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Summary Theories of personal identity are, most often, theories of what makes X, a person, at one time numerically identical to Y at another time.  Such theories fall into two very general categories.  On reductionist views, the facts about identity across time simply consist in facts about brains, bodies, or interrelated physical or mental events.  On nonreductionist views, the facts about identity do not consist simply in such facts, but also consist in facts about, e.g., souls or Cartesian egos.  Among reductionist theories, there are two general approaches: psychological and biological.  On psychological approaches, what makes X and Y identical is typically continuity of some subset of psychological features.  On biological approaches, what makes X and Y identical is typically continuity of the person's biological (animal) organism.
Key works Derek Parfit offers and explains the distinction between nonreductionist and reductionist views of personal identity in Parfit 1984 (a distinction he originally labeled as between "simple" and "complex" views in Parfit 1973).  For the original statement of a psychological criterion of identity, see John Locke's "persistence of consciousness" view in Locke & Nidditch 1979.  For nonreductionist rejoinders, see Thomas Reid's Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man and Butler 1736.  For contemporary advocacy of a psychological criterion, see, in addition to Parfit, Harold Noonan's Personal Identity and Sydney Shoemaker's contribution in Shoemaker & Swinburne 1984 (and for contemporary nonreductionism about identity, see Swinburne's contribution).  For contemporary advocacy of a biological criterion, see Olson 1997.
Introductions Good introductions include Perry 1978, Perry 1975, and Olson 2002.
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  1. Biomemetics: The Tokenization of Reality.Ilexa Yardley - 2021
    The integration of biomimetics and memetics produces non-fungible tokens. Proving the Conservation of a Circle is the core, and, thus the only, dynamic in Nature, resulting in the tokenization of reality. Explaining the notion of 'self.' Across all disciplines.
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  2. Mentalization and Embodied Selfhood in Borderline Personality Disorder.E. S. Neustadter, A. Fotopoulou, S. K. Fineberg & M. Steinfeld - 2021 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 28 (3-4):126-157.
    Aberrations of self-experience are considered a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). While prominent aetiological accounts of BPD, such as the mentalization-based approach, appeal to the developmental constitution of self in early infant–caregiver environments, they often rely on a conception of self that is not explicitly articulated. Moreover, self-experience in BPD is often theorized at the level of narrative identity, thus minimizing the role of embodied experience. In this article, we present the hypothesis that disordered self and interpersonal functioning (...)
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  3. No Work for a Theory of Personal Identity.John Schwenkler - 2021 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 69 (1):57-65.
    A main element in Richard Swinburne’s (2019) argument for substance dualism concerns the conditions of a person’s continued existence over time. In this commentary I aim to question two things: first, whether the kind of imaginary cases that Swinburne relies on to make his case should be accorded the kind of weight he supposes; and second, whether philosophers should be concerned to give any substantial theory, of the sort that dualism and its competitors are apparently meant to provide, to explain (...)
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  4. There Is Nothing to Identity.M. Oreste Fiocco - forthcoming - Synthese:1-17.
    Several have denied that there is, specifically, a criterion of identity for persons and some deny that there are, for any kind, diachronic criteria of identity. I argue, however, that there are no criteria of identity, either synchronic or diachronic, for any kind whatsoever (and could be none). I begin by elaborating the notion of a criterion of identity in order to clarify what exactly is being denied when I maintain there are none. I examine the motivation of those who (...)
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  5. Phenomenological Approaches to Personal Identity.Jakub Čapek & Sophie Loidolt - 2021 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 20 (2):217-234.
    This special issue addresses the debate on personal identity from a phenomenological viewpoint, especially contemporary phenomenological research on selfhood. In the introduction, we first offer a brief survey of the various classic questions related to personal identity according to Locke’s initial proposal and sketch out key concepts and distinctions of the debate that came after Locke. We then characterize the types of approach represented by post-Hegelian, German and French philosophies of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. We argue that whereas the (...)
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  6. Comfortably Numb.Ilexa Yardley - 2020 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
  7. Personality and Authenticity in Light of the Memory-Modifying Potential of Optogenetics.Przemysław Zawadzki & Agnieszka K. Adamczyk - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (1):3-21.
