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1 — 50 / 1122
  1. added 2020-05-19
    Change in Entropy as a Function of McTaggart's A-Series and B-Series.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    This careful note is a very initial foray into the issue of the change in entropy with respect to both McTaggart’s A-series and his B-series. We find a possible solution to the Past Hypothesis problem.
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  2. added 2020-04-26
    Calling for Explanation: The Case of the Thermodynamic Past State.Dan Baras & Orly Shenker - forthcoming - European Journal for Philosophy of Science.
    Philosophers of physics have long debated whether the Past State of low entropy of our universe calls for explanation. What is meant by “calls for explanation”? In this article we analyze this notion, distinguishing between several possible meanings that may be attached to it. Taking the debate around the Past State as a case study, we show how our analysis of what “calling for explanation” might mean can contribute to clarifying the debate and perhaps to settling it, thus demonstrating the (...)
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  3. added 2020-03-05
    Maxwell’s Demon in Quantum Mechanics.Orly Shenker & Meir Hemmo - 2020 - Entropy 22 (3):269.
    Maxwell’s Demon is a thought experiment devised by J. C. Maxwell in 1867 in order to show that the Second Law of thermodynamics is not universal, since it has a counter-example. Since the Second Law is taken by many to provide an arrow of time, the threat to its universality threatens the account of temporal directionality as well. Various attempts to “exorcise” the Demon, by proving that it is impossible for one reason or another, have been made throughout the years, (...)
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  4. added 2020-02-25
    The Energy of the Soul.Robin Collins - 2011 - In Mark C. Baker & Stewart Goetz (eds.), The Soul Hypothesis: Investigations Into the Existence of the Soul. Continuum Press. pp. 123-133.
  5. added 2020-02-25
    Modern Physics and the Energy-Conservation Objection to Mind-Body Dualism.Robin Collins - 2008 - American Philosophical Quarterly 45 (1):31-42.
  6. added 2020-02-19
    Some Reflections on the Statistical Postulate: Typicality, Probability and Explanation Between Deterministic and Indeterministic Theories.Valia Allori - forthcoming - In Statistical Mechanics and Scientific Explanation: Determinism, Indeterminism and Laws of Nature, (2020).
    A common way of characterizing Boltzmann’s explanation of thermodynamics in term of statistical mechanics is with reference to three ingredients: the dynamics, the past hypothesis, and the statistical postulate. In this paper I focus on the statistical postulate, and I have three aims. First, I wish to argue that regarding the statistical postulate as a probability postulate may be too strong: a postulate about typicality would be enough. Second, I wish to show that there is no need to postulate anything, (...)
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  7. added 2020-02-11
    Entropy in Relation to Incomplete Knowledge. K. G. Denbigh, J. S. Denbigh.Michael J. Zenzen - 1986 - Philosophy of Science 53 (3):451-452.
  8. added 2020-02-11
    From Being to Becoming: Time and Complexity in the Physical Sciences. Ilya Prigogine.Cliff Hooker - 1984 - Philosophy of Science 51 (2):355-357.
  9. added 2020-01-17
    The Physics of Emergence.Robert Bishop - 2019 - San Rafael, CA: Morgan & Claypool publication as part of IOP Concise Physics.
    This book explores whether physics points to a reductive or an emergent structure of the world and proposes a physics-motivated conception of emergence that leaves behind many of the problematic intuitions shaping the philosophical conceptions. Examining several detailed case studies reveals results that point to stability conditions playing a crucial though underappreciated role in the physics of emergence. This contextual emergence has thought-provoking consequences for physics and beyond.
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  10. added 2019-12-06
    The Artificial Cell, the Semipermeable Membrane, and the Life That Never Was, 1864–1901.Daniel Liu - 2019 - Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences 49 (5):504-555.
    Since the early nineteenth century a membrane or wall has been cenptral to the cell’s identity as the elementary unit of life. Yet the literally and metaphorically marginal status of the cell membrane made it the site of clashes over the definition of life and the proper way to study it. In this article I show how the modern cell membrane was conceived of by analogy to the first “artificial cell,” invented in 1864 by the chemist Moritz Traube (1826–1894), and (...)
