Toleration

Edited by Andrew Jason Cohen (Georgia State University, Georgetown University)
About this topic
Summary There are four philosophical issues surrounding toleration: (1) What is it? (2) What does it require? (3) When is it required? and (4) Why is it of value?  The first two are conceptual questions and often--perhaps entirely, in contemporary work--conflated.  It is now assumed that whatever its complete definition, toleration requires non-interference.  That was not always the case.  The third question is of paramount importance in normative political work.  Disagreements about how to answer this question divide liberals and other moral and political thinkers into different camps.  The fourth question seems to many today to be unnecessary since everyone proclaims to think toleration important.  There are good arguments that defenses of toleration are still needed; historically, of course, they were extremely important. 
Key works Historically, the most important figures discussing toleration are, arguably: Saint Augustine (Letters), Baruch Spinoza (Tractatus Theologico-Politicus), Pierre Bayle (A Philosophical Commentary), John Locke (Letters Concerning Toleration), and John Stuart Mill (On Liberty).  For a recent conceptual analysis of toleration, see Cohen 2004. For a collection with a good indication of various recent debates, see Williams & Waldron 2008.
Introductions Rainer Forst, Toleration
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  1. The Politics of Hypocrisy: Baruch Spinoza and Pierre Bayle on Hypocritical Conformity.Amy Gais - 2020 - Political Theory 48 (5):588-614.
    Contemporary political theory has increasingly attended to the inevitability, and even advantage, of hypocrisy in liberal democratic politics, but less consideration has been given to the social and psychological repercussions of this ubiquitous phenomenon. This article recovers Baruch Spinoza and Pierre Bayle’s critiques of hypocritical conformity to demonstrate that their influential theories of toleration and freedom were shaped considerably by concerns with enforced conformity. Reframing Spinoza and Bayle as theorists of hypocrisy, moreover, suggests that recent redemptive accounts of hypocrisy in (...)
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  2. Complicity and Hypocrisy.Nicolas Cornell & Amy Sepinwall - 2020 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 19 (2):154-181.
    This article offers a justification for accommodating claims of conscience. The standard justification points to the pain that acting against one’s conscience entails. But that defense cannot make sense of the state’s refusal to accommodate individuals where the law interferes with their deeply meaningful but nonmoral projects. An alternative justification, we argue, arises once one recognizes the connection between conscience and moral address: One’s lived moral convictions determine when and with what force one can hold others to account. Acting against (...)
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  3. Lack of Pluralism and Post‐Secularism in Catholic Countries.Sebastián Rudas - 2020 - Constellations 27 (2):258-272.
  4. Book Review: Montaigne and the Tolerance of Politics, by Douglas I. Thompson. [REVIEW]Ingrid Creppell - 2020 - Political Theory 48 (3):405-410.
  5. Toleration, Neutrality, and Freedom: A Reply.Peter Balint - 2020 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 23 (2):224-232.
  6. Toleration, Neutrality, and Exemption.Peter Jones - 2020 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 23 (2):203-210.
  7. Introduction to a Symposium on Peter Balint’s Respecting Toleration.Jonathan Seglow - 2020 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 23 (2):188-190.
  8. Conceptualising Toleration.John Horton - 2020 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 23 (2):191-196.
  9. Accommodating Toleration: On Balint’s Classical Liberal Response to the Multiculturalism Challenge.Sune Lægaard - 2020 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 23 (2):211-217.
  10. Respecting Multiculturalism? Respecting Religion?Jonathan Seglow - 2020 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 23 (2):218-223.
  11. Montaigne and the Tolerance of Politics.Biancamaria Fontana - 2020 - Contemporary Political Theory 19 (S1):79-81.
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  12. Abolishing Asylum and Violating the Human Rights of Refugees. Why is It Tolerated? The Case of Hungary in the EU.Felix Bender - 2020 - In Elżbieta M. Goździak, Izabella Main & Brigitte Suter (eds.), Europe and the Refugee Response. London, UK: Routledge.
    Why are human rights abuses of refugees at the EU’s geographical periphery tolerated by other EU states? This chapter uses the case of Hungary and Germany to explore how the former abolished the institution of asylum, shedding light on the human rights abuses of refugees, and why states such as the latter seem to condone such actions. It argues that core EU member states condone human rights abuses at the geographical periphery of the EU as long as they contribute to (...)
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  13. La religion libérale pour les personnes et pour les groupes : Droits fondamentaux et accommodements.Michel Seymour & Jérôme Gosselin-Tapp - 2019 - ThéoRèmes 1 (15).
    Cet article vise à enrichir l’approche désagrégative proposée par Cécile Laborde dans Liberalism’s Religion [HUP, 2017] à l’aide de certaines intuitions rawlsiennes provenant de notre ouvrage La nation pluraliste [PUM, 2018]. En partant de la notion d’« accommodement raisonnable » telle que comprise dans le contexte légal du Québec et du Canada, nous parvenons à une interprétation des fondements normatifs de la distinction entre droits fondamentaux et accommodements qui repose sur la raison publique. La perspective que nous défendons permet ultimement (...)
