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  1. The Lash is Mightier Than the Sword1: Torture and Citizenry in Medieval Muslim Jurisprudence.Rumee Ahmed - 2011 - Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (4):606-612.
    Medieval Muslim scholars unequivocally prohibited the torture of prisoners of war out of a concern for maintaining theoretical constructs about the boundaries of the Muslim and non-Muslim communities. Muslim scholars worried that the torturing prisoners of war would compromise values and ideals predicated on such constructs, and that the demands of citizenship trumped any benefit to the Muslim community that might accrue from torture.
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  2. Ticking Time-Bombs and Torture1.Fritz Allhoff - 2014 - In Andrew I. Cohen & Christopher H. Wellman (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Applied Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 22--247.
    The general consensus among philosophers is that the use of torture is never justified. In Terrorism, Ticking Time-Bombs, and Torture, Fritz Allhoff demonstrates the weakness of the case against torture; while allowing that torture constitutes a moral wrong, he nevertheless argues that, in exceptional cases, it represents the lesser of two evils. Allhoff does not take this position lightly. He begins by examining the way terrorism challenges traditional norms, discussing the morality of various practices of torture, and critically exploring the (...)
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  3. Doctors and Torture.Fritz Allhoff - 2012 - Hastings Center Report 42 (1):8.
    This letter to the editor discusses Chiara Lepora and Joseph Millum's argument in "The Tortured Patient: A Medical Dilemma" and supports their conclusion (that physicians may justifiably be complicit in torture) while questioning the way in which they arrive at that conclusion.
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  4. Terrorism, Ticking Time-Bombs, and Torture: A Philosophical Analysis.Fritz Allhoff - 2012 - University of Chicago Press.
    In Terrorism, Ticking Time-Bombs, and Torture, Fritz Allhoff demonstrates the weakness of the case against torture; while allowing that torture constitutes a moral wrong, he nevertheless argues that, in exceptional cases, it represents the ...
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  5. A Defense of Torture.Fritz Allhoff - 2005 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (2):243-264.
    In this paper, I argue for the permissibility of torture in idealized cases by application of separation of cases: if torture is permissible given any of the dominant moral theories (and if one of those is correct), then torture is permissible simpliciter and I can discharge the tricky business of trying to adjudicate among conflicting moral views. To be sure, torture is not permissible on all the dominant moral theories as at least Kantianism will prove especially recalcitrant to granting moral (...)
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  6. Terrorism and Torture.Fritz Allhoff - 2005 - In Timothy Shanahan (ed.), International Journal of Applied Philosophy. Open Court. pp. 121-134.
    After the events of 9/11, the concept of torture has emerged as one that is both pertinent and provoking. National polls have shown that some Americans support torture in some situations, though the majority still stand opposed. Torture has not received a tremendous amount of discussion in the philosophical literature, though I suspect that the leftward slant of academia would, for the most part, ensure limited support for torture. In this paper, I would like to first discuss why torture is (...)
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  7. Terrorism and Torture.Fritz Allhoff - 2003 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 17 (1):121-134.
    This paper investigates the moral permissibility of torture. After briefly considering some empirical evidence, it discusses the conflict between deontological and consequentialist approaches to torture. It is argued that, even if we are to take rights seriously, torture should at least be allowed if some conditions are satisfied. Finally, the paper discusses what those conditions should be and what sorts of torture are morally permissible.
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  8. On the Uses and Disadvantages of the Ticking Bomb Case for Life.Matthew C. Altman - 2012 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 26 (1):19-28.
    The ticking bomb case is meant to challenge absolute prohibitions on the use of torture. In “Imaginary Cases,” Michael Davis attempts to show that such cases can only be legitimately employed within certain limited parameters. In this paper, I explain how the ticking bomb case, suitably revised, does not run afoul of Davis’s prohibition on impossible content. The fact that torture could elicit the necessary information is enough; we need not stipulate a guaranteed result. I also defend philosophers’ use of (...)