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  11. added 2019-11-23
    Singularities and Black Holes.Erik Curiel - 2019 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philsophy.
  12. added 2019-11-15
    Infinite Lies and Explanatory Ties: Idealization in Phase Transitions.Sam Baron - 2019 - Synthese 196 (5):1939-1961.
    Infinite idealizations appear in our best scientific explanations of phase transitions. This is thought by some to be paradoxical. In this paper I connect the existing literature on the phase transition paradox to work on the concept of indispensability, which arises in discussions of realism and anti-realism within the philosophy of science and the philosophy of mathematics. I formulate a version of the phase transition paradox based on the idea that infinite idealizations are explanatorily indispensable to our best science, and (...)
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  13. added 2019-11-08
    Exorcist XIV: The Wrath of Maxwell’s Demon. Part I. From Maxwell to Szilard.John Earman & John D. Norton - 1998 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 29 (4):435-471.
    In this first part of a two-part paper, we describe efforts in the early decades of this century to restrict the extent of violations of the Second Law of thermodynamics that were brought to light by the rise of the kinetic theory and the identification of fluctuation phenomena. We show how these efforts mutated into Szilard’s proposal that Maxwell’s Demon is exorcised by proper attention to the entropy costs associated with the Demon’s memory and information acquisition. In the second part (...)
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  14. added 2019-09-11
    Can Quantum Thermodynamics Save Time?Noel Swanson - manuscript
    The thermal time hypothesis is a proposed solution to the problem of time: every statistical state determines a thermal dynamics according to which it is in equilibrium, and this dynamics is identified as the flow of physical time in generally covariant quantum theories. This paper raises a series of objections to the TTH as developed by Connes and Rovelli. Two technical challenges concern the implementation of the TTH in the classical limit and the relationship between thermal time and proper time. (...)
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  15. added 2019-08-30
    The Thermodynamic Cost of Fast Thought.Alexandre de Castro - 2013 - Minds and Machines 23 (4):473-487.
    After more than 60 years, Shannon’s research continues to raise fundamental questions, such as the one formulated by R. Luce, which is still unanswered: “Why is information theory not very applicable to psychological problems, despite apparent similarities of concepts?” On this topic, S. Pinker, one of the foremost defenders of the widespread computational theory of mind, has argued that thought is simply a type of computation, and that the gap between human cognition and computational models may be illusory. In this (...)
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  16. added 2019-07-27
    The Physics of Implementing Logic: Landauer's Principle and the Multiple-Computations Theorem.Meir Hemmo & Orly Shenker - 2019 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 68:90-105.
    This paper makes a novel linkage between the multiple-computations theorem in philosophy of mind and Landauer’s principle in physics. The multiple-computations theorem implies that certain physical systems implement simultaneously more than one computation. Landauer’s principle implies that the physical implementation of “logically irreversible” functions is accompanied by minimal entropy increase. We show that the multiple-computations theorem is incompatible with, or at least challenges, the universal validity of Landauer’s principle. To this end we provide accounts of both ideas in terms of (...)
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  17. added 2019-07-03
    Căldura - Termodinamica fenomenologică.Nicolae Sfetcu - 2018 - Drobeta Turnu Severin,: MultiMedia Publishing.
    Despre căldură, temperatură, și modalități de măsurare, și aplicații practice în inginerie. Un punct de vedere contemporan privind energia, termodinamica și legile ei, cu detalierea celor mai importante principii care o guvernează. Un capitol special este dedicat schimbărilor climatice și încălzirii globale actuale. Explicații clare ale fenomenelor, evitând formulele matematice complexe. -/- CUPRINS: -/- Căldura și temperatura - Temperatura - - Definiții - - - Pe baza principiului zero - - - Pe baza celui de al doilea principiu - - (...)
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  18. added 2019-06-21
    The Past Histories of Molecules.Craig Callender - 2011 - In Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann (eds.), Probabilities in Physics. Oxford University Press. pp. 83--113.