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  14. The Arrogant Eye and the French Prohibition of the Veil.Daniel Alejandro Restrepo - 2019 - Ethic@ - An International Journal for Moral Philosophy 18 (2):159-174.
    Evânia Reich presents the argument that the veil laws in France—the banning of the full-face coverings in public and the banning of the headscarf in public schools—are consistent with the emancipatory project of French Laïcité. According to this argument, the veils that Muslim women wear are symbols of their oppression, whereas French education seeks to liberate each individual and Laïcité serves as a bulwark against the creeping oppressive influence of religion. Unveiling Muslim women, then, is an act of emancipation. In (...)
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  15. Three Cheers for Liberal Modesty.Cécile Laborde - 2020 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 23 (1):119-135.
  16. Three Cheers for Liberal Modesty.Cécile Laborde - 2018 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-17.
  17. Individual Integrity, Freedom of Association and Religious Exemption.Peter Jones - 2018 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-15.
  18. Perfectionism: Political Not Metaphysical.Collis Tahzib - 2019 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 47 (2):144-178.
  19. Two Bad Halves Don't Make a Whole: On the Crisis of Democracy.Rainer Forst - 2019 - Constellations 26 (3):378-383.
  20. The Simplicity of Toleration.Peter Königs - forthcoming - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-20.
    Toleration is one of the core elements of a liberal polity, and yet it has come to be seen as puzzling, paradoxical and difficult. The aim of the present paper is to dispel three puzzles surrounding toleration. First, I will challenge the notion that it is difficult to see why tolerance should be a virtue given that it involves putting up with what one deems wrong. Second, I defuse the worry that the ideal of toleration is not fully realizable as (...)
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  21. Rescuing Toleration.Anna Elisabetta Galeotti - forthcoming - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-21.
  22. God is a Man Eater.Abby Riehl - 2019 - Constellations (University of Alberta Student Journal) 10 (2).
    This article explores the relationship between Christian persecution under Roman authorities in Late Antiquity and the role that consumption rituals played within it. Considering the similarities between condemned pagan and gnostic consumption rituals, which were often accused of being cannibalistic orgies, this paper determines whether comparisons drawn between these condemned rituals and Christian ones had any tangible similarities, or if Roman authorities projected their prejudices and knowledge of pagan rituals onto the Christian in order to justify their continued persecution.
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  23. Toleration and Modus Vivendi.John Horton - forthcoming - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-19.
  24. What Liberals Should Tolerate Internationally.Andrew Jason Cohen - forthcoming - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-23.
  25. Education, Epistemic Virtues, and the Power of Toleration.Johannes Drerup - forthcoming - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-24.
  26. Can a Value-Neutral Liberal State Still Be Tolerant?Michael Kühler - forthcoming - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-20.
  27. The Politics and Ethics of Toleration: Introduction.Johannes Drerup & Michael Kühler - forthcoming - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-4.
  28. Book Review: Tolerance Among the Virtues, by John R. Bowlin. [REVIEW]Stephen S. Bush - 2019 - Political Theory 47 (3):439-444.
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  29. Pluralism and the Authority of Groups to Discriminate.Avigail Eisenberg - forthcoming - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-22.
  30. The Good of Toleration: Changing Social Relations or Maximising Individual Freedom?Emanuela Ceva - 2020 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 23 (2):197-202.
    In this paper, I take issue with Peter Balint’s recent account of the value of toleration as an instrument for securing freedom-maximising outcomes in pluralistic societies. In particular, I question the extent to which the ideal of toleration can be entirely reduced to someone’s intentional withholding of negative interference whose value lies in the protection of individual negative freedoms. I argue that couching the value of toleration entirely in these freedom-maximising terms fails to do justice to the relational value of (...)
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  31. UnMuted: Conversations on Prejudice, Oppression, and Social Justice.Myisha Cherry - 2019 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    Why do people hate one another? Who gets to speak for whom? Why do so many people combat prejudice based on their race, sexual orientation, or disability? What does segregation look like today? Many of us ponder and discuss urgent questions such as these at home, and see them debated in the media, the classroom, and our social media feeds, but many of us don't have access to the important new ways philosophers are thinking about these very issues. Enter UnMute, (...)
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  32. Handbuch der Politischen Philosophie und Sozialphilosophie (HPPS) [A Companion to Political Philosophy and Social Philosophy].Stefan Gosepath, Wilfried Hinsch & Beate Roessler - 2008 - Berlin, Deutschland: de Gruyter.
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  33. Fanaticism and Sacred Values.Paul Katsafanas - 2019 - Philosophers' Imprint 19:1-20.