    There has been a growing interest in research concerning memory modification technologies (MMTs) in recent years. Neuroscientists and psychologists are beginning to explore the prospect of controllable and intentional modification of human memory. One of the technologies with the greatest potential to this end is optogenetics—an invasive neuromodulation technique involving the use of light to control the activity of individual brain cells. It has recently shown the potential to modify specific long-term memories in animal models in ways not yet possible (...)
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  8. Do You Remember Who You Are? The Pillars of Identity in Dementia.Nada Gligorov & Christopher Langston - 2021 - In Veljko Dubljevic & Frances Bottenberg (eds.), Living With Dementia. pp. 39-54.
    Loss of personal identity in dementia can raise a number of ethical considerations, including the applicability of advance directives and the validity of patient preferences that seem incongruous with a previous history of values. In this chapter, we first endorse the self-concept view as the most appropriate approach to personal continuity in healthcare. We briefly describe two different types of dementia, Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) and behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bv-FTD). We identify elements considered important for the continuation of a self-concept, including (...)
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  9. Brain Death: What We Are and When We Die.Lukas Meier - 2020 - Dissertation, University of St. Andrews
    When does a human being cease to exist? For millennia, the answer to this question had remained largely unchanged: death had been diagnosed when heartbeat and breathing were permanently absent. Only comparatively recently, in the 1950s, rapid developments in intensive-care medicine called into question this widely accepted criterion. What had previously been deemed a permanent cessation of vital functions suddenly became reversible. -/- A new criterion of death was needed. It was suggested that the destruction of the brain could indicate (...)
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  10. When Time Becomes Personal. Aging and Personal Identity.Christian Sternad - 2021 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 20 (2):311-319.
    Aging is an integral part of human existence. The problem of aging addresses the most fundamental coordinates of our lives but also the ones of the phenomenological method: time, embodiment, subjectivity and intersubjectivity, and even the social norms that grow into the very notion of aging as such. In my article, I delineate a phenomenological analysis of aging and show how such an analysis connects with the debate concerning personal identity: I claim that aging is not merely a physical process, (...)
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  11. Self, Sense and Autonomy.Matthew Ian Harding - manuscript
    This study advances a refutation of Physicalism. It demonstrates that it cannot, coherently, be maintained. An alternative approach based on Husserl’s ‘transcendental ego’ is developed. This is an account where the physical world is constituted by a freely acting self from a phenomenology that is ontologically neutral. By doing so, the, so-called, ‘hard problem’ of consciousness is dissolved. It will be shown that the self is compelled to attribute moral and aesthetic value to the world that it has constituted. The (...)
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  12. Donald Davidson and the Source of Self-Knowledge.Louise Röska-Hardy - 2011 - In Jeff Malpas (ed.), Dialogues with Davidson: New Perspectives on his Philosophy J. Malpas (ed.), Cambridge, MA: MIT Press 2011, 371-404. Cambridge, MA: pp. 371-404.
    This chapter focuses on Davidson’s discussion regarding the phenomenon of self-knowledge and its puzzling features, and how he has placed it in a central place within his philosophy. This chapter begins by providing an overview of the concept of “psychological self-knowledge,” which is considered unlike any other form of knowledge. In contrast to our knowledge of the rest of the world or our knowledge of others’ mental states, we usually know the contents of our current mental states without recourse to (...)
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  13. CATEGORY OF ‘HAPPINESS’: ETYMOLOGY, ‘OBJECTIVE’ INDICATORS, ELEMENTS, AND FORMULA FOR HAPPINESS.Galina Ivanovna Kolesnikova - unknown
    The article reviews the category of ‘happiness’ along three lines: etymological discourse, ‘objective’ indicators and elements of happiness as a social/cultural phenomenon, as well as the author's proposed formula for happiness. The relevance of this study is determined by the fact that human resource is the main resource of the State, and the future of the country depends on the well-being of each individual. As a result of the etymological discourse, the following conclusions have been drawn: 1, the category of (...)
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  14. On Schechtman’s Person Life View.Radim Bělohrad - 2014 - Ethical Perspectives 21 (4):565–579.
    In this paper, I provide an analysis of Marya Schechtman's theory of personal identity defended in her book Staying Alive: Personal Identity, Practical Concerns, and the Unity of a Life.
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  15. Pattern Theory of Self and Situating Moral Aspects: The Need to Include Authenticity, Autonomy and Responsibility in Understanding the Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation.Przemysław Zawadzki - forthcoming - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-24.