    This chapter unfolds a central philosophical problem of statistical mechanics. This problem lies in a clash between the Static Probabilities offered by statistical mechanics and the Dynamic Probabilities provided by classical or quantum mechanics. The chapter looks at the Boltzmann and Gibbs approaches in statistical mechanics and construes some of the great controversies in the field — for instance the Reversibility Paradox — as instances of this conflict. It furthermore argues that a response to this conflict is a critical choice (...)
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  19. added 2019-06-06
    Physics of Uncertainty, the Gibbs Paradox and Indistinguishable Particles.Demetris Koutsoyiannis - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (4):480-489.
    The idea that, in the microscopic world, particles are indistinguishable, interchangeable and without identity has been central in quantum physics. The same idea has been enrolled in statistical thermodynamics even in a classical framework of analysis to make theoretical results agree with experience. In thermodynamics of gases, this hypothesis is associated with several problems, logical and technical. For this case, an alternative theoretical framework is provided, replacing the indistinguishability hypothesis with standard probability and statistics. In this framework, entropy is a (...)
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  20. added 2019-06-06
    Author's Reply to Landauer Defended.John D. Norton - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (3):272-272.
  21. added 2019-06-06
    New Mathematics for Old Physics: The Case of Lattice Fluids.Anouk Barberousse & Cyrille Imbert - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (3):231-241.
    We analyze the effects of the introduction of new mathematical tools on an old branch of physics by focusing on lattice fluids, which are cellular automata -based hydrodynamical models. We examine the nature of these discrete models, the type of novelty they bring about within scientific practice and the role they play in the field of fluid dynamics. We critically analyze Rohrlich's, Fox Keller's and Hughes' claims about CA-based models. We distinguish between different senses of the predicates “phenomenological” and “theoretical” (...)
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  22. added 2019-06-06
    The Peculiar Status of the Second Law of Thermodynamics and the Quest for its Violation.Germano D'Abramo - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 43 (4):226-235.
    Even though the second law of thermodynamics holds the supreme position among the laws of nature, as stated by many distinguished scientists, notably Eddington and Einstein, its position appears to be also quite peculiar. Given the atomic nature of matter, whose behavior is well described by statistical physics, the second law could not hold unconditionally, but only statistically. It is not an absolute law. As a result of this, in the present paper we try to argue that we have not (...)
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  23. added 2019-06-06
    Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics: A Maxwellian View.Wayne C. Myrvold - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (4):237-243.
    One finds, in Maxwell's writings on thermodynamics and statistical physics, a conception of the nature of these subjects that differs in interesting ways from the way that they are usually conceived. In particular, though—in agreement with the currently accepted view—Maxwell maintains that the second law of thermodynamics, as originally conceived, cannot be strictly true, the replacement he proposes is different from the version accepted by most physicists today. The modification of the second law accepted by most physicists is a probabilistic (...)
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  24. added 2019-06-06
    The Epistemological Virtues of Assumptions: Towards a Coming of Age of Boltzmann and Meinong’s Objections to ‘the Prejudice in Favour of the Actual’?Nadine de Courtenay - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (1):41-57.
    Two complementary debates of the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth century are examined here: the debate on the legitimacy of hypotheses in the natural sciences and the debate on intentionality and ‘representations without object’ in philosophy. Both are shown to rest on two core issues: the attitude of the subject and the mode of presentation chosen to display a domain of phenomena. An orientation other than the one which contributed to shape twentieth-century philosophy of science is explored through the (...)
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  25. added 2019-06-06
    Arthur I. Miller, Empire of the Stars: Obsession, Friendship, and Betrayal in the Quest for Black Holes. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2005. Pp Xx+364. ISBN 0-618-34151-X. $26.00. [REVIEW]Matthew Stanley - 2007 - British Journal for the History of Science 40 (3):457.
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  26. added 2019-06-06
    On the Definition of Equilibrium.Itamar Pitowsky - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 37 (3):431-438.
