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  1. Escaping the Natural Attitude About Gender.Robin Dembroff - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies.
    Alex Byrne’s article, “Are Women Adult Human Females?”, asks a question that Byrne treats as nearly rhetorical. Byrne’s answer is, ‘clearly, yes’. Moreover, Byrne claims, 'woman' is a biological category that does not admit of any interpretation as (also) a social category. It is important to respond to Byrne’s argument, but mostly because it is paradigmatic of a wider phenomenon. The slogan “women are adult human females” is a political slogan championed by anti-trans activists, appearing on billboards, pamphlets, and anti-trans (...)
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  2. Hormone Replacement Therapy: Informed Consent Without Assessment?Toni C. Saad, Bruce Philip Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (12):1-2.
    Florence Ashley has argued that requiring patients with gender dysphoria to undergo an assessment and referral from a mental health professional before undergoing hormone replacement therapy is unethical and may represent an unconscious hostility towards transgender people. We respond, first, by showing that Ashley has conflated the self-reporting of symptoms with self-diagnosis, and that this is not consistent with the standard model of informed consent to medical treatment. Second, we note that the model of informed consent involved in cosmetic surgery (...)
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  3. Beyond Binary: Genderqueer as Critical Gender Kind.Robin Dembroff - 2020 - Philosophers' Imprint 20 (9):1-23.
    We want to know what gender is. But metaphysical approaches to this question solely have focused on the binary gender kinds men and women. By overlooking those who identify outside of the binary–the group I call ‘genderqueer’–we are left without tools for understanding these new and quickly growing gender identifications. This metaphysical gap in turn creates a conceptual lacuna that contributes to systematic misunderstanding of genderqueer persons. In this paper, I argue that to better understand genderqueer identities, we must recognize (...)
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  4. Epistemic Injustice and Trans Lives.Matthew J. Cull - forthcoming - In Trans Bodies, Trans Selves 2nd Ed.
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  5. Against Abolition.Matthew J. Cull - 2019 - Feminist Philosophy Quarterly 5 (3).
    Analytic metaphysics of gender has taken an ameliorative turn towards ethical and political questions regarding what our concept of gender ought to be, and how gendered society should be structured. Abolitionism about gender, which claims that we ought to mandate gender out of existence, has therefore seen renewed interest. I consider three arguments for abolitionism from radically different perspectives: Haslanger’s simple argument, Escalante’s Gender Nihilism, and Okin’s argument from ideal theory. I argue that none of the above manage to establish (...)
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  6. The Normativity Problem as a Serious Obstacle to Modelling Gender.Weston Richey - 2018 - Aporia 18 (2):1-11.
    In this paper, I explore Sally Haslanger’s (2000) proposed approach to modelling gender which she intends to overcome several problems for such a project. I specifically focus on what Haslanger calls the normativity problem, in which definitions meant to overcome oppression only reinforce oppressive norms. I argue that the normativity problem is a serious one for defining gender and that Haslanger does not successfully overcome it with her definitions of man and woman. In §§1 and 2, I offer background for (...)
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  7. The Right to Privacy and the Right to Use the Bathroom Consistent with One’s Gender Identity.Vincent Samar - 2016 - Duke Journal of Gender Aw and Policy 24 (1):33-59.
    The Right to Privacy and the Right to Use the Bathroom Consistent with One’s Gender Identity.
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  8. Strategic Conceptual Engineering for Epistemic and Social Aims.Ingo Brigandt & Esther Rosario - 2020 - In Alexis Burgess, Herman Cappelen & David Plunkett (eds.), Conceptual Engineering and Conceptual Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 100-124.
    Examining previous discussions on how to construe the concepts of gender and race, we advocate what we call strategic conceptual engineering. This is the employment of a (possibly novel) concept for specific epistemic or social aims, concomitant with the openness to use a different concept (e.g., of race) for other purposes. We illustrate this approach by sketching three distinct concepts of gender and arguing that all of them are needed, as they answer to different social aims. The first concept serves (...)
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  9. Public Health, Private Parts: A Feminist Public-Health Approach to Trans Issues.Krista Scott-Dixon - 2008 - Hypatia 24 (3):33 - 55.