    The aims of this paper are to: identify the best framework for comprehending multidimensional impact of deep brain stimulation on the self; identify weaknesses of this framework; propose refinements to it; in pursuing, show why and how this framework should be extended with additional moral aspects and demonstrate their interrelations; define how moral aspects relate to the framework; show the potential consequences of including moral aspects on evaluating DBS’s impact on patients’ selves. Regarding, I argue that the pattern theory of (...)
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  16. Husserl, the Active Self, and Commitment.Hanne Jacobs - 2021 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 20 (2):281-298.
    In “On what matters: Personal identity as a phenomenological problem”, Steven Crowell engages a number of contemporary interpretations of Husserl’s account of the person and personal identity by noting that they lack a phenomenological elucidation of the self as commitment. In this article, in response to Crowell, I aim to show that such an account of the self as commitment can be drawn from Husserl’s work by looking more closely at his descriptions from the time of Ideas and after of (...)
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  17. Generic Animalism.Andrew M. Bailey & Peter Van Elswyk - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophy.
    The animalist says we are animals. This thesis is commonly understood as the universal generalization that all human persons are human animals. This article proposes an alternative: the thesis is a generic that admits of exceptions. We defend the resulting view, which we call generic animalism, and show its aptitude for diagnosing the limits of eight case-based objections to animalism.
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  18. Hobbesian Causation and Personal Identity in the History of Criminology.Luke William Hunt - 2020 - Intellectual History Review 31 (2):1-20.
    Hobbes is known for bridging natural and political philosophy, but less attention has been given to how this distinguishes the Hobbesian conception of the self from individualist strands of liberalism. First, Hobbes’s determinism suggests a conception of the self in which externalities determine the will and what the self is at every moment. Second, there is no stable conception of the self because externalities keep it in a constant state of flux. The metaphysical underpinnings of his project downplay the notion (...)
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  19. Representing Agency: An Introduction.Katrin Trüstedt - 2020 - Law and Literature 32 (2):195–206.
    This introduction examines the main premises and terms of the special issue: person, agency, and representation. It argues that representation and agency stand in an internal relation: There is no agent without its personification and no agency without its possible vicarious representation. Yet, personification and representation enable agency only by at the same time complicating the integrity, authority, and presence of the agent. The introduction elucidates the inherent and conflictual relation of representation and agency by means of three early modern (...)
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  20. Perceiving 'Other' Minds: Autism, 4E Cognition, and the Idea of Neurodiversity.J. van Grunsven - 2020 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 27 (7-8):115-143.
    The neurodiversity movement has called for a rethinking of autistic mindedness. It rejects the commonplace tendency to theorize autism by foregrounding a set of deficiencies in behavioural, cognitive, and affective areas. Instead, the idea is, our conception of autistic mindedness ought to foreground that autistic persons, often in virtue of their autism, experience the world in manners that can be immensely meaningful to themselves and to human society at large. In this paper I presuppose that the idea of neurodiversity is (...)
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  21. Free Your Mind: Buddhism, Causality, and the Free Will Problem.Christian Coseru - 2020 - Zygon 55 (2):461-473.
    The problem of free will is associated with a specific and significant kind of control over our actions, which is understood primarily in the sense that we have the freedom to do otherwise or the capacity for self‐determination. Is Buddhism compatible with such a conception of free will? The aim of this article is to address three critical issues concerning the free will problem: (1) what role should accounts of physical and neurobiological processes play in discussions of free will? (2) (...)
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  22. Flow My Tears, Rick Deckard Said.M. Blake Wilson - 11/30/2019 - In Robin Bunce & Trip McCrossin (eds.), Blade Runner 2049 and Philosophy. Chicago: Open Court. pp. 103-110.
  23. The Social Ontology of Personhood: A Recognition-Theoretical Account (Co-Authored Monograph).Heikki Ikäheimo, Arto Laitinen, Michael Quante & Italo Testa - manuscript
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  24. Введение в структурно-онтологическую методологию: анализ предметной области социализации личности (Introduction to Structural-Ontological Methodology: Analysis of the Subject Matter Field of Personality Socialization).Vitalii Shymko - 2020 - SSRN Electronic Journal.
    Russian Abstract: Данный документ является сборником «заметок на полях», раскрывающих состав и содержание метода структурно-онтологического анализа. Указанный метод разработан для системного описания предметной области изучаемых явлений. Он включает специальную процедуру по построению структурно-онтологических матриц и алгоритм их описания. Междисциплинарная направленность метода продемонстрирована на примере анализа процесса социализации личности. English Abstract: This document is a collection of `marginal notes` revealing the composition and content of the structural ontological analysis method. The specified method is developed for a systemic description of the subject (...)
