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Summary This category covers the main topics that have been the focus of the free will debate and over which compatibilists and determinists have argued. Topics like determinism and God's foreknowledge have been central to the debate, insofar as they raise parallel (apparent) challenges to our capacity to exercise free will. Moral responsibility is held by many to be at stake in the free will debate and it too been at the focus of attention. Fatalism, especially logical fatalism, is no longer central but there is a rich literature from earlier centuries much of which addressed issues related to those which remain central. Debate over whether free will requires alternative possibilities has always been lively: the advent of Frankfurt-style cases has given this debate new life for the past 4 decades.
Key works For a lively and penetrating selection of recent work on foreknowledge, see Fischer 1989Sobel 1998 is a central text on a range of problems to do with fatalims and determinism. Earman 1993 contains important work on determinism.Debate over alternative possibilities was revitalized by Frankfurt 1969Widerker & McKenna 2003 collects representative papers from among the very many on this increasingly complex debate.
Introductions Zagzebski 2002;Rice 2008; Earman 2004; Fischer 2002
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  1. Rogers Albritton (2003). Freedom of Will and Freedom of Action. In Gary Watson (ed.), Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association. Oxford University Press. pp. 239-251.
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  2. John Anderson (1928). Determinism and Ethics. Australasian Journal of Psychology and Philosophy 6 (4):241-255.
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  3. F. T. Arecchi (2000). Determinismo E Complessitáa.
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  4. J. P. Atreya (1974). Freedom and Determinism in Indian Thought. Proceedings of the XVth World Congress of Philosophy 4:289-291.
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  5. Robert Audi (1989). Practical Reasoning. Routledge.
    Practical Reasoning and Ethical Decision presents an account of practical reasoning as a process that can explain action, connect reasoning with intention, ...
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  6. M. Babik (2011). The Secret Future of Evil Past. Political Theory 39 (6):802-807.
  7. Bernard Baertschi & Alexandre Mauron (2011). Genetic Determinism, Neuronal Determinism, and Determinism Tout Court. In Judy Illes & Barbara J. Sahakian (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 151.
    This article analyses neuronal determinism and mentions that at first sight it appears to be a type of qualified determinism. Neurodeterminism is better conceived as determinism tout court when it is applied to human beings. It differs importantly from genetic determinism, together the two views that are often regarded as similar in form if not in content. Moreover, the article examines the question of genetic determinism, because it is a paradigm of qualified determinism. It then explains the meaning of determinism (...)
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  8. Deane-Peter Baker (2005). Divine Foreknowledge – so What? Heythrop Journal 46 (1):60–65.
  9. H. C. Baldry (1963). Tilman Krischer: Das Problem der trilogischen Komposition und die dramaturgische Entwicklung der attischen Tragödie. (Frankfurt diss.) Pp. 125. Frankfurt: privately printed, 1960 (obtainable from Buchhandlung am Goethehaus, Am Salzhaus 3, Frankfurt a. M.). Paper, DM. 5. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 13 (01):110-.
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  10. Seth Barber (1995). Persons the Strawsonian Tradition.
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  11. Harry H. Bash (1964). Determinism and Avoidability in Sociohistorical Analysis. Ethics 74 (3):186-200.
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  12. Robert W. Beard (1967). James and the Rationality of Determinism. Journal of the History of Philosophy 5 (2):149-156.
  13. Lawrence C. Becker (1972). Foreknowledge and Predestination. Mind 81 (321):138-141.
  14. Nuel Belnap & Michael Perloff (1992). The Way of the Agent. Studia Logica 51 (3-4):463 - 484.
    The conditional,if an agent did something, then the agent could have done otherwise, is analyzed usingstit theory, which is a logic of seeing to it that based on agents making choices in the context of branching time. The truth of the conditional is found to be a subtle matter that depends on how it is interpreted (e.g., on what otherwise refers to, and on the difference between could and might) and also on whether or not there are busy choosers that (...)