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  9. The Caveman and the Bomb.Anatole Anton - 1990 - Social Philosophy Today 3:425-426.
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  10. Animal Chauvinism, Plant-Regarding Ethics and the Torture of Trees.J. L. Arbor - 1986 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 64 (3):335 – 339.
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  11. A Utilitarian Argument Against Torture Interrogation of Terrorists.Jean Maria Arrigo - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (3):543-572.
    Following the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, much support for torture interrogation of terrorists has emerged in the public forum, largely based on the “ticking bomb” scenario. Although deontological and virtue ethics provide incisive arguments against torture, they do not speak directly to scientists and government officials responsible for national security in a utilitarian framework. Drawing from criminology, organizational theory, social psychology, the historical record, and my interviews with military professionals, I assess the potential of an official (...)
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  12. The “Good” Psychologist, “Good” Torture, and “Good” Reputation—Response to O’Donohue, Snipes, Dalto, Soto, Maragakis, and Im “The Ethics of Enhanced Interrogations and Torture”.Jean Maria Arrigo, David DeBatto, Lawrence Rockwood & Timothy G. Mawe - 2015 - Ethics and Behavior 25 (5):361-372.
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  13. On Torture, or Cruel, Inhuman, and Degrading Treatment.Talal Asad - 1996 - Social Research 63.
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  14. Inszenierte Bedrohung: Folter im US-amerikanischen Kriegsfilm 1979-2009.Maja Bächler - 2012 - Frankfurt/New York: Campus.
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  15. Torture: When the Unthinkable is Morally Permissible.Mirko Bagaric & Julie Clarke - 2007 - State University of New York Press.
    Argues that there are moral grounds to use torture where the lives of the innocent are at stake.
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  16. The $400 Bomb.Edward Barnes - 1993 - In Jonathan Westphal & Carl Avren Levenson (eds.), Time. Hackett Pub. Co..
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  17. The Kantian Case Against Torture.Peter Brian Barry - 2015 - Philosophy 90 (4):593-621.
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  18. Allhoff, Fritz. Terrorism, Ticking Time-Bombs, and Torture: A Philosophical Analysis. [REVIEW]Peter Brian Barry - 2013 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (3):675-676.
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  19. Interrogating the ‘Ticking Bomb Scenario’: Reassessing the Thought Experiment.Simon Beck & Stephen de Wijze - 2015 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (1):53-70.
    The aim of this paper is to re-evaluate the manner in which the Ticking Bomb Scenario (TBS), a thought experiment in philosophical enquiry, has been used in the discussion of the justifiability or otherwise of forward-looking interrogational torture (FLIT). The paper argues that criticisms commonly raised against the thought experiment are often inappropriate or irrelevant. A great many criticisms misunderstand the way in which thought experiments in general, and the TBS in particular, are supposed to work in philosophical (and for (...)
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  20. The Ethics of Torture-Lite.Ross W. Bellaby - 2015 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (2):177-190.
    Torture-lite has been advanced as a new form of interrogation that raises the prospect of offering a more ethical way of colleting the intelligence needed to protect the state. However, this paper will argue that there can be no such thing as torture-lite as this misunderstands what interrogational torture is in the first place. Interrogational torture is a form of behavioural modification that relies on breaking the individual and conditioning their responses. Torture-lite would never be able to create the self-betraying (...)
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  21. Torture and Dignity: An Essay on Moral Injury.J. M. Bernstein - 2015 - University of Chicago Press.
    In this unflinching look at the experience of suffering and one of its greatest manifestations—torture—J.M. Bernstein critiques the repressions of traditional moral theory, showing that our morals are not immutable ideals but fragile constructions that depend on our experience of suffering itself. Morals, Bernstein argues, not only guide our conduct but also express the depth of mutual dependence that we share as vulnerable and injurable individuals. Beginning with the attempts to abolish torture in the eighteenth century, and then sensitively examining (...)