    Boltzmann’s approach to statistical mechanics is widely believed to be conceptually superior to Gibbs’ formulation. However, the microcanonical distribution often fails to behave as expected: The ergodicity of the motion relative to it can rarely be established for realistic systems; worse, it can often be proved to fail. Also, the approach involves idealizations that have little physical basis. Here we take Khinchin’s advice and propose a de…nition of equilibrium that is more realistic: The de…nition re‡ects the fact that the system (...)
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  27. added 2019-06-06
    Ten Theses on Black Hole Entropy.Rafael D. Sorkin - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 36 (2):291-301.
  28. added 2019-06-06
    El problema de la ergodicidad en la mecánica estadística.Olimpia Lombardi - 2003 - Critica 35 (103):3-41.
    El propósito del presente artículo es evaluar en qué sentido y bajo qué condiciones la ergodicidad es relevante para explicar el éxito de la mecánica estadística. Se objeta la positión de quienes sostienen que la ergodicidad es irrelevante para tal explicatión, y se señala que las propiedades ergódicas desempeñan diferentes papeles en la mecánica estadística del equilibrio y en la descriptión de la evolución hacia el equilibrio: es posible prescindir de la ergodicidad en el primer caso pero no en el (...)
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  29. added 2019-06-06
    The Emergence of the Macroworld: A Study of Intertheory Relations in Classical and Quantum Mechanics.Malcolm R. Forster & Alexey Kryukov - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1039-1051.
    Classical mechanics is empirically successful because the probabilistic mean values of quantum mechanical observables follow the classical equations of motion to a good approximation (Messiah 1970, 215). We examine this claim for the one-dimensional motion of a particle in a box, and extend the idea by deriving a special case of the ideal gas law in terms of the mean value of a generalized force used to define "pressure." The examples illustrate the importance of probabilistic averaging as a method of (...)
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  30. added 2019-06-06
    Review of Physics and Chance: Philosophical Issues in the Foundations of Statistical Mechanics by Lawrence Sklar. [REVIEW]Robert Rynasiewicz - 1995 - Philosophy of Science 62 (2):337-338.
  31. added 2019-06-06
    Explaining Statistical Mechanics.J. P. Dougherty - 1993 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 24 (5):843-866.
  32. added 2019-06-06
    Patrick Brantlinger . Energy and Entropy: Science and Culture in Victorian Britain. Bloomington and Indianapolis, Indiana University Press, 1989. Pp. Xxii + 352. ISBN 0-253-31928-5. $29.95. [REVIEW]Sophie Forgan - 1990 - British Journal for the History of Science 23 (4):483-484.
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  33. added 2019-06-06
    Two Faces of Maxwell's Demon Reveal the Nature of Irreversibility.John D. Collier - 1990 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 21 (2):257.
    demon thought experiment remains ambiguous even today. One of the most delightful thought It seems that Maxwell originally invoked experiments in the history of physical science is..
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  34. added 2019-06-06
    Hertz, Boltzmann and Wittgenstein Reconsidered.Andrew D. Wilson - 1989 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 20 (2):245.
  35. added 2019-06-06
    Some Reactions to Planck's Law, 1900–1914.Elizabeth Garber - 1976 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 7 (2):89.
  36. added 2019-06-06
    Molecular Forces, Statistical Representation and Maxwell's Demon.P. M. Heimann - 1970 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 1 (3):189.
  37. added 2019-06-06
    Maxwell's Demon.Edward E. Daub - 1970 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 1 (3):213.
  38. added 2019-06-06
    Maxwell's Attempts to Arrive at Non-Speculative Foundations for the Kinetic Theory.Jon Dorling - 1970 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 1 (3):229-248.
  39. added 2019-06-06
    Eurydice, Heurodis, and the Noon-Day Demon Function Popup { Newwindow=Window.Open; If {Newwindow.Focus()} Return False; } jQuery.Ready{ jQuery.Bind{ jQuery.Hide(); jQuery.Show(); Return False; }); }); Eurydice, Heurodis, and the Noon-Day Demon. [REVIEW]John Block Friedman - 1966 - Speculum 41 (1):22-29.
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  40. added 2019-06-06
    Entropy - The End of Life.Bernard J. Wuellner - 1927 - Modern Schoolman 4 (3):35-37.