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  25. Antropologia pragmatista. Padova Lectures.Michael Quante & Armando Manchisi (eds.) - 2020 - Padova PD, Italia: Padova University Press.
    What does it mean to be a person? And in what way is this connected to our finitude, i.e. to the properly human aspect of our existence? By analyzing some of the core features of our form of life (personal identity, self-consciousness, freedom, autonomy, responsibility), Michael Quante answers these questions arguing that it is possible to be a person and lead an authentically human life only within social relationships of recognition: only in these relationships, it is possible to know oneself (...)
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  26. The Abyss of Freedom: Love and Legitimacy in Constant’s Adolphe.Joshua Landy - 2009 - Nineteenth Century French Studies 3 (37):193-213.
    Despite its superficial similarities with Rousseau's Confessions, Constant's Adolphe functions in fact as a devastating critique from within of the entire autobiographical project. Proceeding from the threefold assumption that the soul is irremediably divided, self-opaque, and untranslatable into language, it interrogates the very feasibility of autobiography, implicitly presenting its protagonist's maxims (which only appear to be the fruits of experience altruistically shared) and his claim never to have loved (which only appears to be brutally honest, but is a curious act (...)
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  27. Persons, Reasons, and What Matters: The Philosophy of Derek Parfit.Fabio Patrone - 2019 - Argumenta 1 (5):9-10.
    Derek Parfit played a crucial role in the XX century philosophical debate. His masterpiece, Reasons and Persons, has been highly influential both in moral philosophy, and personal identity. It is hard to overlook the fact that Parfit’s ideas gave the main contribution to the contemporary philosophy of persons. He reformulates a debate stuck in the classical contraposition between psychological and physical criteria of personal identity, by introducing his most famous idea: identity doesn’t matter in survival. This thesis, and its moral (...)
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  28. The Non-Identity Objection to Intergenerational Harm: A Critical Re-Examination.Fausto Corvino - 2019 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (2):165-185.
    In this article I analyse those that I consider the most powerful counterarguments that have been advanced against the non-identity objection to the idea of intergenerational harm, according to which an action cannot cause harm to a given agent if her biological identity does actually depend—in a partial but still determinant way—on the performance of this action. In doing this, I firstly go through the deontological criticisms to the person-affecting view of harm, before moving on to sufficientarian and communitarian accounts (...)
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  29. Um Embrião não é um Indivíduo (An Embryo is not an Individual).Danilo Fraga Dantas - 2019 - Dissertatio 49:133-145.
    Um argumento recorrente contra a liberalização do aborto parte do pressuposto de que, desde o momento da fertilização, seres humanos são indivíduos (no sentido de serem algo que necessariamente ocorre em uma entidade apenas). Nesse artigo, argumento que esse não é um caso a partir da possibilidade de geminação monozigótica e do fato de identidades serem necessárias. Defendo as premissas do argumento e discuto as possíveis interpretações de sua conclusão. Argumento que a interpretação completa da conclusão desse argumento está em (...)
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  30. Is Brain Death Death?Lukas J. Meier - 2016 - Dissertation, University of Oxford
    For hundreds of years, death had been defined by cardiopulmonary criteria. When heart and respiratory functions were permanently absent, doctors declared their patients dead. Three developments in intensive care medicine called into question these widely-accepted criteria, however: the advent of positive pressure ventilation and the promotion of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, both in the early 1950s, and the first successful heart transplantation in 1967. What had previously been diagnosed as the permanent absence of vital functions, suddenly became reversible. Not only could doctors (...)
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  31. What Is the Essence of an Essence? Comparing Afro-Relational and Western-Individualist Ontologies (Repr.).Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - In Jonathan O. Chimakonam & Monique Whitaker (eds.), Contemporary Language, Logic, and Metaphysics: African and Western Approaches (tentative title).
    Reprint of an article that first appeared in Synthesis Philosophica (2018).
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  32. The Cognition of the Human Individual in the Mature Thought of Edith Stein.Robert McNamara - 2018 - Philosophical News 1 (16):131-43.