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  15. Jonathan Bennett (1963). The Status of Determinism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 14 (54):106-119.
  16. Paul Benson (1990). The Moral Importance of Free Action. Southern Journal of Philosophy 28 (1):1-18.
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  17. Joseph Berkovitz (2002). On Causal Inference in Determinism and Indeterminism. In Harald Atmanspacher & Robert C. Bishop (eds.), Between Chance and Choice: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Determinism. Thorverton Uk: Imprint Academic. pp. 237--278.
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  18. Mark Bernstein (1988). Justification and Determinism - An Exchange. The Monist 71 (3):358-364.
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  19. Bernard Berofsky (2015). IX. Determinism Defined. In Determinism. Princeton University Press. pp. 268-270.
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  20. Bernard Berofsky (2015). XI. Determinism and Falsification. In Determinism. Princeton University Press. pp. 282-290.
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  21. L. S. Bevington (1880). Determinism and Duty. Mind 5 (17):30-45.
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  22. William L. Bewley, Douglas L. Nelson & W. J. Brogden (1968). Single, Alternate, and Successive Practice in the Acquisition of Two and Three Serial Lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (3p1):376.
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  23. Rajeev Bhargava (1992). Determinism and Social Science. In Jayant Vishnu Narlikar, Indu Banga & Chhanda Gupta (eds.), Philosophy of Science: Perspectives From Natural and Social Sciences. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. pp. 40--151.
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  24. Brand Blanshard (1966). Reflections on Economic Determinism. Journal of Philosophy 63 (7):169-178.
  25. Brand Blanshard (1958). The Case for Determinism. In Sidney Hook (ed.), Determinism and Freedom in the Age of Modern Science. Collier-Macmillan. pp. 19--30.
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  26. Nico Den Bok (1993). Human and Divine Freedom in the Theology of Bernard of Clairvaux: A Systematic Analysis. Bijdragen 54 (3):271-295.
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  27. Richard Boyd (1972). Determinism, Laws, and Predictability in Principle. Philosophy of Science 39 (4):431-450.
    This paper examines commonly offered arguments to show that human behavior is not deterministic because it is not predictable. These arguments turn out to rest on the assumption that deterministic systems must be governed by deterministic laws, and that these give rise to predictability "in principle" of determined events. A positive account of determinism is advanced and it is shown that neither of these assumptions is true. The relation between determinism, laws, and prediction in practice is discussed as a question (...)
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  28. M. C. Bradley (1968). In Defence of Free Will, with Other Philosophical Essays. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophy 65 (11):341-350.
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  29. R. D. Bradley (1962). Determinism or Indeterminism in Microphysics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 13 (51):193-215.
  30. Dale Eric Brant (1996). Freedom, Infallibility and the Fixity of the Past. Dissertation, University of California, Irvine
    A study of the medieval foreknowledge problem: an apparent conflict between God's universal infallibility and human freedom. To say that God is universally infallible is to say that for every proposition, God's believing that proposition implies that it is true. Let's say that the belief implies its object. So God's belief yesterday that Jones will murder her neighbor today implies that she will murder him. Furthermore, the past is fixed, rendering propositions about the past true or false is impossible, so (...)
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  31. Braybrooke David (2006). 7. Through the Free-Standing Studies and Their Aggregation in a Grand Program, Analytical Political Philosophy Can Deal with Evil. In David Braybrooke (ed.), Analytical Political Philosophy: From Discourse, Edification. University of Toronto Press. pp. 149-172.
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  32. C. D. Broad (1937). The Philosophical Implications of Foreknowledge. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 16 (1):177 - 209.
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  33. Sarah Broadie (2001). From Necessity to Fate: A Fallacy. [REVIEW] Journal of Ethics 5 (1):21-37.
