Edited by Andrew Jason Cohen (Georgia State University, Georgetown University)
About this topic
Summary There are four philosophical issues surrounding toleration: (1) What is it? (2) What does it require? (3) When is it required? and (4) Why is it of value?  The first two are conceptual questions and often--perhaps entirely, in contemporary work--conflated.  It is now assumed that whatever its complete definition, toleration requires non-interference.  That was not always the case.  The third question is of paramount importance in normative political work.  Disagreements about how to answer this question divide liberals and other moral and political thinkers into different camps.  The fourth question seems to many today to be unnecessary since everyone proclaims to think toleration important.  There are good arguments that defenses of toleration are still needed; historically, of course, they were extremely important. 
Key works Historically, the most important figures discussing toleration are, arguably: Saint Augustine (Letters), Baruch Spinoza (Tractatus Theologico-Politicus), Pierre Bayle (A Philosophical Commentary), John Locke (Letters Concerning Toleration), and John Stuart Mill (On Liberty).  For a recent conceptual analysis of toleration, see Cohen 2004. For a collection with a good indication of various recent debates, see Williams & Waldron 2008.
Introductions Rainer Forst, Toleration
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Material to categorize
  1. In Praise of Intolerance To.Charlatanism In Academia - 1996 - In Paul R. Gross, N. Levitt & Martin W. Lewis (eds.), The Flight From Science and Reason. The New York Academy of Sciences.
  2. The Separation of Church and State and the Obligations of Citizenship.Robert Audi - 1989 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 18 (3):259-296.
  3. Taking Religious Pluralism Seriously. Arguing for an Institutional Turn. Introduction.Veit Bader - 2003 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 6 (1):3-22.
    Discussions of the relations between religions, society, politics, and the state in recent political philosophy are characterized, firstly, by a strong US American bias focusing on limitations of religious arguments in public debate. Even if the restriction or radical exclusion of religious reasons from public debate has recently been extensively criticized, secularist interpretations of liberal-democratic constitutions still prevail. Here it is argued that both strong secularism and weak or second order secularism are counterproductive for many reasons. Secondly, separationist interpretations of (...)
  4. Morphine Tolerance as Habituation.Timothy B. Baker & Stephen T. Tiffany - 1985 - Psychological Review 92 (1):78-108.
  5. Religious Minorities' Web Rhetoric: Romanian and Hungarian Ethno-Pagan Organizations.Rozalia Bako & Laszlo-Attila Hubbes - 2011 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 10 (30):127-158.
    The comparative study of Romanian and Hungarian Neopagan organizations with an ethnocentric or "Ethno-pagan" ideology is an exploratory research aimed at mapping the similarities and the differences between these religious minorities, with a highlight on their level of institutionalization, their core values and degree of political mobilization. Zalmoxian groups and organizations promote the revival of Romanian spirituality through a process of reconnection to its ancient, supposedly Dacian and Thracian roots; by the same token, Hungarian Shamanist movements are aimed at recovering (...)
  6. Respecting Toleration: Traditional Liberalism and Contemporary Diversity.Peter Balint - 2017 - Oxford University Press UK.
  7. The United States Media and the Liberal Tradition.Julia J. Bartkowiak - 1994 - Journal of Social Philosophy 25 (3):123-134.
  8. Maribel Dietz, Wandering Monks, Virgins, and Pilgrims: Ascetic Travel in the Mediterranean World, A.D. 300–800. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2005. Pp. X, 270. [REVIEW]Adam H. Becker - 2006 - Speculum 81 (4):1180-1181.
  9. Vashti McCollum and Separation of Church and State in the USA.Robert Bender - 2012 - The Australian Humanist (106):13.
    Bender, Robert The USA constitution does not have a clause requiring any separation of church and state and until 1948 there were no Supreme Court rulings to ensure that this was seen as a basic constitutional principle. Then in 1945 Vashti McCollum, a 33-year-old part-time squaredancing teacher from Champaign, Illinois, initiated a legal action that changed all that.
  10. Herwig Wolfram, Conrad II, 990–1039: Emperor of Three Kingdoms. Trans. Denise A. Kaiser. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2006. Pp. Xx, 475; 17 Black-and-White Figures, Genealogical Tables, and 2 Maps. $60. First Published in 2000 Under the Title Konrad II., 990–1039: Kaiser Dreier Reiche, by CH Beck'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Munich. [REVIEW]John W. Bernhardt - 2008 - Speculum 83 (2):490-492.
  11. Cornerstones of Religious Freedom in America.Joseph L. Blau - 1951 - Philosophical Review 60 (3):433-434.
  12. Adam S. Cohen, The Uta Codex: Art, Philosophy, and Reform in Eleventh-Century Germany. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000. Pp. Xv, 276 Plus 16 Color Plates; 74 Black-and-White Figures. $65. [REVIEW]Karen Blough - 2003 - Speculum 78 (3):856-858.
