-knowledge and its puzzling features, and how he has placed it in a central place within his philosophy. This chapter begins by providing an overview of the concept of “psychological self-knowledge,” which is considered unlike any other form of knowledge. In contrast to our knowledge of the rest of the world or our knowledge of others’ mental states, we usually know the contents of our current mental states without recourse to (...)
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  31. CATEGORY OF ‘HAPPINESS’: ETYMOLOGY, ‘OBJECTIVE’ INDICATORS, ELEMENTS, AND FORMULA FOR HAPPINESS.Galina Ivanovna Kolesnikova - unknown
    The article reviews the category of ‘happiness’ along three lines: etymological discourse, ‘objective’ indicators and elements of happiness as a social/cultural phenomenon, as well as the author's proposed formula for happiness. The relevance of this study is determined by the fact that human resource is the main resource of the State, and the future of the country depends on the well-being of each individual. As a result of the etymological discourse, the following conclusions have been drawn: 1, the category of (...)
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  32. On Schechtman’s Person Life View.Radim Bělohrad - 2014 - Ethical Perspectives 21 (4):565–579.
    In this paper, I provide an analysis of Marya Schechtman's theory of personal identity defended in her book Staying Alive: Personal Identity, Practical Concerns, and the Unity of a Life.
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  33. Pattern Theory of Self and Situating Moral Aspects: The Need to Include Authenticity, Autonomy and Responsibility in Understanding the Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation.Przemysław Zawadzki - forthcoming - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-24.
    The aims of this paper are to: identify the best framework for comprehending multidimensional impact of deep brain stimulation on the self; identify weaknesses of this framework; propose refinements to it; in pursuing, show why and how this framework should be extended with additional moral aspects and demonstrate their interrelations; define how moral aspects relate to the framework; show the potential consequences of including moral aspects on evaluating DBS’s impact on patients’ selves. Regarding, I argue that the pattern theory of (...)
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  34. Husserl, the Active Self, and Commitment.Hanne Jacobs - 2021 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 20 (2):281-298.
    In “On what matters: Personal identity as a phenomenological problem”, Steven Crowell engages a number of contemporary interpretations of Husserl’s account of the person and personal identity by noting that they lack a phenomenological elucidation of the self as commitment. In this article, in response to Crowell, I aim to show that such an account of the self as commitment can be drawn from Husserl’s work by looking more closely at his descriptions from the time of Ideas and after of (...)
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  35. Hobbesian Causation and Personal Identity in the History of Criminology.Luke William Hunt - 2021 - Intellectual History Review 31 (2):247-266.
    Hobbes is known for bridging natural and political philosophy, but less attention has been given to how this distinguishes the Hobbesian conception of the self from individualist strands of liberalism. First, Hobbes’s determinism suggests a conception of the self in which externalities determine the will and what the self is at every moment. Second, there is no stable conception of the self because externalities keep it in a constant state of flux. The metaphysical underpinnings of his project downplay the notion (...)
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  36. Representing Agency: An Introduction.Katrin Trüstedt - 2020 - Law and Literature 32 (2):195–206.
    This introduction examines the main premises and terms of the special issue: person, agency, and representation. It argues that representation and agency stand in an internal relation: There is no agent without its personification and no agency without its possible vicarious representation. Yet, personification and representation enable agency only by at the same time complicating the integrity, authority, and presence of the agent. The introduction elucidates the inherent and conflictual relation of representation and agency by means of three early modern (...)
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  37. Perceiving 'Other' Minds: Autism, 4E Cognition, and the Idea of Neurodiversity.J. van Grunsven - 2020 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 27 (7-8):115-143.
    The neurodiversity movement has called for a rethinking of autistic mindedness. It rejects the commonplace tendency to theorize autism by foregrounding a set of deficiencies in behavioural, cognitive, and affective areas. Instead, the idea is, our conception of autistic mindedness ought to foreground that autistic persons, often in virtue of their autism, experience the world in manners that can be immensely meaningful to themselves and to human society at large. In this paper I presuppose that the idea of neurodiversity is (...)
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  38. Free Your Mind: Buddhism, Causality, and the Free Will Problem.Christian Coseru - 2020 - Zygon 55 (2):461-473.
    The problem of free will is associated with a specific and significant kind of control over our actions, which is understood primarily in the sense that we have the freedom to do otherwise or the capacity for self‐determination. Is Buddhism compatible with such a conception of free will? The aim of this article is to address three critical issues concerning the free will problem: (1) what role should accounts of physical and neurobiological processes play in discussions of free will? (2) (...)
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  39. Flow My Tears, Rick Deckard Said.M. Blake Wilson - 11/30/2019 - In Robin Bunce & Trip McCrossin (eds.), Blade Runner 2049 and Philosophy. Chicago: Open Court. pp. 103-110.
  40. The Social Ontology of Personhood: A Recognition-Theoretical Account (Co-Authored Monograph).Heikki Ikäheimo, Arto Laitinen, Michael Quante & Italo Testa - manuscript
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  41. Введение в структурно-онтологическую методологию: анализ предметной области социализации личности (Introduction to Structural-Ontological Methodology: Analysis of the Subject Matter Field of Personality Socialization).Vitalii Shymko - 2020 - SSRN Electronic Journal.
