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Toleration

Edited by Andrew Jason Cohen (Georgia State University, Georgetown University)
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Summary There are four philosophical issues surrounding toleration: (1) What is it? (2) What does it require? (3) When is it required? and (4) Why is it of value?  The first two are conceptual questions and often--perhaps entirely, in contemporary work--conflated.  It is now assumed that whatever its complete definition, toleration requires non-interference.  That was not always the case.  The third question is of paramount importance in normative political work.  Disagreements about how to answer this question divide liberals and other moral and political thinkers into different camps.  The fourth question seems to many today to be unnecessary since everyone proclaims to think toleration important.  There are good arguments that defenses of toleration are still needed; historically, of course, they were extremely important. 
Key works Historically, the most important figures discussing toleration are, arguably: Saint Augustine (Letters), Baruch Spinoza (Tractatus Theologico-Politicus), Pierre Bayle (A Philosophical Commentary), John Locke (Letters Concerning Toleration), and John Stuart Mill (On Liberty).  For a recent conceptual analysis of toleration, see Cohen 2004. For a collection with a good indication of various recent debates, see Williams & Waldron 2008.
Introductions Rainer Forst, Toleration
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Subcategories:See also:History/traditions: Toleration
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  1. Robert Audi (1989). The Separation of Church and State and the Obligations of Citizenship. Philosophy and Public Affairs 18 (3):259-296.
  2. Veit Bader (2003). Taking Religious Pluralism Seriously. Arguing for an Institutional Turn. Introduction. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 6 (1):3-22.
    Discussions of the relations between religions, society, politics, and the state in recent political philosophy are characterized, firstly, by a strong US American bias focusing on limitations of religious arguments in public debate. Even if the restriction or radical exclusion of religious reasons from public debate has recently been extensively criticized, secularist interpretations of liberal-democratic constitutions still prevail. Here it is argued that both strong secularism and weak or second order secularism are counterproductive for many reasons. Secondly, separationist interpretations of (...)
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  3. Timothy B. Baker & Stephen T. Tiffany (1985). Morphine Tolerance as Habituation. Psychological Review 92 (1):78-108.
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  4. Peter Balint (2017). Respecting Toleration: Traditional Liberalism and Contemporary Diversity. Oxford University Press UK.
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  5. Matteo Bonotti (2016). Review Of: Brian Leiter, Why Tolerate Religion? [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (3):797-799.
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  6. John E. Boodin (1908). Philosophical Tolerance. A Winter Revery. The Monist 18 (2):298-306.
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  7. Paul Cliteur (2010). The Secular Outlook: In Defense of Moral and Political Secularism. Wiley-Blackwell.
    _The Secular Outlook: In Defense of Moral and Political Secularism_ shows how people can live together and overcome the challenge of religious terrorism by adopting a "secular outlook" on life and politics. Shows how secularism can answer the problem of religious terrorism Provides new perspectives on how religious minorities can be integrated into liberal democracies Reveals how secularism has gained a new political and moral significance. Also examines such topics as atheism, religious criticism and free speech.
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  8. Charles Devellennes (forthcoming). Atheism, Secularism and Toleration: Towards a Political Atheology. Contemporary Political Theory.
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  9. G. I. A. D. Draper (1966). Religious Freedom and International Law. New Blackfriars 48 (558):79-86.
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  10. S. I. M. Du Plessis (1975). Dialogue and Bigotry: Inaugural Lecture Delivered in the University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, on 21 May 1975. University of Natal Press.
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  11. E. M. Fales (1999). Are the Gods Apolitical? Philo 2 (1):21-31.
    The increasingly strident debate in the United States over the role of religion in public policy raises the general questions whether the United States is a liberal democracy and whether it should be; but also the theoretical question---addressed here---whether it is legitimate for citizens in a liberal democracy to offer religious convictions as grounds for policy. The historically most prominent reason given for the exclusion of religious grounds is that the injection of religion into policy is divisive and potentially destructive (...)
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  12. Andrew Fiala, Tolerance, Civility, and Cognitive Development.
    Page 21-36, Religion in Schools: Negotiating the New Commons by Michael D. Waggoner, 2013, reproduced by permission of Rowman & Littlefield https://rowman.com/ISBN/9781475801613/Religion-in-the-Public-Schools-Negotiating-the-New-Commons. All rights reserved. Please contact the publisher for permission to copy, distribute or reprint.
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  13. Kevin W. Fogg (forthcoming). Religious Diversity in Muslim-Majority States in Southeast Asia: Areas of Toleration and ConflictEdited by Bernhard Platzdasch and Johan Saravanamuttu. Journal of Islamic Studies:etv090.
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  14. Anna Elisabetta Galeotti (2002). Toleration as Recognition. Cambridge University Press.
