About this topic
Summary Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225-1274) is the most influential Christian philosopher and theologian of the Scholastic period. His influence is primarily due to his synthesis of Aristotelian philosophy with Christian theology, as well as the breadth and systematic rigor of his writings. He wrote extensively on philosophical theology, metaphysics, epistemology, human nature (including philosophy of mind) and ethics (including moral psychology, virtue ethics, and natural law theory). The wide-ranging appeal of his theories have inspired a variety of "Thomisms" throughout the 20th century, under such prefatory labels as "Existential," "Transcendental," "Phenomenological," and "Analytical." His philosophical system has been explicitly promoted as the foundation par excellence for Catholic theology by Pope Leo XIII and Pope John Paul II.  
Key works For a comprehensive collection of Aquinas's works (in Latin) see Opera Omnia. Aquinas's most significant writings are the voluminous Summa theologiae and Summa contra Gentiles. Among his philosophical writings are comprehensive commentaries on Aristotle's works, including Metaphysics, Physics, De anima, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, and Posterior Analytics. Extensive arguments on certain topics can be found in collections of Disputed Questions on subjects such as truth, virtue, evil, the soul, and the power of God. Shorter, yet philosophically impactful, treatises Aquinas wrote include On Being and Essence and On Kingship.
Introductions A classical introduction to Aquinas's overall philosophical thought is Gilson 1956. An excellent recent introductory text is Davies 1993. A more in-depth scholarly treatment of various themes in Aquinas's philosophical system is provided by Stump 2003.
Related categories

6135 found
Order:
1 — 50 / 6135
  1. added 2019-01-15
    Believing the Incomprehensible God: Aquinas on Understanding God’s Testimony.O. P. James Dominic Rooney - forthcoming - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association.
    While there has been recent epistemological interest as to whether knowledge is 'transmitted' by testimony from the testifier to the hearer, there is another facet of the epistemology of testimony that raises a distinct problem: whether a hearer can receive testimonial knowledge without fully understanding the content of the testimony. Aquinas' account of faith illustrates the problem of receiving testimonial knowledge without being able to comprehend the content of testimony. As Aquinas conceives of it, revelation provides a case in principle (...)
  2. added 2019-01-15
    Grounding Relations Are Not Unified.James Dominic Rooney - 2019 - International Philosophical Quarterly 59 (1):57-64.
    Jonathan Schaffer, among others, has argued that metaphysics should deal primarily with relations of " grounding. " I will follow John Heil in arguing that this view of metaphysics is problematic as it draws on ambiguous notions of grounding and fundamentality that are unilluminating as metaphysical explanations. I understand Heil to be arguing that grounding relations do not form a natural class, where a 'natural' class is one where some member of that class has (analytic or contingent a posteriori) priority (...)
  3. added 2019-01-15
    Stumping Freedom: Divine Causality and the Will.James Dominic Rooney, Op - 2015 - New Blackfriars 96 (1066):711-722.
    The problems with grace and free will have prompted long-standing theological conflicts, chiefly revolving around certain disagreements over the nature of divine causality in respect to the free will's of creatures and His foreknowledge of free acts. Eleonore Stump offers a new interpretation of divine action on the will that holds God only acts by way of formal causality and that human cooperation with grace is only by way of "quiescence." I argue that this account lacks coherence in certain important (...)
  4. added 2019-01-08
    A Thomistic Argument for Respecting Conscientious Refusals.Michał Głowala - 2016 - Diametros 47:19-34.
    The paper presents an argument for respecting conscientious refusals based on the Thomistic account of conscience; the argument does not employ the notion of right. The main idea is that acting against one’s conscience necessarily makes the action objectively wrong and performed in bad faith, and expecting someone to act against his or her conscience is incompatible with requiring him or her to act in good faith. In light of this idea I also examine the issue of obligations imposed on (...)
  5. added 2019-01-01
    Thomas Aquinas On Knowledge.Raphael Descartes M. Roldan - manuscript
    This is an excerpt of Aquinas' proof of the existence of God. In proving God's existence, Aquinas lays out a cosmological argument of which also sets that tone for his seminal work in epistemology.
