About this topic
Summary Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225-1274) is the most influential Christian philosopher and theologian of the Scholastic period. His influence is primarily due to his synthesis of Aristotelian philosophy with Christian theology, as well as the breadth and systematic rigor of his writings. He wrote extensively on philosophical theology, metaphysics, epistemology, human nature (including philosophy of mind) and ethics (including moral psychology, virtue ethics, and natural law theory). The wide-ranging appeal of his theories have inspired a variety of "Thomisms" throughout the 20th century, under such prefatory labels as "Existential," "Transcendental," "Phenomenological," and "Analytical." His philosophical system has been explicitly promoted as the foundation par excellence for Catholic theology by Pope Leo XIII and Pope John Paul II.  
Key works For a comprehensive collection of Aquinas's works (in Latin) see Opera Omnia. Aquinas's most significant writings are the voluminous Summa theologiae and Summa contra Gentiles. Among his philosophical writings are comprehensive commentaries on Aristotle's works, including Metaphysics, Physics, De anima, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, and Posterior Analytics. Extensive arguments on certain topics can be found in collections of Disputed Questions on subjects such as truth, virtue, evil, the soul, and the power of God. Shorter, yet philosophically impactful, treatises Aquinas wrote include On Being and Essence and On Kingship.
Introductions A classical introduction to Aquinas's overall philosophical thought is Gilson 1956. An excellent recent introductory text is Davies 1993. A more in-depth scholarly treatment of various themes in Aquinas's philosophical system is provided by Stump 2003.
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1 — 50 / 6147
  1. added 2019-04-18
    Forma Substancial Subsistente e Intelectual: A alma humana como horizonte e fronteira em Tomás de Aquino.Pedro Thyago dos Santos Ferreira - 2019 - Dissertation, UFRJ, Brazil
  2. added 2019-04-16
    Synthesizing Aquinas and Newman on Religion.Matthew D. Walz - 2019 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion:1-26.
    In this paper I carry out a philosophical inquiry that yields an account of religion as a personal disposition. This exercise is also expository, since I take my bearings from two thinkers, Thomas Aquinas and John Henry Newman. Regarding Aquinas, this means delineating his treatment of the virtue of ‘religio’ in the ‘Summa theologiae’; regarding Newman, it means attending to his description of the experience of being religious in ‘Grammar of Assent’. The resulting account captures both the “objective face” of (...)
  3. added 2019-04-09
    From Thomas Aquinas to the 1350s.Eric W. Hagedorn - 2019 - In Thomas Williams (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Ethics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 55-76.
  4. added 2019-04-07
    A Constructive Thomistic Response to Heidegger’s Destructive Criticism: On Existence, Essence and the Possibility of Truth as Adequation.Liran Gordon & Avital Wohlman - forthcoming - Heythrop Journal.
    Martin Heidegger devotes extensive discussion to medieval philosophers, particularly to their treatment of Truth and Being. On both these topics, Heidegger accuses them of forgetting the question of Being and of being responsible for subjugating truth to the modern crusade for certainty: ‘truth is denied its own mode of being’ and is subordinated ‘to an intellect that judges correctly’. Though there are some studies that discuss Heidegger’s debt to and criticism of medieval thought, particularly that of Thomas Aquinas, there is (...)
  5. added 2019-03-25
    Les Origines Antiques de la Relation: Naissance Et Développements de la Notion Chez Les Philosophes Anciens.Matthieu Raffray - 2012 - Revue Thomiste 112 (3):419-465.
  6. added 2019-03-23
    Elizabeth Anscombe e la svolta normativa del 1958.Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 2010 - In Juan Andrés Mercado (ed.), Elisabeth Anscombe e la psicologia morale. Roma, Italy: Armando. pp. 43-80.
    I discuss the three theses defended by Anscombe in 'Modern Moral Philosophy'. I argue that: a) her answer to the question "why should I be moral?" requires a solution of the problem of theodicy and ignores any attempts to save the moral point of view without recourse to divine retribution; b) her notion of divine law is an odd one, more neo-Augustinian than Biblical or Scholastic; c) her image of Kantian ethics and intuitionism is the impoverished image manufactured by consequentialist (...)
