Toleration

Edited by Andrew Jason Cohen (Georgia State University, Georgetown University)
About this topic
Summary There are four philosophical issues surrounding toleration: (1) What is it? (2) What does it require? (3) When is it required? and (4) Why is it of value?  The first two are conceptual questions and often--perhaps entirely, in contemporary work--conflated.  It is now assumed that whatever its complete definition, toleration requires non-interference.  That was not always the case.  The third question is of paramount importance in normative political work.  Disagreements about how to answer this question divide liberals and other moral and political thinkers into different camps.  The fourth question seems to many today to be unnecessary since everyone proclaims to think toleration important.  There are good arguments that defenses of toleration are still needed; historically, of course, they were extremely important. 
Key works Historically, the most important figures discussing toleration are, arguably: Saint Augustine (Letters), Baruch Spinoza (Tractatus Theologico-Politicus), Pierre Bayle (A Philosophical Commentary), John Locke (Letters Concerning Toleration), and John Stuart Mill (On Liberty).  For a recent conceptual analysis of toleration, see Cohen 2004. For a collection with a good indication of various recent debates, see Williams & Waldron 2008.
Introductions Rainer Forst, Toleration
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  1. Book Review: Tolerance Among the Virtues, by John R. Bowlin. [REVIEW]Stephen S. Bush - 2019 - Political Theory 47 (3):439-444.
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  2. Handbuch der Politischen Philosophie und Sozialphilosophie (HPPS) [A Companion to Political Philosophy and Social Philosophy].Stefan Gosepath, Wilfried Hinsch & Beate Roessler - 2008 - Berlin, Deutschland: de Gruyter.
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  3. Montaigne and the Tolerance of Politics.Biancamaria Fontana - forthcoming - Contemporary Political Theory.
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  4. Fanaticism and Sacred Values.Paul Katsafanas - 2019 - Philosophers' Imprint 19:1-20.
    What, if anything, is fanaticism? Philosophers including Locke, Hume, Shaftesbury, and Kant offered an account of fanaticism, analyzing it as (1) unwavering commitment to an ideal, together with (2) unwillingness to subject the ideal (or its premises) to rational critique and (3) the presumption of a non-rational sanction for the ideal. In the first part of the paper, I explain this account and argue that it does not succeed: among other things, it entails that a paradigmatically peaceful and tolerant individual (...)
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  5. Toleration and Groups.Peter Balint - 2018 - European Journal of Political Theory 17 (3):375-384.
  6. Book ReviewsHans. Oberdiek, Between Forbearance and Acceptance.Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001. Pp. Ix+182. $24.95. [REVIEW]Harry Brighouse - 2003 - Ethics 113 (3):716-718.
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  7. Book Review: Mere Civility: Disagreement and the Limits of Toleration, by Teresa Bejan. [REVIEW]Douglas Casson - 2018 - Political Theory 46 (3):498-502.
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  8. Democratizing Organized Religion.Chiara Cordelli - 2017 - Journal of Politics 79 (2).
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  9. Review Essay: Autonomy, Accommodation, and Tolerance: Three Encounters with Diversity.William A. Galston - 2005 - Political Theory 33 (4):582-588.
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  10. Atheism, Secularism and Toleration: Towards a Political Atheology.Charles Devellennes - 2017 - Contemporary Political Theory 16 (2):228-247.
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  11. Autonomy and Toleration as a Moral Attitude.Ryan W. Davis - 2017 - Journal of Social Philosophy 48 (1):92-116.
  12. The Secular Citadel and the Untended Garden.John T. Noonan - 2009 - Social Research 76 (4):1173-1180.
    Functionally, religion is what is held as sacred, that is, as untouchable. In the United States, taxes and military manpower are untouchable and, therefore, beyond objection by particular religions. The courts, too, are untouchable in determining what is and what is not religion. Despite these severe limitations on religious freedom, sometimes religion has broken the national consensus - most notably in the abolitionist movement of 1829-1865 and in the civil rights movement of 1959-1964. Such acts of religious freedom have been (...)