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  22. Demokratische Körper: Die Abschaffung der Folter Und der Aufstand des Rechtsstaats.Jay Bernstein - 2013 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 61 (5-6):665-680.
    Moral modernity, including political modernity, is founded on the series of acts whereby, throughout Europe, torture was banned. Torture became the paradigm of moral injury, of what must never be done to an individual because it is intrinsically degrading and devaluing. The body of the torture victim is the meeting place of state and citizen: either the rule of law recognizes bodily autonomy as its own moral basis - broken laws standing for broken bodies - or the law becomes a (...)
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  23. How to Struggle Against Torture.E. S. Beshir - 1991 - Journal of Medical Ethics 17 (Suppl):62-63.
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  24. The Definition of Torture.Joseph Betz - 2006 - Social Philosophy Today 22:127-135.
    The conventional dictionary definition of a term is important to the citizen and soldier obeying laws and judging actions that might fall under the term. The “Convention Against Torture” is both binding U.S. law and gives a clear, conventional definition of torture. But the Bush Administration’s standards for interrogating foreign detainees, originating from the Attorney General’s office, failed to respect the prohibitions of torture in the Convention and two other important international human rights documents. I criticize these standards on seven (...)
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  25. Aquinas on Torture.Jordan Bishop - 2006 - New Blackfriars 87 (1009):229-237.
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  26. Empathy and Interrogation.Mavis Biss - 2014 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 28 (2):277-288.
    Against the background of not-so-distant debate regarding “enhanced” interrogation techniques used by the United States during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, which many understand to be torture, this essay explores the moral complexities of “ordinary” interrogation practices, those that are clearly not forms of torture. Based on analysis of the written reflections of two United States interrogators on the work they did during the Iraq war, I categorize the roles played by multiple modes of empathy within interrogation and argue (...)
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  27. Torture and its Apologists.Bob Brecher - 2014 - In Andrew I. Cohen & Christopher H. Wellman (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Applied Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 22--260.
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  28. The "Ticking Bomb": A Spurious Argument for Torture.Bob Brecher - 2012 - Torture: Asian and Global Perspectives 1 (1):30-38.
    The so-called ticking bomb is invoked by philosophers and lawyers trying to justify, on behalf of their political masters, the use of torture in extremis. I show that the scenario is spurious; and that the likely consequences of the use of interrogational torture in such cases are disastrous. Finally, I test the argument against a real case.
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  29. Why Torture is Wrong.Bob Brecher - 2012 - In Contemporary Debates on Terrorism. London: Routledge. pp. 159-165.
    Even people who think torture is justified in certain circumstances regard it - to say the least - as undesirable, however necessary they think it is. So I approach the issue by analysing the extreme case where people such as Dershowitz, Posner and Walzer think torture is justified, the so-called ticking bomb scenario. And since the justification offered is always consequentialist - no one thinks that torture is in any way “good in itself” – I confine myself to consequentialist arguments. (...)
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  30. Torture: A Touchstone for Global Social Justice.Bob Brecher - 2011 - In N. Smith & H. Widdows (ed.), Global Social Justice. London: Routledge. pp. 90-101.
    This chapter considers the wider significance of torture, addressing the manner in which it represents a touchstone for any universalistic morality, and arguing that it offers a means of refuting any moral relativism, something that ties in closely with my long-term theoretical work in metaethics (eg Getting What You Want? A Critique of Liberal Morality (Routledge: London and New York, 1998; and ongoing work around the ultimate justification of morality). Since torture consists in the erasure of a person on the (...)
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  31. Torture and the Ticking Bomb.Bob Brecher - 2008 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    This timely and passionate book is the first to address itself to Harvard Law Professor Alan Dershowitz’s controversial arguments for the limited use of interrogational torture and its legalisation. Argues that the respectability Dershowitz's arguments confer on the view that torture is a legitimate weapon in the war on terror needs urgently to be countered Takes on the advocates of torture on their own utilitarian grounds Timely and passionately written, in an accessible, jargon-free style Forms part of the provocative and (...)