  6. added 2018-12-31
    Complicating Conscience, Refreshing Discontent.Paul J. Medeiros - 2016 - Diametros 47:50-63.
    The 19th Century New England author Thoreau provides an approach to conscience and unjust laws approximating that given by St. Thomas Aquinas in _Summa Theologiae_. But the portrait of conscience given by Thoreau in the 1848 oration “Civil Disobedience” is incomplete. Thoreau’s approach is solved by accepting insights given in Part I and Part I–II of _Summa Theologiae_. Allowing St. Thomas’ insights requires reform of Thoreau’s civil disobedience and conscientious objection. But Thoreau’s arguments are given new life.
  7. added 2018-12-31
    Uzasadnienie Sprzeciwu Sumienia: Lekarze, Poborowi I Żołnierze.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2016 - Diametros 47:98-128.
    I will argue that physicians have an ethical obligation to justify their conscientious objection and the most reliable interpretation of the Polish legal framework claims that conscientious objection is permissible only when the justification shows the genuineness of the judgment of conscience that is not based on false beliefs and arises from a moral norm that has a high rank. I will demonstrate that the dogma accepted in the Polish doctrine that the reasons that lie behind conscientious objection in medicine (...)
  8. added 2018-12-23
    Św. Tomasz z Akwinu, Traktat o Bogu.Zbigniew Nerczuk, G. Kurylewicz & M. Olszewski (eds.) - 1999 - Kraków, Polska: Wydawnictwo Znak.
    Jest to fragment traktatu "O Bogu" z "Summy Teologii" św. Tomasza z Akwinu - zawiera on Wstęp, Wprowadzenie i przekład ksiąg VII - X. ks. VII - "O nieskończoności Boga" ks. VIII - "O byciu Boga w rzeczach" ks. IX - "O niezmienności Boga" ks. X - "O wieczności Boga".
  9. added 2018-12-18
    El Teólogo y el búho. La teología aenigmatica de Tomás de Aquino.Javier Eduardo Perna - manuscript
    A lo largo de la obra de Tomás de Aquino es posible encontrar cierta tensión textual en torno a la posibilidad de conocer de manera natural la esencia divina. Por un lado el teólogo parece afirmar que, precisamente, no podemos conocer acerca de Dios qué es, sino solo qué no es. Pero, por otra parte, existe evidencia textual de que habría sostenido la posibilidad de un conocimiento quiditativo imperfecto. En tanto y en cuanto el matiz más positivo suele aparecer con (...)
  10. added 2018-12-18
    El conocimiento teológico natural y la teoría del maestro interior en Tomás de Aquino.Javier Eduardo Perna - manuscript
    En la teoría epistémica de Tomás de Aquino la lumen rationis desempeña la función de causa última del inventario completo del conocimiento humano natural. La tesis de acuerdo a la cual esa luz es puesta en nosotros por Dios justifica, de acuerdo al autor, la aserción de que la divinidad es el único y auténtico maestro interior del hombre. Ahora bien, en la visión beatífica la lumen naturale es perfeccionada por una luz sobrenatural, y la unión cognitiva con lo conocido (...)
  11. added 2018-12-13
    Etienne Gilson and Fr. Lawrence Dewan O.P.:Christian Philosophy as the Interdisciplinary Pursuit of Wisdom.Hugh Williams - forthcoming - New Blackfriars.
    This paper continues as the second part of my study of the relationship of Fr. Lawrence Dewan OP and Etienne Gilson. My first paper explored their metaphysical differences, while this second paper explores their common commitment to Christian philosophy and to St. Thomas Aquinas’ seminal work on the interrelationship of faith and reason as manifest most clearly in the interrelationship of revealed theology and philosophy. This leads us into a closer examination of Gilson's sustained treatment of this topic. However, we (...)
  12. added 2018-12-03
    Ograniczanie niedoboru narządów. System Aktywnej Rejestracji Dawców jako alternatywa dla polskiej regulacji sprzeciwu.Piotr Grzegorz Nowak - 2015 - Diametros 44:56-77.