  7. added 2019-03-18
    Physical Premotion and Self-Determination (Thomists D. Banez and D. Alvarez).D. Svoboda - 2004 - Filosoficky Casopis 52 (4):559-568.
  8. added 2019-03-13
    Embodied Vs. Non-Embodied Modes of Knowing in Aquinas.Therese Scarpelli Cory - 2018 - Faith and Philosophy 35 (4):417-446.
    What does it mean to be an embodied thinker of abstract concepts? Does embodiment shape the character and quality of our understanding of universals such as “dog” and “beauty,” and would a non-embodied mind understand such concepts differently? I examine these questions through the lens of Thomas Aquinas’s remarks on the differences between embodied intellects and non-embodied intellects. In Aquinas, I argue, the difference between embodied and non-embodied intellection of extramental realities is rooted in the fact that embodied and non-embodied (...)
  9. added 2019-03-13
    What is an Intellectual "Turn"? The Liber de Causis, Avicenna and Aquinas's Turn to Phantasms.Therese Scarpelli Cory - 2013 - Tópicos: Revista de Filosofía 45:129-162.
    Este artículo pretende dilucidar la expresión utilizada por Tomás de Aquino “vuelta al fantasma”, con la intención de esclarecer lo que entiende por “vuelta”. Se argumenta que el marco conceptual subyacente al “giro intelectual” se encuentra en dos fuentes islámicas que fueron ampliamente influyentes en la psicología filosófica latina del siglo XIII, y que presentan conceptos técnicos específicos de la “vuelta” como un tipo de dependencia. Las obras son: Liber de Causis, de autor anónimo; y Liber de anima, del filósofo (...)
  10. added 2019-03-07
    Moral, Razón y Naturaleza: Una Investigación Sobre Tomás de Aquino.Ana Marta González - 2006 - Pamplona, Spain: Ediciones Universidad de Navarra.
    Mientras que la interpretación tradicional de Tomás de Aquino había mantenido durante siglos que la ética tenía un fundamento en la naturaleza, apostando, en consecuencia, por una ética secundum naturam, contemporáneamente, en parte por la influencia anglosajona, pero también por la avalancha de estudios históricos y críticos sobre la obra del Aquinate, la tendencia se ha invertido, y se ha considerado preciso interpretar la ética tomista como una ética secundum rationem, poniendo el acento en la racionalidad práctica y no tanto (...)
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  11. added 2019-03-03
    On Being and Essence.James V. Mullaney - 1950 - Thought: Fordham University Quarterly 25 (1):158-159.
  12. added 2019-03-03
    Being and Essence.Henri Renard - 1949 - New Scholasticism 23 (1):62-70.
  13. added 2019-02-14
    Pedro de Godoy's De Beatitudine Naturali: Natural Happiness and Its Possibility in Seventeenth-Century Thomism.Timothy López - 2019 - Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 2019 (1):117-131.
    Renaissance Thomists knew Thomas Aquinas spoke of natural happiness, but some believed this happiness is absolutely impossible; others impossible in a state of elevation. Most Thomists rejected both forms of skepticism. An example is the Dominican theologian Pedro de Godoy (1608–1677). This article reconstructs Godoy’s main arguments with a view toward uncovering his method and originality. While his arguments are diverse, they mostly depend on the relation of happiness to human psychology. Godoy repeatedly appeals to the natural abilities of intellect (...)
  14. added 2019-02-13
    United Acquired Virtue in Traditional Thomism: Distinguishing Necessities, Efficient Causes, and Finalities.Timothy López - 2017 - In H. Goris & H. J. M. Schoot (eds.), The Virtuous Life: Thomas Aquinas on the Theological Nature of Moral Virtues. Leuven, Belgium: pp. 183-199.
    There are several interpretations of how Aquinas views the moral virtues connected through prudence and possessed through our natural powers. One is the traditional view. As described by Thomas Osborne, the traditional view holds that two supernatural conditions are ‘necessary’ for united acquired virtue. One is ingratiating grace (gratia gratum faciens), which heals and elevates the soul. Another is supernatural finality, that is, an orientation to God through charity. My main objective is to show how we can meet an objection (...)