  13. Review Of: Brian Leiter, Why Tolerate Religion? [REVIEW]Matteo Bonotti - 2016 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (3):797-799.
  14. Philosophical Tolerance. A Winter Revery.John E. Boodin - 1908 - The Monist 18 (2):298-306.
  15. Epistola a Cangrande. [REVIEW]Steven Botterill - 1999 - Speculum 74 (3):726-726.
  16. Barbara R. Walters, Vincent Corrigan, and Peter T. Ricketts, The Feast of Corpus Christi. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2006. Pp. Xviii, 562; Tables and Musical Examples. [REVIEW]Susan Boynton - 2010 - Speculum 85 (2):476-478.
  17. Don C. Skemer, Binding Words: Textual Amulets in the Middle Ages.(Magic in History.) University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2006. Pp. Viii, 327; Black-and-White Figures. [REVIEW]Edina Bozóky - 2008 - Speculum 83 (3):754-756.
  18. Hans Oberdiek, Between Forbearance and Acceptance:Between Forbearance and Acceptance.Harry Brighouse - 2003 - Ethics 113 (3):716-718.
  19. The Problem with Polygamy.Thom Brooks - 2009 - Philosophical Topics 37 (2):109-122.
    Polygamy is a hotly contested practice and open to widespread misunderstandings. This practice is defined as a relationship between either one husband and multiple wives or one wife and multiple husbands. Today, “polygamy” almost exclusively takes the form of one husband with multiple wives. In this article, my focus will center on limited defenses of polygamy offered recently by Chesire Calhoun and Martha Nussbaum. I will argue that these defenses are unconvincing. The problem with polygamy is primarily that it is (...)
  20. James F. Burke, Vision, the Gaze, and the Function of the Senses in “Celestina.” University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000. Pp. Vii, 139. $42.50. [REVIEW]Catherine Brown - 2003 - Speculum 78 (2):474-477.
  21. Models of Separation and a Mountain Ok Religion.Robert C. Brumbaugh - 1980 - Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 8 (4):332-348.
  22. Religious Arguments and The.Duty Of Civility - 2001 - Public Affairs Quarterly 15 (2):133.
  23. The Secular Outlook: In Defense of Moral and Political Secularism.Paul Cliteur - 2010 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _The Secular Outlook: In Defense of Moral and Political Secularism_ shows how people can live together and overcome the challenge of religious terrorism by adopting a "secular outlook" on life and politics. Shows how secularism can answer the problem of religious terrorism Provides new perspectives on how religious minorities can be integrated into liberal democracies Reveals how secularism has gained a new political and moral significance. Also examines such topics as atheism, religious criticism and free speech.
  24. National Idealism and a State Church: A Constructive Essay in Religion.Stanton Coit - 1909 - Mind 18 (72):588-597.
  25. Christine F. Cooper-Rompato, The Gift of Tongues: Women's Xenoglossia in the Later Middle Ages. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2010. Pp. X, 217. $75. [REVIEW]Edwin D. Craun - 2011 - Speculum 86 (3):737-739.
  26. Augustine Thompson, O.P., Cities of God: The Religion of the Italian Communes, 1125–1325. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2005. Pp. Xiii, 502; 61 Black-and-White Figures. [REVIEW]George Dameron - 2006 - Speculum 81 (3):927-928.
  27. Church Vs. State - Church-State Separation for the Impoverished Imagination.Shawn Dawson - 2008 - Free Inquiry 28:50-50.
  28. Atheism, Secularism and Toleration: Towards a Political Atheology.Charles Devellennes - 2017 - Contemporary Political Theory 16 (2):228-247.
  29. Why Tolerate Religion?By Brian Leiter.Philip Devine - 2013 - Analysis 73 (3):595-597.
  30. Religious Freedom and International Law.G. I. A. D. Draper - 1966 - New Blackfriars 48 (558):79-86.
  31. Dialogue and Bigotry: Inaugural Lecture Delivered in the University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, on 21 May 1975.S. I. M. Du Plessis - 1975 - University of Natal Press.
  32. The Enlightenment in Bohemia: Religion, Morality and Multiculturalism. [REVIEW]V. Èapská - 2012 - Acta Comeniana 26:238.
  33. Jefferson's Wall and the Question of Religion.Lois M. Eveleth - unknown
    Defining religion as morality, Thomas Jefferson considered religion essential for the unity of the United States. His casual wall metaphor is not representative of his thinking and, therefore, should not be a basis for constitutional interpretation.
  34. Are the Gods Apolitical?E. M. Fales - 1999 - Philo 2 (1):21-31.
    The increasingly strident debate in the United States over the role of religion in public policy raises the general questions whether the United States is a liberal democracy and whether it should be; but also the theoretical question---addressed here---whether it is legitimate for citizens in a liberal democracy to offer religious convictions as grounds for policy. The historically most prominent reason given for the exclusion of religious grounds is that the injection of religion into policy is divisive and potentially destructive (...)