    Throughout her entire philosophical corpus Edith Stein shows a concerted effort to reach a comprehensive understanding of the human being as individual. In this paper, I examine the question of how knowledge of the being-individual and qualitative individuality of the human being is attained, as it is found presented by Stein in her most mature philosophical work, Endliches und ewiges Sein. After briefly considering Stein’s understanding of consciousness and intentionality, I detail Stein’s own investigation of the manner the human being (...)
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  33. The Problem of Spontaneous Abortion: Is the Pro-Life Position Morally Monstrous?Bruce P. Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger - 2019 - The New Bioethics 25 (2):103-120.
    A substantial proportion of human embryos spontaneously abort soon after conception, and ethicists have argued this is problematic for the pro-life view that a human embryo has the same moral status as an adult from conception. Firstly, if human embryos are our moral equals, this entails spontaneous abortion is one of humanity’s most important problems, and it is claimed this is absurd, and a reductio of the moral status claim. Secondly, it is claimed that pro-life advocates do not act as (...)
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  34. Against Cognitivism About Personhood.Nils-Frederic Wagner - 2019 - Erkenntnis 84 (3):657-686.
    The present paper unravels ontological and normative conditions of personhood for the purpose of critiquing ‘Cognitivist Views’. Such views have attracted much attention and affirmation by presenting the ontology of personhood in terms of higher-order cognition on the basis of which normative practices are explained and justified. However, these normative conditions are invoked to establish the alleged ontology in the first place. When we want to know what kind of entity has full moral status, it is tempting to establish an (...)
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  35. Stage Theory and the Personite Problem.Alex Kaiserman - 2019 - Analysis 79 (2):215-222.
    Mark Johnston has recently argued that four-dimensionalist theories of persistence are incompatible with some of our most basic ethical and prudential principles. I argue that although Johnston’s arguments succeed on a worm-theoretic account of persistence, they fail on a stage-theoretic account. So much the worse, I conclude, for the worm theory.
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  36. The Composite View and the Hard Problem of Diachronic Identity.M. Cerullo - 2017 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 24 (5-6):88-103.
    The enigma of diachronic identity continues to challenge philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists. The current paper will first review a recent taxonomy developed by philosophers that groups theories of identity into simple and complex views. An ideal theory of identity would satisfy proponents of both views and this requires addressing what we will term the hard problem of identity. The hard problem of identity parallels Chalmers' formulation of the hard problem of consciousness and requires that any theory of identity address the (...)
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  37. The Fallacy of Favouring Gradual Replacement Mind Uploading Over Scan-and-Copy.K. B. Wiley & R. A. Koene - 2016 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 23 (3-4):212-235.
    Mind uploading speculation and debate often concludes that a procedure described as gradual in-place replacement preserves personal identity while a procedure described as destructive scan-and-copy produces some other identity in the target substrate such that personal identity is lost along with the biological brain. This paper demonstrates a chain of reasoning that establishes metaphysical equivalence between these two methods in terms of preserving personal identity.
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  38. The Co-Essential Self.J. J. McGraw - 2016 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 23 (1-2):283-301.
    Mesoamerican cosmologies have developed ideas about self using change-in-time as the principal orientation. These approaches conceive existence to be a phenomenon of temporal organization, which is radically different in assumptions and consequences than a metaphysics based on substances. The chief consequence of this is a continuity between human beings-in-time and other living and non- living entities.One 's character and destiny are of a kind with specific animals, meteorological phenomena, places, and objects. The qualities of the timed world and the qualities (...)
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  39. Is 'the First Person' a Linguistic Concept Essentially?W. Hinzen & K. Schroeder - 2015 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 22 (11-12):149-179.
    The notion of 'the first person' is centrally invoked in philosophical discussions of selfhood, subjectivity, and personhood. We ask whether this notion, as invoked in these discussions, is con-tingently or essentially a grammatical term. While it is logically possible that the linguistic dimensions of self-reference are accidental to this phenomenon, we argue that no explications of such phenomena as 'reference de se' or 'essential indexicality' in non-grammatical terms has been or likely can be provided, since grammatical factors uniquely co-vary with (...)
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  40. Data Driven Narcissism: How Will 'Big Data' Feed Back on Us?T. Raab - 2015 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 22 (9-10):215-228.