  15. added 2019-02-12
    Aquinas on the Infused Virtues and Human Happiness: A Preliminary Study.Timothy López - 2015 - In H. Goris, L. Hendriks & H. J. M. Schoot (eds.), Faith, Hope and Love: Thomas Aquinas on Living by the Theological Virtues. Leuven, Belgium: Peeters Publishing. pp. 91-105.
    Contemporary scholars routinely cast Aquinas’s imperfect happiness of this life as one of only acquired virtue, yet the Scholastics of the Late Renaissance all saw this happiness as one of acquired or infused virtue. This dispute goes unspoken today, as does the question it raises, namely, whether the infused virtues, rather than offer supernatural happiness only in the afterlife, offer it now even in this life. Further unsettled is why this question is even worth asking. I argue it is worth (...)
  16. added 2019-01-30
    Metaphysical Themes 1274-1671, by Robert Pasnau: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, Pp. Xiv + 796, £80. [REVIEW]Anna Marmodoro - 2013 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (2):416-419.
  17. added 2019-01-15
    Believing the Incomprehensible God: Aquinas on Understanding God’s Testimony.O. P. James Dominic Rooney - forthcoming - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association.
    While there has been recent epistemological interest as to whether knowledge is 'transmitted' by testimony from the testifier to the hearer, there is another facet of the epistemology of testimony that raises a distinct problem: whether a hearer can receive testimonial knowledge without fully understanding the content of the testimony. Aquinas' account of faith illustrates the problem of receiving testimonial knowledge without being able to comprehend the content of testimony. As Aquinas conceives of it, revelation provides a case in principle (...)
  18. added 2019-01-15
    Grounding Relations Are Not Unified.James Dominic Rooney - 2019 - International Philosophical Quarterly 59 (1):57-64.
    Jonathan Schaffer, among others, has argued that metaphysics should deal primarily with relations of " grounding. " I will follow John Heil in arguing that this view of metaphysics is problematic as it draws on ambiguous notions of grounding and fundamentality that are unilluminating as metaphysical explanations. I understand Heil to be arguing that grounding relations do not form a natural class, where a 'natural' class is one where some member of that class has (analytic or contingent a posteriori) priority (...)
  19. added 2019-01-15
    Stumping Freedom: Divine Causality and the Will.James Dominic Rooney, Op - 2015 - New Blackfriars 96 (1066):711-722.
    The problems with grace and free will have prompted long-standing theological conflicts, chiefly revolving around certain disagreements over the nature of divine causality in respect to the free will's of creatures and His foreknowledge of free acts. Eleonore Stump offers a new interpretation of divine action on the will that holds God only acts by way of formal causality and that human cooperation with grace is only by way of "quiescence." I argue that this account lacks coherence in certain important (...)
  20. added 2019-01-08
    A Thomistic Argument for Respecting Conscientious Refusals.Michał Głowala - 2016 - Diametros 47:19-34.
    The paper presents an argument for respecting conscientious refusals based on the Thomistic account of conscience; the argument does not employ the notion of right. The main idea is that acting against one’s conscience necessarily makes the action objectively wrong and performed in bad faith, and expecting someone to act against his or her conscience is incompatible with requiring him or her to act in good faith. In light of this idea I also examine the issue of obligations imposed on (...)
  21. added 2019-01-02
    Thomas Aquinas On Knowledge.Raphael Descartes M. Roldan - manuscript
    This is an excerpt of Aquinas' proof of the existence of God. In proving God's existence, Aquinas lays out a cosmological argument of which also sets that tone for his seminal work in epistemology.
  22. added 2018-12-31
    Uzasadnienie Sprzeciwu Sumienia: Lekarze, Poborowi I Żołnierze.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2016 - Diametros 47:98-128.
    I will argue that physicians have an ethical obligation to justify their conscientious objection and the most reliable interpretation of the Polish legal framework claims that conscientious objection is permissible only when the justification shows the genuineness of the judgment of conscience that is not based on false beliefs and arises from a moral norm that has a high rank. I will demonstrate that the dogma accepted in the Polish doctrine that the reasons that lie behind conscientious objection in medicine (...)
  23. added 2018-12-31
    Complicating Conscience, Refreshing Discontent.Paul J. Medeiros - 2016 - Diametros 47:50-63.