    Though clearly fallacious, the inference from determinism to fatalism (the ``Lazy Argument'''') has appealed to such minds as Aristotle and his disciple, Alexander of Aphrodisias. It is argued here (1) that determinism does entail a rather similar position, dubbed ``futilism''''; and (2) that distinctively Aristotelian determinism entails fatalism for any event to which it applies. The concept of ``fate'''' is examined along the way.
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  34. Jason W. Brown (1996). Time, Will, and Mental Process.
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  35. Anthony Brueckner & Christopher T. Buford (2011). Bailey on Incompatibilism and the “No Past Objection”. Logos and Episteme 2 (4):613-617.
    In ”Incompatibilism and the Past,” Andrew Bailey engages in a thorough investigation of what he calls the "No Past Objection" to arguments for incompatibilism.This is an objection that stems from the work of Joseph Keim Campbell and that has generated an Interesting literature. Bailey ends by offering his own answer to the No Past Objection by giving his own argument for incompatibilism, an argument that he claims to be immune to the objection. We have some observations to make regarding what (...)
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  36. I. A. Bunting (1969). The Refutation of Determinism. Philosophical Studies 18:288-291.
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  37. Charles Theodore Burnett (1908). A Fundamental Test for Determinism. Ethics 18 (2):220.
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  38. Marc Burock, Determinism and Causation Examples.
    In studying causation, many examples are presented assuming that determinism holds in the world of the example such as the notoriously difficult to resolve preemptive and preventative situations. We show that for deterministic examples that this conditional preemptive situation is either (i)vacuously true, (ii)contradictory, or (iii) implies indeterminism. Along the way we formulate a specific block space-time definition of determinism, and suggest that commonsense causation theories need focus on unphysical quantities and indeterminism.
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  39. Sarah Buss (1989). The Conditions of Free Agency. Dissertation, Yale University
    In this essay I attempt to identify the conditions of morally responsible action; and from the start, I conceive morally responsible action as free action. Some philosophers argue that the causal origins of an act are irrelevant to whether it is a free act; others believe that free acts cannot be causally determined; and still others believe that a free act is an act from which the agent must be capable of refraining. I defend a view at odds with each (...)
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  40. Sarah Buss & Lee Overton (eds.) (2002). On Frankfurt's Explanation of Respect for People. MIT Press.
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  41. M. C. (1956). The Artist as Creator: An Essay of Human Freedom. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 10 (1):181-181.
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  42. C. A. Campbell (1962). Moral Libertarianism: A Reply to Mr. Franklin. Philosophical Quarterly 12 (49):337-347.
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  43. J. K. Campbell (2007). Free Will and the Necessity of the Past. Analysis 67 (2):105-111.
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  44. Joseph Michael Campbell (1992). The Logic of Freedom. Dissertation, The University of Arizona
    I take it for granted that free will is a central philosophical notion. Still, throughout Western history certain philosophers have put forth arguments which claim that no person has, or could have, free will. These arguments may be grouped into three different types. First, there are metalogical arguments which argue that since all propositions are either true or false, and since propositions do not change their truth-values, no person ever has free will. Second, there are divination arguments which claim that (...)
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  45. Gregg D. Caruso (2014). Just Deserts: The Dark Side of Moral Responsibility. Southwest Philosophy Review 30 (1):27-38.
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  46. Tobias Chapman (1972). On a New Escape From Logical Determinism. Mind 81 (324):597-599.
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  47. Mecca Chiesa (2003). Implications of Determinism. In Kennon A. Lattal (ed.), Behavior Theory and Philosophy. Springer. pp. 243--258.
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  48. Joshua Cohen (1997). The Arc of the Moral Universe. Philosophy and Public Affairs 26 (2):91-134.
  49. C. Colliex, B. Jouffrey & D. Taupin (1969). On Some Contrasts Due to Defects Close to a Free Surface. Philosophical Magazine 19 (160):673-687.
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  50. Paul Copan (1996). Making Sense of Your Freedom. Review of Metaphysics 49 (3):651-653.
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