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  41. added 2019-06-05
    Species of Realization and the Free Energy Principle.Michael David Kirchhoff - 2015 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 93 (4):706-723.
    This paper examines, for the first time, the relationship between realization relations and the free energy principle in cognitive neuroscience. I argue, firstly, that the free energy principle has ramifications for the wide versus narrow realization distinction: if the free energy principle is correct, then organismic realizers are insufficient for realizing free energy minimization. I argue, secondly, that the free energy principle has implications for synchronic realization relations, because free energy minimization is realized in dynamical agent-environment couplings embedded at multiple (...)
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  42. added 2019-06-05
    Methodological Aspects of the Development of Low Temperature Physics 1881-1956: Concepts Out of Context. K. Gavroglu, Y. Goudaroulis. [REVIEW]Jed Z. Buchwald - 1993 - Philosophy of Science 60 (4):673-675.
  43. added 2019-06-05
    Rational Thermodynamics. C. Truesdell.Mario Bunge - 1986 - Philosophy of Science 53 (2):305-306.
  44. added 2019-06-05
    Statistical Mechanics. J. E. Mayer, M. G. Mayer.John M. Reiner - 1941 - Philosophy of Science 8 (1):135-136.
  45. added 2019-06-05
    Statistical Thermodynamics. R. H. Fowler, E. A. Guggenheim.John M. Reiner - 1941 - Philosophy of Science 8 (1):134-135.
  46. added 2019-06-05
    Relativity, Thermodynamics and Cosmology. Richard C. Tolman.Enos E. Witmer - 1935 - Philosophy of Science 2 (2):262-265.
  47. added 2019-06-03
    Eternal Worlds and the Best System Account of Laws.Ryan A. Olsen & Christopher Meacham - forthcoming - In Valia Allori (ed.), Statistical Mechanics and Scientific Explanation: Determinism, Indeterminism and Laws of Nature. World Scientific.
    In this paper we apply the popular Best System Account of laws to typical eternal worlds – both classical eternal worlds and eternal worlds of the kind posited by popular contemporary cosmological theories. We show that, according to the Best System Account, such worlds will have no laws that meaningfully constrain boundary conditions. It’s generally thought that lawful constraints on boundary conditions are required to avoid skeptical arguments. Thus the lack of such laws given the Best System Account may seem (...)
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  48. added 2019-05-13
    On the Ergodic Theorem and Information Loss in Statistical Mechanics.Andreas Henriksson - manuscript
    In this article, it is argued that, for a classical Hamiltonian system which is closed, the ergodic theorem emerge from the Gibbs-Liouville theorem in the limit that the system has evolved for an infinitely long period of time. In this limit, from the perspective of an ignorant observer, who do not have perfect knowledge about the complete set of degrees of freedom for the system, distinctions between the possible states of the system, i.e. the information content, is lost leading to (...)
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  49. added 2019-03-18
    Towards a C Theory of Time: An Appraisal of the Physics and Metaphysics of Time Direction.Matt Farr - 2012 - Dissertation, University of Bristol
    This thesis introduces and defends a ‘C theory’ of time. The metaphysics of time literature is primarily concerned with the distinction between the A and B theories of time, with the disagreement concerning whether the passage of time is an objective feature of reality. I argue that the distinction between the B and C theories—in terms of whether time has a ‘privileged’ direction—is of more obvious relevance to the philosophy of physics than is the distinction between the A and B (...)
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  50. added 2019-03-07
    Statistical Mechanics and Scientific Explanation: Determinism, Indeterminism and Laws of Nature.Valia Allori (ed.) - forthcoming - World Scientific.
    The book explores several open questions in the philosophy of statistical mechanics. Each chapter is written by a leading expert in the field. Here is a list of some questions that are addressed in the book: 1) Boltzmann showed how the phenomenological gas laws of thermodynamics can be derived from statistical mechanics. Since classical mechanics is a deterministic theory there are no probabilities in it. Since statistical mechanics is based on classical mechanics, all the probabilities statistical mechanics talks about cannot (...)
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