    The 19th Century New England author Thoreau provides an approach to conscience and unjust laws approximating that given by St. Thomas Aquinas in _Summa Theologiae_. But the portrait of conscience given by Thoreau in the 1848 oration “Civil Disobedience” is incomplete. Thoreau’s approach is solved by accepting insights given in Part I and Part I–II of _Summa Theologiae_. Allowing St. Thomas’ insights requires reform of Thoreau’s civil disobedience and conscientious objection. But Thoreau’s arguments are given new life.
  24. added 2018-12-23
    Św. Tomasz z Akwinu, Traktat o Bogu.Zbigniew Nerczuk, G. Kurylewicz & M. Olszewski (eds.) - 1999 - Kraków, Polska: Wydawnictwo Znak.
    Jest to fragment traktatu "O Bogu" z "Summy Teologii" św. Tomasza z Akwinu - zawiera on Wstęp, Wprowadzenie i przekład ksiąg VII - X. ks. VII - "O nieskończoności Boga" ks. VIII - "O byciu Boga w rzeczach" ks. IX - "O niezmienności Boga" ks. X - "O wieczności Boga".
  25. added 2018-12-18
    El Teólogo y el búho. La teología aenigmatica de Tomás de Aquino.Javier Eduardo Perna - manuscript
    A lo largo de la obra de Tomás de Aquino es posible encontrar cierta tensión textual en torno a la posibilidad de conocer de manera natural la esencia divina. Por un lado el teólogo parece afirmar que, precisamente, no podemos conocer acerca de Dios qué es, sino solo qué no es. Pero, por otra parte, existe evidencia textual de que habría sostenido la posibilidad de un conocimiento quiditativo imperfecto. En tanto y en cuanto el matiz más positivo suele aparecer con (...)
  26. added 2018-12-18
    El conocimiento teológico natural y la teoría del maestro interior en Tomás de Aquino.Javier Eduardo Perna - manuscript
    En la teoría epistémica de Tomás de Aquino la lumen rationis desempeña la función de causa última del inventario completo del conocimiento humano natural. La tesis de acuerdo a la cual esa luz es puesta en nosotros por Dios justifica, de acuerdo al autor, la aserción de que la divinidad es el único y auténtico maestro interior del hombre. Ahora bien, en la visión beatífica la lumen naturale es perfeccionada por una luz sobrenatural, y la unión cognitiva con lo conocido (...)
  27. added 2018-12-13
    Etienne Gilson and Fr. Lawrence Dewan O.P.:Christian Philosophy as the Interdisciplinary Pursuit of Wisdom.Hugh Williams - forthcoming - New Blackfriars.
    This paper continues as the second part of my study of the relationship of Fr. Lawrence Dewan OP and Etienne Gilson. My first paper explored their metaphysical differences, while this second paper explores their common commitment to Christian philosophy and to St. Thomas Aquinas’ seminal work on the interrelationship of faith and reason as manifest most clearly in the interrelationship of revealed theology and philosophy. This leads us into a closer examination of Gilson's sustained treatment of this topic. However, we (...)
  28. added 2018-12-03
    Ograniczanie niedoboru narządów. System Aktywnej Rejestracji Dawców jako alternatywa dla polskiej regulacji sprzeciwu.Piotr Grzegorz Nowak - 2015 - Diametros 44:56-77.
    In the article I argue for replacing the opt-out system of organ donation, currently applied in Poland, with the Active Donor Registration system. The basic idea of the ADR system is to send a special form to all adult citizens, which would give them an opportunity to consent or dissent to the removal of organs, or to delegate their decision to their next of kin. Granting priority to declared donors – an additional assumption of ADR – would make it possible (...)
  29. added 2018-11-23
    The Philosophical Roots of Individuals and Persons. Personalism and Individualism Against the Background of Kant.Zbigniew Ambrożewicz - 2015 - Diametros 46:1-29.
    In the paper I argue that Kant’s philosophy underlies both contemporary individualism and personalism. The Kantian categorical imperative may be, in my opinion, interpreted in an anti-egotistical way and in an entirely individualistic one. The first kind of interpretation not only made a contribution to the emergence of numerous and manifold kinds of personalism, but it also inspired many critics of individualism. The second kind of interpretation, together with the Kantian analyses of human self, became essential to the conceptualization of (...)