    This paper identifies and examines the possible contributions that emerging fields of study, particularly feminist public health, can make to enhancing and expanding trans/feminist theory and practice. A feminist public-health approach that is rooted in a tradition of political economy, social justice and equity studies, and an anti-oppression orientation, provides one of the most comprehensive "toolboxes" of perspectives, theoretical frameworks, methods, practices, processes, and strategies for trans-oriented scholars and activists.
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  10. Resisting Definition: Gendering Through Interaction and Relational Selfhood.Alexis Shotwell & Trevor Sangrey - 2008 - Hypatia 24 (3):56 - 76.
    This paper argues that trans and genderqueer people affect the gender formation and identity of non-trans people. We explore three instances of this relationship between trans and non-trans genders: an allegiance to inadequate liberal-individualist models of selfhood; tropes through which trans people are made to stand as theoretical objects with which to think about gender broadly; and a narrow focus on gender and evasion of an intersectional understanding of gender formation.
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  11. Feminism and Trans-Women.Rupert Read - 2013 - The Philosophers' Magazine 61 (61):26-28.
  12. Sex Rights: The Oxford Amnesty Lectures 2002.Nicholas Bamforth (ed.) - 2005 - Oxford University Press.
    The 2002 volume of the internationally renowned Oxford Amnesty Lectures series. This volume seeks to explore the role and limitations of ideas of human rights in the area of gender and sexuality; in particular, when considering the social position of women, gay men, trans-gendered and transsexual persons. The authors are internationally distinguished writers from the areas of literature, social theory, law, and journalism.
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  13. You've Changed: Sex Reassignment and Personal Identity.Laurie J. Shrage (ed.) - 2009 - Oup Usa.
    Is sex identity a feature of one's mind or body, and is it a relational or intrinsic property? Who is in the best position to know a person's sex, do we each have a true sex, and is a person's sex an alterable characteristic? When a person's sex assignment changes, has the old self disappeared and a new one emerged; or, has only the public presentation of one's self changed? "You've Changed" examines the philosophical questions raised by the phenomenon of (...)
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  14. Merleau-Ponty's Sexual Schema and the Sexual Component of Body Integrity Identity Disorder.Helena Preester - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (2):171-184.
    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID), formerly also known as apotemnophilia, is characterized by a desire for amputation of a healthy limb and is claimed to straddle or to even blur the boundary between psychiatry and neurology. The neurological line of approach, however, is a recent one, and is accompanied or preceded by psychodynamical, behavioural, philosophical, and psychiatric approaches and hypotheses. Next to its confusing history in which the disorder itself has no fixed identity and could not be classified under a (...)
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  15. Cultural Norms, the Phenomenology of Incorporation, and the Experience of Having a Child Born with Ambiguous Sex.Kristin Zeiler - 2010 - Social Theory and Practice 36 (1):133-156.
    The influence of pervasive cultural norms on people’s actions constitutes a longstanding problem for autonomy theory. On the one hand, such norms often seem to elude the kind of reflection that autonomous agency requires. On the other hand, they are hardly entirely beyond the pale of autonomy: people do sometimes reflect critically on them and resist them. This paper draws on phenomenological accounts of embodiment in order to reconcile these observations. We suggest that pervasive cultural norms exert a strong and (...)
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  16. Transgender and Global Media: Global Activism or Casualty of Globalisation.Kathleen O'Riordan - unknown
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  17. Post-Queer: In Defense of a 'Trans-Gender Approach' or Trans-Gender as an Analytical Category.Patrick Cardon - 2010 - Diogenes 57 (1):138-150.
    The notion of gender, introduced into France by queens and drags in the late 20th century (the glorious period of the "drag-queens") and revitalized by American "queer", follows a traditionally feminist path where homosexual and particularly male issues are once again being hidden away. Having played a big part in popularizing that first version, Patrick Cardon proposes, in order to avoid any misunderstanding and escape once for all from any attempts at reification, to use the term and the universal notion (...)
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  18. Review of Katrina Karkazis, Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience. [REVIEW]Elizabeth Reis - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (6-7):105-106.
  19. Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment.H. Draper - 1988 - Journal of Medical Ethics 14 (1):47-48.
  20. The Ethics of Helping Transgender Men and Women Have Children.Timothy F. Murphy - 2010 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 53 (1):46-60.