    How do 'big data' affect us as psychological beings? In this paper I argue that the user-specific contents spawned by analyses of massive data sets obtained by transaction data and online marketing software agents of Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, etc. must tend to reinforce the respective user's 'self-image'. As long as this man-machine feedback loop is not interrupted by purposeful manipulation, it will thus lead to a general behaviour schematization enabling a yet more precise consumer prediction and so forth. The final (...)
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  41. The Sense of Art. [REVIEW]Peggy Zeglin Brand - 1990 - The Personalist Forum 6 (1):89-91.
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  42. Plotinus on the Unity and Identity of Changing Particulars.Pauliina Remes - 2005 - In David Sedley (ed.), Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy Xxviii: Summer 2005. Oxford University Press.
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  43. Person Und Selbsttranszendenz. Ekstase Und Epoché des Ego Als Individuationsprozesse Bei Schelling Und Scheler.Guido Cusinato - 2012 - Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann.
    The main theory at the core of this monograph is that the person is an entity ontologically new, since she is able to perform an act of self-transcendence, which is meant as her critical distancing from her own “self”, understood as subject of social recognition (Anerkennung), in order to open to the encounter with the world (Weltoffenheit). This allows us to consider a person in a new way, different both from confessional interpretations that see her only as a center of (...)
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  44. La Totalità incompiuta. Antropologia filosofica e ontologia della persona.Guido Cusinato - 2008 - Milano: FrancoAngeli.
    "Siamo come lucciole che hanno disimparato a illuminare e che prima si sono messe a girare attorno alla lanterna magica dell'ideale ascetico e ora attorno alle insegne pubblicitarie al neon. Lucciole che hanno scordato d’avere una potenzialità di orientatività preziosa nel proprio sistema affettivo" (G. Cusinato, La totalità incompiuta, Milano 2008, 314). Che cos'è una persona? Come si costituisce concretamente l'identità personale? Che rapporto c'è fra identità personale e identità psichica? C'è coincidenza fra persona e homo sapiens? La persona è (...)
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  45. Michael Quante, Person (Grundthemen Philosophie). [REVIEW]Anne Sophie Meincke - 2009 - Philosophisches Jahrbuch 116:221-225.
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  46. Cordula Brand, Personale Identität oder menschliche Persistenz? Ein naturalistisches Kriterium. [REVIEW]Anne Sophie Meincke - 2012 - Philosophisches Jahrbuch 119:418-424.
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  47. Ohne Metaphysik, bitte!? Transtemporale personale Identität als praktische Wirklichkeit (Without Metaphysics?! Transtemporal Personal Identity as Practical Reality).Anne Sophie Meincke - 2013 - In Georg Gasser & Martina Schmidhuber (eds.), Personale Identität, Narrativität und praktische Rationalität. Münster, Germany: pp. 241-265.
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  48. Persönlichkeit und personale Identität. Zur Fragwürdigkeit eines substanztheoretischen Vorurteils (Personality and Personal Identity. On a Dubious Substance Ontological Prejudice).Anne Sophie Meincke - 2014 - In Orsolya Friedrich & Michael Zichy (eds.), Persönlichkeit. Neurowissenschaftliche und neurophilosophische Fragestellungen. Münster, Germany: pp. 163-187.
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  49. Human Persons – A Process View.Anne Sophie Meincke - forthcoming - In Jörg Ulrich Noller (ed.), Was sind und wie existieren Personen? Münster, Germany: pp. 53-76.
    What are persons and how do they exist? The predominant answer to this question in Western metaphysics is that persons, human and others, are, and exist as, substances, i.e., ontologically independent, well-demarcated things defined by an immutable (usually mental) essence. Change, on this view, is not essential for a person's identity; it is in fact more likely to be detrimental to it. In this chapter I want to suggest an alternative view of human persons which is motivated by an appreciation (...)
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  50. Persons as Biological Processes: A Bio-Processual Way Out of the Personal Identity Dilemma.Anne Sophie Meincke - 2018 - In Daniel J. Nicholson & John Dupre (eds.), Everything Flows. Towards a Processual Philosophy of Biology. Oxford, UK: pp. 357-378.
    Human persons exist longer than a single moment in time; they persist through time. However, so far it has not been possible to make this natural and widespread assumption metaphysically comprehensible. The philosophical debate on personal identity is rather stuck in a dilemma: reductionist theories explain personal identity away, while non-reductionist theories fail to give any informative account at all. This chapter argues that this dilemma emerges from an underlying commitment, shared by both sides of in the debate, to an (...)
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