  30. added 2018-11-22
    La Ley Moral en la Filosofía de Francisco Miró Quesada Cantuarias.Alonso Villarán - 2018 - In Los Cien Años de Francisco Miró Quesada Cantuarias. Lima: CIAC ediciones. pp. 97-108.
    The purpose of this paper is to think the moral law in Francisco Miró Quesada's version: What is its source? What does it orders? And why is it important for ethics? The paper answers this question while contrasting Miró Quesada's position with that of Thomas Aquinas and Immanuel Kant.
  31. added 2018-11-01
    The Passions of Christ in the Moral Theology of Thomas Aquinas: An Integrative Account.Stewart Clem - 2018 - New Blackfriars 99 (1082):458-480.
    In recent scholarship, moral theologians and readers of Thomas Aquinas have shown increasing sensitivity to the role of the passions in the moral life. Yet these accounts have paid inadequate attention to Thomas’s writings on Christ’s passions as a source of moral reflection. As I argue in this essay, Thomas’s writings on Christ’s human affectivity should not be limited to the concerns of Christology; rather, they should be integrated into a fuller account of the human passions. One upshot of this (...)
  32. added 2018-10-27
    Still Human: A Thomistic Analysis of ‘Persistent Vegetative State’.Stewart Clem - 2019 - Studies in Christian Ethics 32 (1):46-55.
    Would Aquinas hold the view that a patient in a persistent vegetative state (PVS) is something other than a human being? Some recent interpreters have argued for this position. I contend that this reading is grounded in a false symmetry between the three stages of Aquinas’s embryology and the (alleged) three-stage process of death. Instead, I show that there are textual grounds for rejecting the view that the absence of higher brain activity in a patient would lead Aquinas to say (...)
  33. added 2018-10-26
    The Moral Status of the First Principle of Practical Reason in Thomas's Natural-Law Theory.Giuseppe Butera - 2007 - The Thomist 71 (4):609-631.
    A defense of the view that every truly human action (that is, every action that proceeds from reason and will) is a moral action. There is no such thing as a concrete, pre-moral action.
  34. added 2018-10-26
    On Reason’s Control of the Passions in Aquinas’s Theory of Temperance.Giuseppe Butera - 2006 - Mediaeval Studies 68 (1):133-160.
    Contrary to the fairly standard view of Aquinas on temperance according to which this virtue habituates the concupiscible appetite to move in ways that accord with reason spontaneously, that is, independently of any immediate command from reason, the author of this paper argues that temperance is a virtue which "(1) disposes the concupiscible appetite to remain more or less still in the absence of any command from reason to move, thus preventing vehement, spontaneous passions of any sort, ordinate or inordinate, (...)
  35. added 2018-10-25
    Living The Good Life: A Beginner’s Thomistic Ethics. By Steven J. Jensen. [REVIEW]Giuseppe Butera - 2015 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 89 (2):346-348.
  36. added 2018-10-25
    Lombardo, Nicholas E. The Logic of Desire: Aquinas on Emotion. [REVIEW]Giuseppe Butera - 2012 - Review of Metaphysics 65 (4):879-881.
  37. added 2018-10-10
    The Logical and Metaphysical Structure of a Common Nature.David Svoboda - 2010 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 17 (2):185-200.
    The paper deals with a type of whole and part that can be found in Aquinas’ work and to which no attention has been paid so far. This type of whole and part can be called metaphysical whole and metaphysical part, respectively. In the paper, metaphysical whole and part are put forth on the problem of the logical and metaphysical structure of a common nature.
  38. added 2018-10-10
    Aquinas on the Past Possibility of the World's Having Existed Forever.Ian Wilks - 1994 - Review of Metaphysics 48 (2):299 - 329.
  39. added 2018-10-08
    Saving the Contingent. A Dialogue Between Iris Murdoch and Aquinas.Maria S. Vaccarezza - 2016 - New Blackfriars 97 (1067):22-38.
  40. added 2018-10-08
    Le Ragioni Del Contingente: La Saggezza Pratica Tra Aristotele E Tommaso D'Aquino.Maria Silvia Vaccarezza - 2012 - Orthotes.