    Russian Abstract: Данный документ является сборником «заметок на полях», раскрывающих состав и содержание метода структурно-онтологического анализа. Указанный метод разработан для системного описания предметной области изучаемых явлений. Он включает специальную процедуру по построению структурно-онтологических матриц и алгоритм их описания. Междисциплинарная направленность метода продемонстрирована на примере анализа процесса социализации личности. English Abstract: This document is a collection of `marginal notes` revealing the composition and content of the structural ontological analysis method. The specified method is developed for a systemic description of the subject (...)
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  42. Antropologia pragmatista. Padova Lectures.Michael Quante & Armando Manchisi (eds.) - 2020 - Padova PD, Italia: Padova University Press.
    What does it mean to be a person? And in what way is this connected to our finitude, i.e. to the properly human aspect of our existence? By analyzing some of the core features of our form of life (personal identity, self-consciousness, freedom, autonomy, responsibility), Michael Quante answers these questions arguing that it is possible to be a person and lead an authentically human life only within social relationships of recognition: only in these relationships, it is possible to know oneself (...)
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  43. The Abyss of Freedom: Love and Legitimacy in Constant’s Adolphe.Joshua Landy - 2009 - Nineteenth Century French Studies 3 (37):193-213.
    Despite its superficial similarities with Rousseau's Confessions, Constant's Adolphe functions in fact as a devastating critique from within of the entire autobiographical project. Proceeding from the threefold assumption that the soul is irremediably divided, self-opaque, and untranslatable into language, it interrogates the very feasibility of autobiography, implicitly presenting its protagonist's maxims (which only appear to be the fruits of experience altruistically shared) and his claim never to have loved (which only appears to be brutally honest, but is a curious act (...)
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  44. Persons, Reasons, and What Matters: The Philosophy of Derek Parfit.Fabio Patrone - 2019 - Argumenta 1 (5):9-10.
    Derek Parfit played a crucial role in the XX century philosophical debate. His masterpiece, Reasons and Persons, has been highly influential both in moral philosophy, and personal identity. It is hard to overlook the fact that Parfit’s ideas gave the main contribution to the contemporary philosophy of persons. He reformulates a debate stuck in the classical contraposition between psychological and physical criteria of personal identity, by introducing his most famous idea: identity doesn’t matter in survival. This thesis, and its moral (...)
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  45. The Non-Identity Objection to Intergenerational Harm: A Critical Re-Examination.Fausto Corvino - 2019 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (2):165-185.
    In this article I analyse those that I consider the most powerful counterarguments that have been advanced against the non-identity objection to the idea of intergenerational harm, according to which an action cannot cause harm to a given agent if her biological identity does actually depend—in a partial but still determinant way—on the performance of this action. In doing this, I firstly go through the deontological criticisms to the person-affecting view of harm, before moving on to sufficientarian and communitarian accounts (...)
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  46. Um Embrião não é um Indivíduo (An Embryo is not an Individual).Danilo Fraga Dantas - 2019 - Dissertatio 49:133-145.
    Um argumento recorrente contra a liberalização do aborto parte do pressuposto de que, desde o momento da fertilização, seres humanos são indivíduos (no sentido de serem algo que necessariamente ocorre em uma entidade apenas). Nesse artigo, argumento que esse não é um caso a partir da possibilidade de geminação monozigótica e do fato de identidades serem necessárias. Defendo as premissas do argumento e discuto as possíveis interpretações de sua conclusão. Argumento que a interpretação completa da conclusão desse argumento está em (...)
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  47. Is Brain Death Death?Lukas J. Meier - 2016 - Dissertation, University of Oxford
    For hundreds of years, death had been defined by cardiopulmonary criteria. When heart and respiratory functions were permanently absent, doctors declared their patients dead. Three developments in intensive care medicine called into question these widely-accepted criteria, however: the advent of positive pressure ventilation and the promotion of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, both in the early 1950s, and the first successful heart transplantation in 1967. What had previously been diagnosed as the permanent absence of vital functions, suddenly became reversible. Not only could doctors (...)
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  48. What Is the Essence of an Essence? Comparing Afro-Relational and Western-Individualist Ontologies (Repr.).Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - In Jonathan O. Chimakonam & Monique Whitaker (eds.), Contemporary Language, Logic, and Metaphysics: African and Western Approaches (tentative title).
    Reprint of an article that first appeared in Synthesis Philosophica (2018).
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  49. The Cognition of the Human Individual in the Mature Thought of Edith Stein.Robert McNamara - 2018 - Philosophical News 1 (16):131-43.
    Throughout her entire philosophical corpus Edith Stein shows a concerted effort to reach a comprehensive understanding of the human being as individual. In this paper, I examine the question of how knowledge of the being-individual and qualitative individuality of the human being is attained, as it is found presented by Stein in her most mature philosophical work, Endliches und ewiges Sein. After briefly considering Stein’s understanding of consciousness and intentionality, I detail Stein’s own investigation of the manner the human being (...)
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  50. The Problem of Spontaneous Abortion: Is the Pro-Life Position Morally Monstrous?Bruce P. Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger - 2019 - The New Bioethics 25 (2):103-120.
    A substantial proportion of human embryos spontaneously abort soon after conception, and ethicists have argued this is problematic for the pro-life view that a human embryo has the same moral status as an adult from conception. Firstly, if human embryos are our moral equals, this entails spontaneous abortion is one of humanity’s most important problems, and it is claimed this is absurd, and a reductio of the moral status claim. Secondly, it is claimed that pro-life advocates do not act as (...)
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