    A transgender man legally married to a woman has given birth to two children, raising questions about the ethics of assisted reproductive treatments (ARTs) for people with cross-sex identities. Psychiatry treats cross-sex identities as a disorder, but key medical organizations and the law in some jurisdictions have taken steps to protect people with these identities from discrimination in health care, housing, and employment. In fact, many people with cross-sex identities bypass psychiatric treatment altogether in order to pursue lives that are (...)
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  21. What Many Transgender Activists Don't Want You to Know: And Why You Should Know It Anyway.J. Michael Bailey & Kiira Triea - 2007 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 50 (4):521-534.
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  22. Book Review:The Intermediate Sex. A Study of Some Transitional Types of Men and Women. Edward Carpenter. [REVIEW]J. Arthur Thompson - 1911 - Ethics 21 (4):502-.
  23. Sameness, Alterity, Flesh: Luce Irigaray and the Place of Sexual Undecidability.Gayle Salamon - 2010 - In Elena Tzelepis & Athena Athanasiou (eds.), Rewriting Difference: Luce Irigaray and "the Greeks". State University of New York Press.
  24. A Mere Switch or a Fundamental Change? Theorizing Transgender Marriage.Ruthann Robson - 2007 - Hypatia 22 (1):58-70.
    : Focusing on the legal cases that have been litigated in the United States, and making references to popular culture, this article considers whether marriages in which one of the partners is transgendered necessarily challenge or necessarily reinforce heterosexual hegemony.
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  25. Queer Kids: A Comprehensive Annotated Legal Bibliography on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Youth.Sarah Valentine - unknown
    This annotated bibliography is published at 19 Yale Journal of Law and Feminism 449 (2008). It is a comprehensive collection of law review articles, and selected other materials, relevant to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and questioning youth. These "queer kids"--minors between the ages of ten and twenty who are perceived as being gender or sexuality nonconforming--are the most endangered and underserved adolescent population in the United States. They face danger in their homes, schools, and the juvenile justice system. Their ability (...)
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  26. Intersexuality and the Categories of Sex.Georgia Warnke - 2001 - Hypatia 16 (3):126-137.
    : Operations on intersexuals indicate that the sex of a person is based on more than biology. Expectations about proper gender activities furnish the frameworks through which certain features and combinations of features are understood to be fundamental to bodies and to comprise their sex. Yet, we can ask whether this interpretation is either coherent or consistent with our fuller conceptions of ourselves. Is there a point to interpreting a person as a sex?
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Gender Identity Disorder
  1. Ethical First-Person Authority and The Moral Status of Rejecting.Burkay Ozturk - manuscript
    There are two popular ways of explaining why a person has authority over her own gender identity: epistemic FPA and ethical FPA. Both have problems. Epistemic FPA attributes to the self-identifier an unrealistic degree of doxastic reliability. Ethical FPA implies the existence of an unqualified obligation not to reject which is too strong to be plausible. This essay offers a third explanation called “weak FPA” and investigates how far first-person authority reaches in terms of grounding rights and obligating others. Weak (...)
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Intersexuality
  1. Stopping Hard, for a Girl [Part One].Paul Bali - unknown
    contents -/- 1. can sexual decadence lead to extinction? 2. sex plugs a man into a feminine system 3. stopping hard, for a girl 4. Venus in Furs 5. a Hero saves Helen from blame - so condescends .
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  2. Is Sex Binary?Alex Byrne - 2018 - Arc Digital (nov 1).
    Response to Anne Fausto-Sterling's New York Times Op-Ed, in which she purports to explain why sex isn't binary.
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  3. Is Competitive Elite Sport Really Morally Corrupt?Rognvaldur Ingthorsson - 2017 - Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research 75 (1):05–14.
    It has been argued that competitive elite sport both (i) reduces the humanity of athletes by turning them into beings whose sole value is determined in relation to others, and (ii) is motivated by a celebration of the genetically superior and humiliation of the weak. This paper argues that while (i) is a morally reproachable attitude to competition, it is not what competitive elite sport revolves around, and that (ii) simply is not the essence of competitive elite sport. Competitive elite (...)
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  4. Philosophical Autobiography, Meaning and Self-Discovery.Tony Summer - manuscript
    A human life is meaningful to the extent that it connects with something greater than itself in a way that produces good for others and provides future challenges, past achievements, interpersonal connection and fulfilment for the person whose life it is. Self-fulfilment depends upon self-discovery. Adapting the logic of scientific discovery I suggest that a person can best discover who she is by employing an organised and critical process of conjecture and refutation, testing kinds of life by living them and (...)