    In the article I argue for replacing the opt-out system of organ donation, currently applied in Poland, with the Active Donor Registration system. The basic idea of the ADR system is to send a special form to all adult citizens, which would give them an opportunity to consent or dissent to the removal of organs, or to delegate their decision to their next of kin. Granting priority to declared donors – an additional assumption of ADR – would make it possible (...)
  13. added 2018-11-23
    The Philosophical Roots of Individuals and Persons. Personalism and Individualism Against the Background of Kant.Zbigniew Ambrożewicz - 2015 - Diametros 46:1-29.
    In the paper I argue that Kant’s philosophy underlies both contemporary individualism and personalism. The Kantian categorical imperative may be, in my opinion, interpreted in an anti-egotistical way and in an entirely individualistic one. The first kind of interpretation not only made a contribution to the emergence of numerous and manifold kinds of personalism, but it also inspired many critics of individualism. The second kind of interpretation, together with the Kantian analyses of human self, became essential to the conceptualization of (...)
  14. added 2018-11-22
    La Ley Moral en la Filosofía de Francisco Miró Quesada Cantuarias.Alonso Villarán - 2018 - In Los Cien Años de Francisco Miró Quesada Cantuarias. Lima: CIAC ediciones. pp. 97-108.
    The purpose of this paper is to think the moral law in Francisco Miró Quesada's version: What is its source? What does it orders? And why is it important for ethics? The paper answers this question while contrasting Miró Quesada's position with that of Thomas Aquinas and Immanuel Kant.
  15. added 2018-11-01
    The Passions of Christ in the Moral Theology of Thomas Aquinas: An Integrative Account.Stewart Clem - 2018 - New Blackfriars 99 (1082):458-480.
    In recent scholarship, moral theologians and readers of Thomas Aquinas have shown increasing sensitivity to the role of the passions in the moral life. Yet these accounts have paid inadequate attention to Thomas’s writings on Christ’s passions as a source of moral reflection. As I argue in this essay, Thomas’s writings on Christ’s human affectivity should not be limited to the concerns of Christology; rather, they should be integrated into a fuller account of the human passions. One upshot of this (...)
  16. added 2018-10-26
    Still Human: A Thomistic Analysis of ‘Persistent Vegetative State’.Stewart Clem - forthcoming - Studies in Christian Ethics:095394681880814.
    Would Aquinas hold the view that a patient in a persistent vegetative state (PVS) is something other than a human being? Some recent interpreters have argued for this position. I contend that this reading is grounded in a false symmetry between the three stages of Aquinas’s embryology and the (alleged) three-stage process of death. Instead, I show that there are textual grounds for rejecting the view that the absence of higher brain activity in a patient would lead Aquinas to say (...)
  17. added 2018-10-26
    The Moral Status of the First Principle of Practical Reason in Thomas's Natural-Law Theory.Giuseppe Butera - 2007 - The Thomist 71 (4):609-631.
    A defense of the view that every truly human action (that is, every action that proceeds from reason and will) is a moral action. There is no such thing as a concrete, pre-moral action.
  18. added 2018-10-25
    Living The Good Life: A Beginner’s Thomistic Ethics. By Steven J. Jensen. [REVIEW]Giuseppe Butera - 2015 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 89 (2):346-348.
  19. added 2018-10-25
    Lombardo, Nicholas E. The Logic of Desire: Aquinas on Emotion. [REVIEW]Giuseppe Butera - 2012 - Review of Metaphysics 65 (4):879-881.
  20. added 2018-10-25
    On Reason’s Control of the Passions in Aquinas’s Theory of Temperance.Giuseppe Butera - 2006 - Mediaeval Studies 68 (1):133-160.
    Contrary to the fairly standard view of Aquinas on temperance according to which this virtue habituates the concupiscible appetite to move in ways that accord with reason spontaneously, that is, independently of any immediate command from reason, the author of this paper argues that temperance is a virtue which "(1) disposes the concupiscible appetite to remain more or less still in the absence of any command from reason to move, thus preventing vehement, spontaneous passions of any sort, ordinate or inordinate, (...)