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  32. Torture and the Ticking Bomb.Bob Brecher - 2007 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    This timely and passionate book is the first to address itself to Harvard Law Professor Alan Dershowitz’s controversial arguments for the limited use of interrogational torture and its legalisation. Argues that the respectability Dershowitz's arguments confer on the view that torture is a legitimate weapon in the war on terror needs urgently to be countered Takes on the advocates of torture on their own utilitarian grounds Timely and passionately written, in an accessible, jargon-free style Forms part of the provocative and (...)
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  33. Interrogation, Intelligence and Ill-Treatment: Lessons From Northern Ireland, 1971-72.Bob Brecher & B. Stuart S. Newbery, P. Sands - 2009 - Intelligence and National Security 24 (5):631-643.
    In 2008, Samantha Newbery, then a PhD student, discovered a hitherto confidential document: ‘Confidential: UK Eyes Only. Annex A: Intelligence gained from interrogations in Northern Ireland’ (DEFE 13/958, The National Archives (TNA)). It details the British Army’s notorious interrogations of IRA suspects that led to the eventual banning of the ‘five techniques’ that violated the UK’s international treaty obligation prohibiting the use of torture and ‘inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment’. Having decided that the document – Intelligence gained from should (...)
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  34. Torture.Vittorio Bufacchi - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  35. Torture, Terrorism and the State: A Refutation of the Ticking-Bomb Argument.Vittorio Bufacchi & Jean Maria Arrigo - 2006 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (3):355–373.
  36. Doctors and Torture: The Police Surgeon.S. H. Burges - 1980 - Journal of Medical Ethics 6 (3):120-123.
    Much has been written by many distinguished persons about the philosophical, religious and ethical considerations of doctors and their involvement with torture. What follows will not have the erudition or authority of the likes of St Augustine, Mahatma Gandi, Schopenhauer or Thomas Paine. It represents the views of a very ordinary person; a presumption defended by the submission that many very ordinary persons have been, and will be, instruments for effecting, assisting or condoning the physical or mental anguish of others. (...)
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  37. Stop and Frisk : Sex, Torture, Control.Paul Butler - 2011 - In Austin Sarat, Lawrence Douglas & Martha Merrill Umphrey (eds.), Law as Punishment/Law as Regulation. Stanford Law Books.
    This chapter explores the expressive meaning of stops and frisks, paying special attention to frisks—police touching of people who, in the eyes of the “law,” are innocent. It argues that stops and frisks can be constructed as a form of torture, the effect of which is the assertion of police dominance of the streets. Stops and frisks cause injuries similar to those of illegal forms of tortures, and have the same kinds of “benefits.” Stops and frisks blur the line between (...)
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  38. Torture, Necessity and Supreme Emergency: Law and Morality at the End of Law.Zachary R. Calo - unknown
    This paper employs Michael Walzer's concept of "Supreme Emergency" to address the permissibility of torture under conditions of necessity. It proposes moving beyond both utilitarian and deontological approaches to legal authority in order to understood necessity as a moral category. A full account of right action under conditions of necessity therefore demands taking account of the distinct yet cooperative function provided by legal and moral norms. A political official might therefore possess moral but not legal warrant to act in contravention (...)
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  39. Confronting Evils: Terrorism, Torture, Genocide.Claudia Card - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this contribution to philosophical ethics, Claudia Card revisits the theory of evil developed in her earlier book The Atrocity Paradigm, and expands it to consider collectively perpetrated and collectively suffered atrocities. Redefining evil as a secular concept and focusing on the inexcusability - rather than the culpability - of atrocities, Card examines the tension between responding to evils and preserving humanitarian values. This stimulating and often provocative book contends that understanding the evils in terrorism, torture and genocide enables us (...)
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  40. Ticking Bombs and Interrogations.Claudia Card - 2008 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 2 (1):1-15.