  35. Tolerance, Civility, and Cognitive Development.Andrew Fiala - unknown
    Page 21-36, Religion in Schools: Negotiating the New Commons by Michael D. Waggoner, 2013, reproduced by permission of Rowman & Littlefield All rights reserved. Please contact the publisher for permission to copy, distribute or reprint.
  36. Against Religion, Wars, and States: The Case for Enlightenment Atheism, Just War Pacifism, and Liberal-Democratic Anarchism.Andrew Fiala - 2013 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Andrew Fiala's Against Religion, Wars, and States: The Case for Enlightenment Atheism, Just War Pacifism, and Liberal-Democratic Anarchism argues that we need to overcome the idea of the nation-state and look toward global justice, that we need to develop a more critical stance toward religion while embracing enlightened humanism and natural science, and that we need to look beyond violent solutions to social problems in order to build world peace.
  37. Gregory Shaw, Theurgy and the Soul: The Neoplatonism of Iamblichus. (Hermeneutics: Studies in the History of Religions.) University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995. Pp. Xi, 268; Diagrams and Black-and-White Figures. $45. [REVIEW]John F. Finamore - 1998 - Speculum 73 (3):894-896.
  38. The Philosophy of Nothing-But. A Study in Modern Intolerance.John M. Fletcher - 1930 - Hibbert Journal 29:239.
  39. Religious Diversity in Muslim-Majority States in Southeast Asia: Areas of Toleration and ConflictEdited by Bernhard Platzdasch and Johan Saravanamuttu.Kevin W. Fogg - forthcoming - Journal of Islamic Studies:etv090.
  40. De la Sobriedad Ética a la Esperanza Religiosa.Manuel Fraijó - 1994 - Isegoría 10:65-84.
  41. Anne Winston-Allen, Convent Chronicles: Women Writing About Women and Reform in the Late Middle Ages. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2004. Pp. Xviii, 345; 10 Black-and-White Figures and 1 Map. [REVIEW]Alison Frazier - 2006 - Speculum 81 (3):937-939.
  42. Toleration as Recognition.Anna Elisabetta Galeotti - 2002 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this 2002 book, Anna Elisabetta Galeotti examines the most intractable problems which toleration encounters and argues that what is really at stake is not religious or moral disagreement but the unequal status of different social groups. Liberal theories of toleration fail to grasp this and consequently come up with normative solutions that are inadequate when confronted with controversial cases. Galeotti proposes, as an alternative, toleration as recognition, which addresses the problem of according equal respect to groups as well as (...)
  43. Review Essay: Autonomy, Accommodation, and Tolerance: Three Encounters with Diversity.W. A. Galston - 2005 - Political Theory 33 (4):582-588.
  44. The Meaning of Religious Freedom: Modern Politics and the Democratic Resolution.Franklin I. Gamwell - 1995 - State University of New York Press.
    This is the most thorough philosophical analysis available of the principle of religious freedom. It draws on the thought of philosophers and political theorists (Rawls, Habermas, Murray, Rorty, Greenawalt, and Mead) rather than on the framers of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
  45. "Cuius Regio, Illius Opinio": Considerations on the Present Crisis of the Tolerance Idea.H. Gomperz - 1936 - International Journal of Ethics 46 (3):292-307.
  46. "Cuius Regio, Illius Opinio": Considerations on the Present Crisis of the Tolerance Idea.H. Gomperz - 1935 - Ethics 46 (3):292.
  47. The Will to Believe": James's Defense of Religious Intolerance.Jeffrey Gordon - 1993 - Southwest Philosophical Studies 15:28.
  48. Tolérance Et Intolérance de la Raison À l''ge des Lumières : La Politique au Rouet.Nicolas Grimaldi - 2000 - Archives de Philosophie du Droit 44:243-272.
    Qu'est-ce que les Lumières? Comment les mêmes exigences de la raison peuvent-elles inspirer à la fois Voltaire et Robespierre? Comment a-t-on pu si véhémentement critiquer la religion au nom de la raison, et instituer trente ans après une religion de la raison? Comment la raison a-t-elle pu en 1763 inspirer à Voltaire son Traité de la tolérance et justifier en 1793 l'intolérance de la loi des suspects? S'agit-il de circonstances malheureuses, de déviations? Ou n'avons-nous pas plutôt affaire à une aussi (...)
  49. Remarks on Erhard Denninger's Triad of Diversity, Security, and Solidarity.Jurgen Habermas - 2000 - Constellations 7 (4):522-528.
  50. A Divinely Tolerant Political Ethics.Joshua M. Hall - 2016 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 20 (2):327-348.
    Marcus Aurelius’s Meditations constitutes an important source and subject for Michel Foucault’s 1981 lectures at the Collège de France, translated into English as Hermeneutics of the Subject. One recurring theme in these lectures is the deployment by Hellenistic/Roman philosophers such as Aurelius of the practice and figure of dance. Inspired by this discussion, the present essay offers a close reading of dance in the Meditations, followed by a survey of the secondary literature on this subject. Overall, I will attempt to (...)
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