  21. added 2018-10-10
    The Logical and Metaphysical Structure of a Common Nature.David Svoboda - 2010 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 17 (2):185-200.
    The paper deals with a type of whole and part that can be found in Aquinas’ work and to which no attention has been paid so far. This type of whole and part can be called metaphysical whole and metaphysical part, respectively. In the paper, metaphysical whole and part are put forth on the problem of the logical and metaphysical structure of a common nature.
  22. added 2018-10-10
    Aquinas on the Past Possibility of the World's Having Existed Forever.Ian Wilks - 1994 - Review of Metaphysics 48 (2):299 - 329.
  23. added 2018-10-08
    Saving the Contingent. A Dialogue Between Iris Murdoch and Aquinas.Maria S. Vaccarezza - 2016 - New Blackfriars 97 (1067):22-38.
  24. added 2018-10-08
    Le Ragioni Del Contingente: La Saggezza Pratica Tra Aristotele E Tommaso D'Aquino.Maria Silvia Vaccarezza - 2012 - Orthotes.
    Questo lavoro è diviso in due parti: una monografica in cui viene indagata l’autentica posizione aristotelica in merito allo statuto della phronesis e della conoscenza morale, e l'altra in cui si offre una nuova traduzione del VI libro ...
  25. added 2018-10-08
    Accidental Being.Michael B. Ewbank - 1990 - Review of Metaphysics 44 (2):406-409.
  26. added 2018-09-28
    Justice as a Virtue: A Thomistic Perspective.Jean Porter - 2016 - Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
  27. added 2018-09-26
    Categories and Modes of Being: A Discussion of Robert Pasnau’s Metaphysical Themes.Paul Symington - 2014 - In Gyula Klima & Alexander Hall (eds.), Medieval Themes, Medieval and Modern Volume 11: Proceedings of the Society for Medieval Logic and Metaphysics. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 32-69.
  28. added 2018-09-26
    On Determining What There Is: The Identity of Ontological Categories in Aquinas, Scotus and Lowe.Paul Symington - 2010 - New Brunswick: De Gruyter.
  29. added 2018-09-26
    Thomas Aquinas on Establishing the Identity of Aristotle’s Categories.Paul Symington - 2008 - In Lloyd Newton (ed.), Medieval Commentaries on Aristotle’s Categories. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 119-144.
  30. added 2018-09-26
    The Nature of Naming and the Analogy of Being: McInerny and the Denial of a Proper Analogy of Being.Paul Symington - 2007 - International Philosophical Quarterly 47 (1):91-102.
    This paper addresses the question of whether there is a proper analogy of being according to both meaning and being. I disagree with Ralph McInerny’s understanding of how things are named through concepts and argue that McInerny’s account does not allow for the thing represented by the name to be known in itself. In his understanding of analogy, only ideas of things may be known. This results in a wholesale inability to name things at all and thereby forces McInerny to (...)
  31. added 2018-09-25
    The Structure of the Virtues : A Study of Thomas Aquinas’s and Godfrey of Fontaines's Accounts of Moral Goodness.Alexander Stöpfgeshoff - 2018 - Dissertation, Uppsala University
    This dissertation is a study of Thomas Aquinas’s and Godfrey of Fontaines’s moral philosophies. In this study, I conduct a detailed analysis of two Aristotelian commitments concerning the character virtues, namely, The Plurality of the Character Virtues and The Connection of the Character Virtues. Both Aquinas and Godfrey think that there are many distinct character virtues, however, one cannot possess these character virtues in separation from each other. In Chapter I, it is established that Aquinas believes in the plurality of (...)
  32. added 2018-09-25
    Essence in Edith Stein‘s Festschrift Dialogue.Robert McNamara - 2016 - In Andreas Speer & Stephan Regh (eds.), Alles Wesentliche lässt sich nicht schreiben. Freiburg, Germany: pp. 175-94.