    Torture is like slavery (and unlike murder and genocide) in that it is not inconceivable that torture might be justifiable. But the circumstances that would make it tolerable are unrealistic in philosophically interesting ways. It is unrealistic to think we can predict when torture will be effective and containable; unwarranted to suppose that humane alternatives are impossible; disastrous to remove motivations to create alternatives; unacceptable to be satisfied with available evidence regarding suspects’ identity, knowledge of critical detail, ability to recall (...)
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  41. Torture in Ordinary Circumstances.Claudia Card - 2004 - In Peggy DesAutels & Margaret Urban Walker (eds.), Moral Psychology: Feminist Ethics and Social Theory. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 141.
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  42. The Atrocity Paradigm: A Theory of Evil.Claudia Card - 2002 - Oxford University Press.
    What distinguishes evils from ordinary wrongs? Is hatred a necessarily evil? Are some evils unforgivable? Are there evils we should tolerate? What can make evils hard to recognize? Are evils inevitable? How can we best respond to and live with evils? Claudia Card offers a secular theory of evil that responds to these questions and more. Evils, according to her theory, have two fundamental components. One component is reasonably foreseeable intolerable harm -- harm that makes a life indecent and impossible (...)
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  43. Torture Interrogation of Terrorists : A Theory of Exceptions (with Notes, Cautions, and Warnings).William D. Casebeer - 2005 - In Timothy Shanahan (ed.), Philosophy 9/11: Thinking About the War on Terrorism. Open Court.
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  44. Reflections on Torture?Sheila Cassidy - 1981 - New Blackfriars 62 (731):231-235.
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  45. Experiential Narratives of Rape and Torture.Diana Fritz Cates - 2010 - Journal of Religious Ethics 38 (1):43-66.
    Many Guatemalan women suffered extreme sexual violence during the latter half of the twentieth century. Learning of this violence can evoke hatred in persons who love and respect women—hatred for the men who perpetrated the violence and also for other men around the world who victimize women in this way. Hatred is a common response to a perceived evil, and it might in some cases be a fitting response, but it is important to subject one's emotions to critical moral reflection. (...)
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  46. An Overview of Political Torture in the Twentieth Century.Ruxandra Cesereanu - 2006 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 5 (14):120-143.
    The present essay focuses on political torture during the twentieth century. It takes a multidisciplinary approach, because it entails insights from history, politics, ideology, anthropology, psychology and literature. The aim of the present essay is to discuss the relation between "Classical" torture (in the past centuries) and "Modern" torture (in the twentieth century), analyzing the phenomena in a comparative perspective and paying attention to the hidden and unconscious motives behind historical facts. What I am interested in is the mechanism by (...)
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  47. Torture as an Evil: Response to Claudia Card, “Ticking Bombs and Interrogation”.Clare Chambers - 2008 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 2 (1):17-20.
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  48. The Torture Memos.Noam Chomsky - unknown
    The torture memos released by the White House elicited shock, indignation, and surprise. The shock and indignation are understandable -- particularly the testimony in the Senate Armed Services Committee report on Cheney-Rumsfeld desperation to find links between Iraq and al-Qaeda, links that were later concocted as justification for the invasion, facts irrelevant. Former Army psychiatrist Maj. Charles Burney testified that "a large part of the time we were focused on trying to establish a link between Al Qaeda and Iraq. The (...)
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  49. If You're Intending to Bomb a Country, You Don't Announce It for Three Years.Noam Chomsky - unknown
    Today, his hour is normally forty minutes long. Sometimes even, only thirty. It's perfectly enough. In his soft, gravelly voice he is able to tell twice as much as most others would about neoliberals, neoconservatives, the European extreme right and world crises centers, and in a from that can be transcribed and translated virtually verbatim. Without pausing a single time for more than a moment or two in search for the right word.
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  50. Torture and the Participation of Doctors.U. Cilasun - 1991 - Journal of Medical Ethics 17 (Suppl):21-22.
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