    What, if anything, is fanaticism? Philosophers including Locke, Hume, Shaftesbury, and Kant offered an account of fanaticism, analyzing it as (1) unwavering commitment to an ideal, together with (2) unwillingness to subject the ideal (or its premises) to rational critique and (3) the presumption of a non-rational sanction for the ideal. In the first part of the paper, I explain this account and argue that it does not succeed: among other things, it entails that a paradigmatically peaceful and tolerant individual (...)
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  34. Toleration and Groups.Peter Balint - 2018 - European Journal of Political Theory 17 (3):375-384.
  35. Book ReviewsHans. Oberdiek, Between Forbearance and Acceptance.Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001. Pp. Ix+182. $24.95. [REVIEW]Harry Brighouse - 2003 - Ethics 113 (3):716-718.
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  36. Book Review: Mere Civility: Disagreement and the Limits of Toleration, by Teresa Bejan. [REVIEW]Douglas Casson - 2018 - Political Theory 46 (3):498-502.
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  37. The Evanescence of Neutrality.Cécile Laborde - 2018 - Political Theory 46 (1):99-105.
  38. Individuality and Hierarchy in Cicero’s De Officiis.Michael C. Hawley - 2016 - European Journal of Political Theory:147488511665769.
    This essay explores a creative argument that Cicero offers to answer a fundamental question: how are we to judge among different ways of life? Is there a natural hierarchy of human types? In respon...
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  39. Religious Accommodation Law in the UK: Five Normative Gaps.Jonathan Seglow - 2018 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 21 (1):109-128.
  40. Democratizing Organized Religion.Chiara Cordelli - 2017 - Journal of Politics 79 (2).
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  41. Demanding Recognition.Cillian McBride - 2009 - European Journal of Political Theory 8 (1):96-108.
    This article argues that we must distinguish between two distinct currents in the politics of recognition, one centred on demands for equal respect which is consistent with liberal egalitarianism, and one which centres on demands for esteem made on behalf of particular groups which is at odds with egalitarian aims. A variety of claims associated with the politics of recognition are assessed and it is argued that these are readily accommodated within contemporary liberal egalitarian theory. It is argued that, pace (...)
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  42. Interculturalism and Informed Consent: Respecting Cultural Differences Without Breaching Human Rights.Perihan Elif Ekmekci & Berna Arda - 2017 - Cultura 14 (2):159-172.
    Interventions in medicine require multicenter clinical trialson a large rather than limited number of subjects from various genetic and cultural backgrounds. International guidelines to protect the rights and well-being of human subjects involved in clinical trialsarecriticizedforthe priority they place on Western cultural values. These discussions become manifest especially with regard to the content and methodology of the informed consent procedure. The ethical dilemma emerges from the argument that there are fundamental differences about the concept of respect for the autonomy of (...)
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  43. Onto-Epistemological Pluralism, Social Practices, Human Rights And White Racism.Mónica Gómez Salazar - 2017 - Cultura 14 (2):89-106.
    Based on onto–epistemological pluralism and social practices this work maintains that the proclamation of cultural neutrality originating in the idea of equality without any distinction of color, sex, language, religion or political opinion, really favors white racism and cultural imperialism of the liberal way of life. This article argues that the process of reasoning which justifies human rights is distorted by particular interests, such as the colonization of American territory in the case of the Declaration of the Good People of (...)
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  44. Religious Identity and Workplace Discrimination: A National Survey of American Muslim Physicians.Aasim I. Padela, Huda Adam, Maha Ahmad, Zahra Hosseinian & Farr Curlin - 2016 - Ajob Empirical Bioethics 7 (3):149-159.
  45. Religious Voices in Public Places.Esther Mcintosh - 2007 - Journal of Scottish Thought 1 (1):121-134.
  46. Philosophers, Politicians and Archbishops.Esther Mcintosh - 2008 - International Journal of Public Theology 2 (4):465-483.
    The Nicholas Wolterstorff-Robert Audi debate surrounding the role of religious reasons in public debate remains unresolved in the United States. Alternatively, but relatedly, when politicians and Archbishops in the UK mention God the media react with force. This article seeks a more balanced reaction to the faith of politicians and Archbishops and a solution to the Wolterstorff-Audi debate. First, this article teases out the extent to which John Macmurray's philosophy of community is or is not evident in New Labour politics; (...)
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  47. Review Essays: Schooling for Citizenship: Bridging Autonomy and Conflict.Catherine O’Leary Goldwyn - 2005 - Political Theory 33 (5):721-726.
  48. Review Essay: Autonomy, Accommodation, and Tolerance: Three Encounters with Diversity.William A. Galston - 2005 - Political Theory 33 (4):582-588.
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  49. Atheism, Secularism and Toleration: Towards a Political Atheology.Charles Devellennes - 2017 - Contemporary Political Theory 16 (2):228-247.
  50. Autonomy and Toleration as a Moral Attitude.Ryan W. Davis - 2017 - Journal of Social Philosophy 48 (1):92-116.
1 — 50 / 3743