    In this 2002 book, Anna Elisabetta Galeotti examines the most intractable problems which toleration encounters and argues that what is really at stake is not religious or moral disagreement but the unequal status of different social groups. Liberal theories of toleration fail to grasp this and consequently come up with normative solutions that are inadequate when confronted with controversial cases. Galeotti proposes, as an alternative, toleration as recognition, which addresses the problem of according equal respect to groups as well as (...)
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  15. W. A. Galston (2005). Review Essay: Autonomy, Accommodation, and Tolerance: Three Encounters with Diversity. Political Theory 33 (4):582-588.
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  16. H. Gomperz (1936). "Cuius Regio, Illius Opinio": Considerations on the Present Crisis of the Tolerance Idea. Ethics 46 (3):292.
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  17. H. Gomperz (1936). "Cuius Regio, Illius Opinio": Considerations on the Present Crisis of the Tolerance Idea. International Journal of Ethics 46 (3):292-307.
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  18. Nicolas Grimaldi (2000). Tolérance Et Intolérance de la Raison À l''ge des Lumières : La Politique au Rouet. Archives de Philosophie du Droit 44:243-272.
    Qu'est-ce que les Lumières? Comment les mêmes exigences de la raison peuvent-elles inspirer à la fois Voltaire et Robespierre? Comment a-t-on pu si véhémentement critiquer la religion au nom de la raison, et instituer trente ans après une religion de la raison? Comment la raison a-t-elle pu en 1763 inspirer à Voltaire son Traité de la tolérance et justifier en 1793 l'intolérance de la loi des suspects? S'agit-il de circonstances malheureuses, de déviations? Ou n'avons-nous pas plutôt affaire à une aussi (...)
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  19. Joshua M. Hall (2016). A Divinely Tolerant Political Ethics. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 20 (2):327-348.
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  20. Thomas K. Hearn (1970). On Tolerance. Southern Journal of Philosophy 8 (2-3):223-231.
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  21. T. Hinton (2001). Sandel on Tolerance. Analysis 61 (4):327-333.
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  22. Ramin Jahanbegloo (2007). The Clash of Intolerances. Har-Anand Publications.
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  23. H. A. L. & Joseph L. Blau (1950). Cornerstones of Religious Freedom in America. Journal of Philosophy 47 (17):504.
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  24. Ian Linden & Thomas Thorp (2016). Religious Conflicts and Peace Building in Nigeria. Journal of Religion and Violence 4 (1):85-100.
    Historical analysis confirms the home-grown character of Nigeria’s conflicts and the complexity of their peaceful resolution. Religious leaders have traditionally contested political space with other actors and continue to do so. But the religiosity of popular culture is such that Nigerian religious leaders can make a substantive contribution to peace building and countering religious extremism if given the time, space and tools to do so. Elections have been critical moments in the evolution of religious tensions and conflicts owing to the (...)
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  25. Loobuyck (2015). Institutional Religious Accommodation in the US and Europe. Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy 44 (3):240-251.
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  26. Dallas Michelbacher (2012). The Deportation of Ethnic Minorities to the USSR and the Romanian National Idea. History of Communism in Europe 3:43-57.
    The article examines the general policies of the Romanian state in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War toward the German and Hungarian minority. The abuses of the human rights of ethnic minorities from 1944 until 1947 were some of the worst in the history of Romania. The massacres and deportations of German and Hungarian civilians remain a black mark on Romanian society. These actions were in keeping with the ideologicalpronouncements of Romanian nationalists from the interwar period. The rhetoric (...)
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  27. Jan-Werner Müller (2005). Toleration in Contexts. European Journal of Political Theory 4 (4):467-470.
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  28. Sven Nilson & Arthur Kenyon Rogers (1935). Ethics and Moral Tolerance. Philosophical Review 44 (5):490.
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  29. Adnan Prekic (2016). The Religious Community and the Communist Regime in the Case of Montenegro, 1945-1955. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 15 (44):111-136.
    The paper analyses the relations of the Communist authorities with religious communities in Montenegro in the period 1945 - 1955. The paper separately problematises specific features of each confessional community in Montenegro, and establishes a typology of the expansion of regime control. The Communist Party did not use violent methods in the process of marginalising the religious community, but new authorities in Montenegro managed to marginalise its influence. By taking over the executive authority in the state, the Party began the (...)
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  30. Richard L. Regosin (1978). Sources and Resources: The "Pretexts" of Originality in Montaigne's Essais. Substance 6 (21):103.
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  31. P. Ricour (1996). To Think Tolerance. Diogenes 44 (176):25-26.
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  32. A. K. Rogers (1929). The Limits of Moral Tolerance. Ethics 39 (3):291.
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  33. A. K. Rogers (1929). The Limits of Moral Tolerance. International Journal of Ethics 39 (3):291-305.