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  13. Biases, Bumps, Nudges, Query Lists, and Zero Tolerance Policies.Wein Sheldon - unknown
    Zero tolerance policies are often mistakenly thought to be the best way to deal with pressing social problems. However, most arguments for zero tolerance policies are either based on inaccurate premises or they commit the zero tolerance fallacy. This paper explores ways that we might counteract the bias in favor of zero tolerance policies by adding a query list to the choice architecture.
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  14. Philo: Foundations of Religious Philosophy in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. By Alban G. Widgery.Harry Austryn Wolfson - 1947 - Ethics 58 (2):147-149.
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  15. An Epistemic Argument for Tolerance.René van Woudenberg - 2015 - International Journal of Philosophy and Theology 76 (5):428-435.
    In this paper I first take a critical look at Grube’s allegiance to the idea that bivalence should be rejected as it can serve the cause of religious toleration. I argue that bivalence is not what Grube says it is, and that rejection of bivalence comes at a very high price that we should not be willing to pay. Next I analyze Grube’s argument for religious toleration – an argument that does not involve the rejection of bivalence. I argue that (...)
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  16. Religious Conflicts and Peace Building in Nigeria.Ian Linden & Thomas Thorp - 2016 - Journal of Religion and Violence 4 (1):85-100.
    Historical analysis confirms the home-grown character of Nigeria’s conflicts and the complexity of their peaceful resolution. Religious leaders have traditionally contested political space with other actors and continue to do so. But the religiosity of popular culture is such that Nigerian religious leaders can make a substantive contribution to peace building and countering religious extremism if given the time, space and tools to do so. Elections have been critical moments in the evolution of religious tensions and conflicts owing to the (...)
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  17. Are the Gods Apolitical?E. M. Fales - 1999 - Philo 2 (1):21-31.
    The increasingly strident debate in the United States over the role of religion in public policy raises the general questions whether the United States is a liberal democracy and whether it should be; but also the theoretical question---addressed here---whether it is legitimate for citizens in a liberal democracy to offer religious convictions as grounds for policy. The historically most prominent reason given for the exclusion of religious grounds is that the injection of religion into policy is divisive and potentially destructive (...)
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  18. The Deportation of Ethnic Minorities to the USSR and the Romanian National Idea.Dallas Michelbacher - 2012 - History of Communism in Europe 3:43-57.
    The article examines the general policies of the Romanian state in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War toward the German and Hungarian minority. The abuses of the human rights of ethnic minorities from 1944 until 1947 were some of the worst in the history of Romania. The massacres and deportations of German and Hungarian civilians remain a black mark on Romanian society. These actions were in keeping with the ideologicalpronouncements of Romanian nationalists from the interwar period. The rhetoric (...)
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  19. Tolerance, Civility, and Cognitive Development.Andrew Fiala - unknown
    Page 21-36, Religion in Schools: Negotiating the New Commons by Michael D. Waggoner, 2013, reproduced by permission of Rowman & Littlefield https://rowman.com/ISBN/9781475801613/Religion-in-the-Public-Schools-Negotiating-the-New-Commons. All rights reserved. Please contact the publisher for permission to copy, distribute or reprint.
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  20. Ethics and Moral Tolerance.Sven Nilson & Arthur Kenyon Rogers - 1935 - Philosophical Review 44 (5):490.
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  21. On the Boundaries of Theological Tolerance in Islam: Abū Ḥāmid Al-Ghazālī's Fayṣal Al-TafriqaOn the Boundaries of Theological Tolerance in Islam: Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali's Faysal Al-Tafriqa.Devin Stewart & Sherman A. Jackson - 2004 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 124 (1):113.
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  22. "Cuius Regio, Illius Opinio": Considerations on the Present Crisis of the Tolerance Idea.H. Gomperz - 1936 - International Journal of Ethics 46 (3):292-307.