    This paper reviews the concept of ‘essence’ in Edmund Husserl and Thomas Aquinas as found presented by Edith Stein in her Festschrift article, ‘Husserl’s Phenomenology and the Philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas: Attempt at a Comparison,’ in the Jahrbuch für Philosophie und Phänomenologische Forschung (1929, 370). The aim of the paper is to perform an analysis of Stein’s understanding of the principal similarities and differences in the understandings of essence found in the writings of Husserl and Aquinas, and primarily in (...)
  33. added 2018-09-22
    Beasts, Human Beings, or Gods? Human Subjectivity in Medieval Political Philosophy.Juhana Toivanen - 2016 - In Jari Kaukua & Tomas Ekenberg (eds.), Subjectivity and Selfhood in Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy. Dordrecht, Netherlands: pp. 181-197.
    Human beings are not only self-conscious minds but embodied and social beings, whose subjectivity is conditioned by their social surroundings. From this point of view, it is natural to suppose that the development and existence of a subject that is distinctively human requires contact with other people. The present contribution discusses medieval ideas concerning the intersubjective constitution of human being by looking at the medieval reception of two ideas, which Aristotle presents at the beginning of his Politics: (1) human beings (...)
  34. added 2018-09-19
    Human Knowledge.Martin Pickavé - 2011 - In Brian Davies & Eleonore Stump (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Aquinas. Oxford University Press.
  35. added 2018-08-31
    Everything in Motion is Put in Motion by Another in Advance.Daniel Shields - forthcoming - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly.
    I argue for a novel reading of the mover principle used in Aquinas’s motion proofs for God’s existence. Many interpret Aquinas’s principle as holding that everything in motion is moved by something else currently in contact with it. Others, following James Weisheipl, understand the principle as claiming only that everything being moved is being moved by something else. I argue against both readings and hold that the principle means that everything in motion is moved by something else—whether that something else (...)
  36. added 2018-08-31
    Matter Without Form: The Ontological Status of Christ's Dead Body.Andrew J. Jaeger & Jeremy Sienkiewicz - 2018 - Journal of Analytic Theology 6 (1):131-145.
    In this paper, we provide an account of the ontological status of Christ’s dead body, which remained in the tomb during the three days after his crucifixion. Our account holds that Christ’s dead body – during the time between his death and resurrection – was prime matter without a substantial form. We defend this account by showing how it is metaphysically possible for prime matter to exist in actuality without substantial forms. Our argument turns on the truth of two theses: (...)
  37. added 2018-08-30
    Everything in Motion is Put in Motion by Another.Daniel Shields - 2018 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 92 (4):535-561.
    I argue for a novel reading of the mover principle used in Aquinas’s motion proofs for God’s existence. Many interpret Aquinas’s principle as holding that everything in motion is moved by something else currently in contact with it. Others, following James Weisheipl, understand the principle as claiming only that everything being moved is being moved by something else. I argue against both readings and hold that the principle means that everything in motion is moved by something else—whether that something else (...)
  38. added 2018-08-26
    Thomas Aquinas and the Dangers in Looking for God in the Big Bang.Rory ODonnell, O.' & Rory Donnell - 2017 - St. Austin Review 17 (6):20, 24-26.
    In this article, I explain Aquinas' approach to philosophy and theology. I then discuss how Aquinas thought the universe having a beginning is a matter of faith, not reason. I then argue that Aquinas' position is still correct despite the cosmological model of the big bang. Men of faith, I argue, ought to have a notion of God that is based on metaphysics, not a physical model, which at best brings us to a Deistic God.
  39. added 2018-08-23
    Thomas Aquinas and Durand of St.-Pourçain on Mental Representation.Peter Hartman - 2013 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 30 (1):19-34.
    Most philosophers in the High Middle Ages agreed that what we immediately perceive are external objects. Yet most philosophers in the High Middle Ages also held, following Aristotle, that perception is a process wherein the perceiver takes on the form or likeness of the external object. This form or likeness — called a species — is a representation by means of which we immediately perceive the external object. Thomas Aquinas defended this thesis in one form, and Durand of St.-Pourçain, his (...)