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  34. P. V. Rooney (1995). Literalism and Tolerance. New Blackfriars 76 (899):542-545.
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  35. H. W. S. & Arthur Kenyon Rogers (1934). Ethics and Moral Tolerance. Journal of Philosophy 31 (6):165.
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  36. George Sarton (1926). Sur la Tolerance Intellectuelle. Isis 8 (2):241-253.
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  37. Thomas Jackson Singleton, Democratic Virtues: Solidarity, Tolerance, and Reflective Obedience.
    To defend itself, a liberal democracy should promote three virtues: solidarity, tolerance, and reflective obedience. Each helps avoid the conditions Plato fears. Solidarity builds a sense of community to overcome factionalism. Tolerance allows one to determine what should be prohibited and what should be allowed. Reflective obedience provides the grounds for obeying the law for reasons other than prudence or coincidence while preserving individuality by outlining a mechanism of resisting on the grounds of conscience.
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  38. Karen Stenner (2005). The Authoritarian Dynamic. Cambridge University Press.
    What is the basis for intolerance? This book addresses that question by developing a universal theory about what causes intolerance of difference in general, which includes racism, political intolerance, moral intolerance and punitiveness. It demonstrates that all these seemingly disparate attitudes are principally caused by just two factors: individuals' innate psychological predispositions to intolerance interacting with changing conditions of societal threat. The threatening conditions, resonant particularly in the present political climate, that exacerbate authoritarian attitudes include national economic downturn, rapidly rising (...)
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  39. Devin Stewart & Sherman A. Jackson (2004). On the Boundaries of Theological Tolerance in Islam: Abū Ḥāmid Al-Ghazālī's Fayṣal Al-TafriqaOn the Boundaries of Theological Tolerance in Islam: Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali's Faysal Al-Tafriqa. Journal of the American Oriental Society 124 (1):113.
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  40. T. Street (2005). Review: On the Boundaries of Theological Tolerance in Islam: Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali's Faysal Al-Tafriqa. [REVIEW] Journal of Islamic Studies 16 (2):211-213.
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  41. L. Thomassen (2006). The Inclusion of the Other?: Habermas and the Paradox of Tolerance. Political Theory 34 (4):439-462.
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  42. William Tronzo (2016). Nino Zchomelidse,Art, Ritual, and Civic Identity in Medieval Southern Italy, University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2014. Pp. Xix, 288; 149 Black-and-White and 61 Color Figures. $84.95. ISBN: 978-0-271-05973-0. [REVIEW] Speculum 91 (1):274-276.
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  43. René van Woudenberg (2015). An Epistemic Argument for Tolerance. International Journal of Philosophy and Theology 76 (5):428-435.
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  44. Nelson M. Vaz (2016). Self-Tolerance Revisited. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 55:128-132.
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  45. Wein Sheldon, Biases, Bumps, Nudges, Query Lists, and Zero Tolerance Policies.
    Zero tolerance policies are often mistakenly thought to be the best way to deal with pressing social problems. However, most arguments for zero tolerance policies are either based on inaccurate premises or they commit the zero tolerance fallacy. This paper explores ways that we might counteract the bias in favor of zero tolerance policies by adding a query list to the choice architecture.
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  46. Paul J. Weithman (1991). The Separation of Church and State: Some Questions for Professor Audi. Philosophy and Public Affairs 20 (1):52-65.
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  47. K. Y. Yu, C. Sun, Y. Chen, Y. Liu, H. Wang, M. A. Kirk, M. Li & X. Zhang (2013). Superior Tolerance of Ag/Ni Multilayers Against Kr Ion Irradiation: Anin Situstudy. Philosophical Magazine 93 (26):3547-3562.
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The Concept of Toleration
  1. Voltaire . (2011). A Pocket Philosophical Dictionary. Oxford University Press UK.
    'What can you say to a man who tells you he prefers obeying God rather than men, and that as a result he's certain he'll go to heaven if he cuts your throat?'Voltaire's Pocket Philosophical Dictionary, first published in 1764, is a major work of the European Enlightenment. It is also a highly entertaining book: this is no 'dictionary' in the ordinary sense, nor does it treat 'philosophy' in the modern meaning of the term. It consists of a sequence of (...)
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  2. Joseph Agassi, Let a Thousand Flowers Bloom: Popper's Popular Critics.
    Two suggestions are at the back of the present talk. First, toleration is obligatory, not criticism. So do not try to make people critically-minded: do not force them in any way to try to offer or accept criticism, to learn to participate effectively in the game of critical discussion. If they refuse, then they are within their right. Also, they will easily ad vance excuses for their refusal; admittedly some of these are unreasonable, but not all. Instead of trying to (...)
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  3. A. Alshoala (1994). Islam and the Concept of Tolerance and Coexistence. Journal of Dharma 19 (4):350-357.
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