  23. The Limits of Moral Tolerance.A. K. Rogers - 1929 - International Journal of Ethics 39 (3):291-305.
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  24. Institutional Religious Accommodation in the US and Europe. Loobuyck - 2015 - Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy 44 (3):240-251.
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  25. Cornerstones of Religious Freedom in America.H. A. L. & Joseph L. Blau - 1950 - Journal of Philosophy 47 (17):504.
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  26. Ethics and Moral Tolerance.H. W. S. & Arthur Kenyon Rogers - 1934 - Journal of Philosophy 31 (6):165.
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  27. Nino Zchomelidse, Art, Ritual, and Civic Identity in Medieval Southern Italy, University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2014. Pp. Xix, 288; 149 Black-and-White and 61 Color Figures. $84.95. ISBN: 978-0-271-05973-0. [REVIEW]William Tronzo - 2016 - Speculum 91 (1):274-276.
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  28. Sources and Resources: The "Pretexts" of Originality in Montaigne's Essais.Richard L. Regosin - 1978 - Substance 6 (21):103.
  29. Literalism and Tolerance.P. V. Rooney - 1995 - New Blackfriars 76 (899):542-545.
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  30. Religious Freedom and International Law.G. I. A. D. Draper - 1966 - New Blackfriars 48 (558):79-86.
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  31. Superior Tolerance of Ag/Ni Multilayers Against Kr Ion Irradiation: Anin Situstudy.K. Y. Yu, C. Sun, Y. Chen, Y. Liu, H. Wang, M. A. Kirk, M. Li & X. Zhang - 2013 - Philosophical Magazine 93 (26):3547-3562.
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  32. Sur la Tolerance Intellectuelle.George Sarton - 1926 - Isis 8 (2):241-253.
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  33. Morphine Tolerance as Habituation.Timothy B. Baker & Stephen T. Tiffany - 1985 - Psychological Review 92 (1):78-108.
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  34. Religious Diversity in Muslim-Majority States in Southeast Asia: Areas of Toleration and ConflictEdited by Bernhard Platzdasch and Johan Saravanamuttu.Kevin W. Fogg - forthcoming - Journal of Islamic Studies:etv090.
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  35. Review: On the Boundaries of Theological Tolerance in Islam: Abū Ḥāmid Al-Ghazālī's Fayṣal Al-Tafriqa. [REVIEW]T. Street - 2005 - Journal of Islamic Studies 16 (2):211-213.
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  36. The Religious Community and the Communist Regime in the Case of Montenegro, 1945-1955.Adnan Prekic - 2016 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 15 (44):111-136.
    The paper analyses the relations of the Communist authorities with religious communities in Montenegro in the period 1945 - 1955. The paper separately problematises specific features of each confessional community in Montenegro, and establishes a typology of the expansion of regime control. The Communist Party did not use violent methods in the process of marginalising the religious community, but new authorities in Montenegro managed to marginalise its influence. By taking over the executive authority in the state, the Party began the (...)
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  37. Review Of: Brian Leiter, Why Tolerate Religion? [REVIEW]Matteo Bonotti - 2016 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (3):797-799.
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  38. Respecting Toleration: Traditional Liberalism and Contemporary Diversity.Peter Balint - 2017 - Oxford University Press UK.
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  39. A Divinely Tolerant Political Ethics: Dancing with Aurelius.Joshua M. Hall - 2016 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 20 (2):327-348.
    Marcus Aurelius’s Meditations constitutes an important source and subject for Michel Foucault’s 1981 lectures at the Collège de France, translated into English as Hermeneutics of the Subject. One recurring theme in these lectures is the deployment by Hellenistic/Roman philosophers such as Aurelius of the practice and figure of dance. Inspired by this discussion, the present essay offers a close reading of dance in the Meditations, followed by a survey of the secondary literature on this subject. Overall, I will attempt to (...)