  40. added 2018-08-18
    Aquinas on God-Sanctioned Stealing.Matthew Shea - 2018 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 92 (2):277-293.
    A serious challenge to religious believers in the Abrahamic traditions is that the God of the Old Testament seems to command immoral actions. Thomas Aquinas addresses this objection using the biblical story of God ordering the Israelites to plunder the Egyptians, which threatens to create an inconsistency among four of Aquinas’s views: God did indeed command this action; God is perfectly good and cannot command any evil actions; the objective moral goodness or badness of actions is not based on arbitrary (...)
  41. added 2018-08-14
    Caritas en zonde bij sint Thomas.Bonifacius Honings - 1960 - Bijdragen 21 (3):281-303.
  42. added 2018-08-14
    “Per modum intellectus, ut verbum”.M. Brauns - 1953 - Bijdragen 14 (1):1-28.
  43. added 2018-08-09
    Sobre o uso da Matemática na Física Segundo Tomás de Aquino: possibilidades e limites de uma descrição matemática do mundo.Rodrigo José de Lima - 2015 - Dissertation, UFPE, Brazil
  44. added 2018-08-07
    Geschichte der Mittelalterlichen Philosophie Im Christlichen Abendland.Franz Brentano - 1980 - Felix Meiner.
  45. added 2018-07-25
    Materialismus a hylemorfismus.Tomas Hribek - 2012 - Filosoficky Casopis 60 (4):585-600.
    [Materialism and Hylomorphism] The author disputes the view, expressed recently by Tomáš Machula a David Peroutka, that materialism, dominant in contemporary philosophy of mind, should be substituted by Thomist hylomorphism. The critique focuses on two aspects of Machula and Peroutka’s argument. Firstly, on their assumption that the contemporary preference for materialism is the result of chance (ignorance of the fact that in addition to materialism and dualism the position of hylomorphism is also available). This assumption fails to take into account (...)
  46. added 2018-07-20
    Neo-Thomistic Hylomorphism Applied to Mental Causation & Neural Correlates of Consciousness.Matthew Keith Owen - 2018 - Dissertation, University of Birmingham
    The aim of this work is to defend substance dualism by defeating two of its paramount potential defeaters. I will argue that a substance dualist position, neo-Thomistic hylomorphism, provides a solution to the causal pairing problem and a good explanation of neural correlates of consciousness. After an introductory first chapter, I'll explicate dualism's dominant potential defeaters in the next three chapters. Chapter 2 will clarify what neural correlates of consciousness are and the objection to dualism based on neural correlates. The (...)
  47. added 2018-06-22
    Synthesizing Aquinas and Newman on Religion.Matthew Walz - forthcoming - International Journal of the Philosophy of Religion.
    In this paper I carry out a philosophical inquiry that yields an account of religion as a personal disposition. This exercise is expository, since I take my bearings from two thinkers, Thomas Aquinas and John Henry Newman. Regarding Aquinas, this means delineating his treatment of the virtue of 'religio' in the 'Summa theologiae'; regarding Newman, it means attending to his description of the experience of being religious in 'Grammar of Assent'. The resulting account captures both the “objective” face of being (...)
  48. added 2018-06-20
    "Rational Animal" in Heidegger and Aquinas.Chad Engelland - 2018 - Review of Metaphysics 71 (4):723-53.
    Martin Heidegger rejects the traditional definition of the human being as the “rational animal” in part because he thinks it fits us into a genus that obscures our difference in kind. Thomas Aquinas shares with Heidegger the concern about the human difference, and yet he appropriates the definition, “rational animal” by conceiving animality in terms of the specifically human power of understanding being. Humans are not just distinct in their openness to being, but, thanks to that openness, they are distinct (...)
  49. added 2018-06-12
    Aquinas on Virtue: A Causal Reading.Nicholas Austin - 2017 - Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
  50. added 2018-06-12
    O Platão Tomista.Marcos Seneda - 1999 - Educação E Filosofia 13 (25):171-191.
1 — 50 / 6135