    Questo lavoro è diviso in due parti: una monografica in cui viene indagata l’autentica posizione aristotelica in merito allo statuto della phronesis e della conoscenza morale, e l'altra in cui si offre una nuova traduzione del VI libro ...
  41. added 2018-10-08
    Accidental Being.Michael B. Ewbank - 1990 - Review of Metaphysics 44 (2):406-409.
  42. added 2018-09-28
    Justice as a Virtue: A Thomistic Perspective.Jean Porter - 2016 - Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
  43. added 2018-09-26
    Categories and Modes of Being: A Discussion of Robert Pasnau’s Metaphysical Themes.Paul Symington - 2014 - In Gyula Klima & Alexander Hall (eds.), Medieval Themes, Medieval and Modern Volume 11: Proceedings of the Society for Medieval Logic and Metaphysics. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 32-69.
  44. added 2018-09-26
    On Determining What There Is: The Identity of Ontological Categories in Aquinas, Scotus and Lowe.Paul Symington - 2010 - New Brunswick: De Gruyter.
  45. added 2018-09-26
    Thomas Aquinas on Establishing the Identity of Aristotle’s Categories.Paul Symington - 2008 - In Lloyd Newton (ed.), Medieval Commentaries on Aristotle’s Categories. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 119-144.
  46. added 2018-09-26
    The Nature of Naming and the Analogy of Being: McInerny and the Denial of a Proper Analogy of Being.Paul Symington - 2007 - International Philosophical Quarterly 47 (1):91-102.
    This paper addresses the question of whether there is a proper analogy of being according to both meaning and being. I disagree with Ralph McInerny’s understanding of how things are named through concepts and argue that McInerny’s account does not allow for the thing represented by the name to be known in itself. In his understanding of analogy, only ideas of things may be known. This results in a wholesale inability to name things at all and thereby forces McInerny to (...)
  47. added 2018-09-25
    The Structure of the Virtues : A Study of Thomas Aquinas’s and Godfrey of Fontaines's Accounts of Moral Goodness.Alexander Stöpfgeshoff - 2018 - Dissertation, Uppsala University
    This dissertation is a study of Thomas Aquinas’s and Godfrey of Fontaines’s moral philosophies. In this study, I conduct a detailed analysis of two Aristotelian commitments concerning the character virtues, namely, The Plurality of the Character Virtues and The Connection of the Character Virtues. Both Aquinas and Godfrey think that there are many distinct character virtues, however, one cannot possess these character virtues in separation from each other. In Chapter I, it is established that Aquinas believes in the plurality of (...)
  48. added 2018-09-25
    Essence in Edith Stein‘s Festschrift Dialogue.Robert McNamara - 2016 - In Andreas Speer & Stephan Regh (eds.), Alles Wesentliche lässt sich nicht schreiben. Freiburg, Germany: pp. 175-94.
    This paper reviews the concept of ‘essence’ in Edmund Husserl and Thomas Aquinas as found presented by Edith Stein in her Festschrift article, ‘Husserl’s Phenomenology and the Philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas: Attempt at a Comparison,’ in the Jahrbuch für Philosophie und Phänomenologische Forschung (1929, 370). The aim of the paper is to perform an analysis of Stein’s understanding of the principal similarities and differences in the understandings of essence found in the writings of Husserl and Aquinas, and primarily in (...)
  49. added 2018-09-22
    Beasts, Human Beings, or Gods? Human Subjectivity in Medieval Political Philosophy.Juhana Toivanen - 2016 - In Jari Kaukua & Tomas Ekenberg (eds.), Subjectivity and Selfhood in Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy. Dordrecht, Netherlands: pp. 181-197.
    Human beings are not only self-conscious minds but embodied and social beings, whose subjectivity is conditioned by their social surroundings. From this point of view, it is natural to suppose that the development and existence of a subject that is distinctively human requires contact with other people. The present contribution discusses medieval ideas concerning the intersubjective constitution of human being by looking at the medieval reception of two ideas, which Aristotle presents at the beginning of his Politics: (1) human beings (...)
  50. added 2018-09-19
    Human Knowledge.Martin Pickavé - 2011 - In Brian Davies & Eleonore Stump (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Aquinas. Oxford University Press.
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