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  40. Self-Tolerance Revisited.Nelson M. Vaz - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 55:128-132.
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  41. Sandel on Tolerance.T. Hinton - 2001 - Analysis 61 (4):327-333.
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  42. "Cuius Regio, Illius Opinio": Considerations on the Present Crisis of the Tolerance Idea.H. Gomperz - 1935 - Ethics 46 (3):292.
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  43. The Inclusion of the Other?Lasse Thomassen - 2006 - Political Theory 34 (4):439-462.
    In his most recent work, Jürgen Habermas has proposed a deliberative account of tolerance where the norms of tolerance—including the threshold of tolerance and the norms regulating the relationship between the tolerating and the tolerated parties—are the outcomes of deliberations among the citizens affected by the norms. He thinks that in this way, the threshold of tolerance can be rationalized and the relationship between tolerating and tolerated will rest on the symmetrical relations of public deliberations. In this essay, and inspired (...)
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  44. Fleeing Dictatorship: Socialism, Sexuality and the History of Science in the Life of Aldo Mieli.Cristina Chimisso - unknown
    This article examines the life and activities of the Italian intellectual Aldo Mieli as examples of the impact on intellectual agendas of interference by the authorities. Mieli is nowadays known as one of the founders of the history of science as an autonomous discipline and as a pioneer of gay rights. For most of his life he managed to further his activities related to the history of science. The political career that he started as a young man, however, was cut (...)
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  45. Tolérance Et Intolérance de la Raison À l''ge des Lumières : La Politique au Rouet.Nicolas Grimaldi - 2000 - Archives de Philosophie du Droit 44:243-272.
    Qu'est-ce que les Lumières? Comment les mêmes exigences de la raison peuvent-elles inspirer à la fois Voltaire et Robespierre? Comment a-t-on pu si véhémentement critiquer la religion au nom de la raison, et instituer trente ans après une religion de la raison? Comment la raison a-t-elle pu en 1763 inspirer à Voltaire son Traité de la tolérance et justifier en 1793 l'intolérance de la loi des suspects? S'agit-il de circonstances malheureuses, de déviations? Ou n'avons-nous pas plutôt affaire à une aussi (...)
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  46. The Authoritarian Dynamic.Karen Stenner - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    What is the basis for intolerance? This book addresses that question by developing a universal theory about what causes intolerance of difference in general, which includes racism, political intolerance, moral intolerance and punitiveness. It demonstrates that all these seemingly disparate attitudes are principally caused by just two factors: individuals' innate psychological predispositions to intolerance interacting with changing conditions of societal threat. The threatening conditions, resonant particularly in the present political climate, that exacerbate authoritarian attitudes include national economic downturn, rapidly rising (...)
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  47. Toleration as Recognition.Anna Elisabetta Galeotti - 2002 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this 2002 book, Anna Elisabetta Galeotti examines the most intractable problems which toleration encounters and argues that what is really at stake is not religious or moral disagreement but the unequal status of different social groups. Liberal theories of toleration fail to grasp this and consequently come up with normative solutions that are inadequate when confronted with controversial cases. Galeotti proposes, as an alternative, toleration as recognition, which addresses the problem of according equal respect to groups as well as (...)
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  48. The Secular Outlook: In Defense of Moral and Political Secularism.Paul Cliteur - 2010 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _The Secular Outlook: In Defense of Moral and Political Secularism_ shows how people can live together and overcome the challenge of religious terrorism by adopting a "secular outlook" on life and politics. Shows how secularism can answer the problem of religious terrorism Provides new perspectives on how religious minorities can be integrated into liberal democracies Reveals how secularism has gained a new political and moral significance. Also examines such topics as atheism, religious criticism and free speech.
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  49. Against the Capitalization of Religion and Secularism. On G.Vattimos Philosophy of Religion.Friederike Dorothea Rass - unknown
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  50. Religious Liberty and State Neutrality Accommodating the Free Exercise of Religion.Sarah Song - 1998
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