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  5. Gender Exaggeration as Trans.Dan Demetriou & Michael Prideaux - manuscript
    Surprisingly, it follows from commonplaces about sex and gender that there is a widely-practiced variety of transgenderism achievable through sex/gender “exaggerating.” Recognizing exaggeration as trans---or at least its moral equivalent---has several important consequences. One is that, since most traditional cultures endorse exaggeration, trans lifestyles have often been mainstream. But more importantly, recognizing that gender exaggeration is trans (or its moral equivalent) reveals a number of sex- and gender-discriminatory practices and intolerant attitudes: from pathologizing hypergender to legally restricting androgenic hormones, many (...)
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  6. Intersex und Geschlechterstudien.Jennifer John - 2003 - Die Philosophin 14 (28):120-122.
  7. Intersex Athletes: Do We Need A Gender Police In Professional Sports?Maren Behrensen - 2010 - IWM Junior Visiting Fellows' Conferences XXIX.
    Based on the case of Caster Semenya, I argue in this paper that the practice of Gender Verification Testing (GVT) in professional sports is unethical and pointless. The presumed benefit of GVT—ensuring fair competition for female athletes—is virtually nonexistent compared to its potential harms, in particular the exposure of individual athletes to a largely interphobic public. GVTs constitute a serious incursion on the athlete’s dignity, autonomy, and privacy; an incursion that cannot be justified by the appeal to fairness. My argument (...)
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  8. Tilting the Ethical Lens: Shame, Disgust, and the Body in Question.Ellen K. Feder - 2011 - Hypatia 26 (3):632-650.
    Cheryl Chase has argued that “the problem” of intersex is one of “stigma and trauma, not gender,” as those focused on medical management would have it. Despite frequent references to shame in the critical literature, there has been surprisingly little analysis of shame, or of the disgust that provokes it. This paper investigates the function of disgust in the medical management of intersex and seeks to understand the consequences—material and moral—with respect to the shame it provokes.Conventional ethical approaches may not (...)
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  9. Cultural Norms, the Phenomenology of Incorporation, and the Experience of Having a Child Born with Ambiguous Sex.Kristin Zeiler - 2010 - Social Theory and Practice 36 (1):133-156.
    The influence of pervasive cultural norms on people’s actions constitutes a longstanding problem for autonomy theory. On the one hand, such norms often seem to elude the kind of reflection that autonomous agency requires. On the other hand, they are hardly entirely beyond the pale of autonomy: people do sometimes reflect critically on them and resist them. This paper draws on phenomenological accounts of embodiment in order to reconcile these observations. We suggest that pervasive cultural norms exert a strong and (...)
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Transgender Issues, Misc
  1. A Dilemma Regarding Gendered Pronouns.Jill Malry - forthcoming - Philosophia:1-5.
    My goal in this short paper is to introduce a dilemma regarding the pronouns ‘ she ’, ‘ he ’, and their various declensions. This dilemma arises from the practice, common in the English speaking world and especially the USA, of letting people choose their own pronouns. And as will become apparent at the end of this paper, I want to suggest that this dilemma might be unique to the English language.
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  2. Cisgender Commonsense and Philosophy's Transgender Trouble.Robin Dembroff - forthcoming - TSQ: Transgender Studies Quarterly.
    Analytic philosophy has transgender trouble. In this paper, I explore potential explanations for this trouble, focusing on the notion of 'cisgender commonsense' and its place in philosophical methodology.
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  3. Contextual Injustice.Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa - 2020 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 30 (1):1–30.
    Contextualist treatments of clashes of intuitions can allow that two claims, apparently in conflict, can both be true. But making true utterances is far from the only thing that matters — there are often substantive normative questions about what contextual parameters are appropriate to a given conversational situation. This paper foregrounds the importance of the social power to set contextual standards, and how it relates to injustice and oppression, introducing a phenomenon I call "contextual injustice," which has to do with (...)
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  4. Evaluating Arguments for the Sex/Gender Distinction.Tomas Bogardus - forthcoming - Philosophia:1-20.
    Many philosophers believe that our ordinary English words "man" and "woman" are “gender terms,” and gender is distinct from biological sex. That is, they believe womanhood and manhood are not defined even partly by biological sex. This sex/gender distinction is one of the most influential ideas of the 20th century on the broader culture, both popular and academic. Less well known are the reasons to think it’s true. My interest in this paper is to show that, upon investigation, the arguments (...)
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  5. Critique Without Judgment in Political Theory: Politicization in Foucault’s Historical Genealogy of Herculine Barbin.Colin Koopman - 2019 - Contemporary Political Theory 18 (4):477-497.
    The historical specificity of Michel Foucault’s practice of critical genealogy offers a valuable model for political theory today. By bringing into focus its historical attention to detail, we can locate in Foucault’s genealogical philosophy an alternative to prominent assumptions in contemporary political theory. The work of political theory is often positioned in light of an assumed goal of staking political theory to certain political positions, judgments, or normative determinations that already populate the terrain of politics. This goal may be illusory; (...)
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  6. Puzzle Pieces: Shapes of Trans Curiosity.Perry Zurn - 2018 - APA Newsletter on LGBTQ Issues in Philosophy 1 (18):10-16.
    Whether in journalism or medicine, education, law, or television, trans writers and trans studies scholars consistently develop this critique of the representational totalization of trans people, whereby they are and have been made whats, not whos; objects, not subjects; voiceless, not vocal; passive, not active; dehistoricized, not historical; and single, not multiple. In what follows, I aim to supplement this critique by attending to the role of curiosity both as a technique of (trans) objectification and as a practice of (trans) (...)
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  7. Gender Transition: The Moral Meaning of Bodily and Social Presentation.Helen Watt - forthcoming - New Blackfriars.
    Medical and/or social gender transition need not involve denial of one's biological sex, but raises other taxing ethical issues. These range from sexual ethics issues narrowly understood to consideration of the claims of any spouse or children and indeed, of gender‐discordant younger people who may follow one's example. As with intersex conditions, not all crossdressing or use of cross‐sex hormones is excluded absolutely. Detransition, for example, could be rightly deferred for various reasons. However, as illustrated by the analogy of an (...)
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  8. Homosexual, Masochistic Transvestite: How I Eventually Overcame Self-Deception and Became Myself.Tony Summer - 2019 - Charleston, SC: Independent Publisher.
    This book is the story of my self-deception about my “deviant” sexuality and my protracted and painful progress toward self-understanding and self-acceptance. Unavoidably, the book involves explicit descriptions of a wide range of activities often regarded as sexually deviant. It is not intended as pornographic; though some people may use it that way. It describes how I deceived myself about my sexuality as a consequence of trying to conform to the norms of my inherited culture. I hope that it will (...)
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  9. Gender Identities and Feminism.Josh T. U. Cohen - 2018 - Ethics, Politics and Society.
    Many feminists (e.g. T. Bettcher and B. R. George) argue for a principle of first person authority (FPA) about gender, i.e. that we should (at least) not disavow people's gender self-categorisations. However, there is a feminist tradition resistant to FPA about gender, which I call "radical feminism”. Feminists in this tradition define gender-categories via biological sex, thus denying non-binary and trans self-identifications. Using a taxonomy by B. R. George, I begin to demystify the concept of gender. We are also able (...)
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  10. Meaning and Fulfilment in Life: The Roles of Criticism, Self-Discovery and Autobiography.Tony Summer - 2017 - Journal of Philosophy of Life 7 (3):391-405.
    I offer a personal case-study to show how poor self-knowledge due in part to self-deception led to wasted life, a life lacking in meaning, and descent into severe anxiety and depression. A meaningful human life connects with things of value outside of itself and provides fulfilment for its bearer. For humans, fulfilment depends upon self-discovery, which requires a process of conjecture and refutation, a willingness to question and criticise received views and to welcome challenges and criticism to views that one (...)
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  11. Discovering Oneself: A Philosophical Autobiography of a Boy Named 'Susie'.Tony Summer - 2017
    This autobiography addresses philosophical questions concerning the meaning of life, the possibility of knowledge, ethical challenges of the human condition, and how a person discovers who he or she is or ought to be. I wasted large stretches of my life being things, or trying to be things, that were not really me, such as a revolutionary, a drunk, a tough-guy and a heterosexual. I also spent years trying to hide from myself what I really was. I take myself to (...)
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  12. Science Fiction Double Feature: Trans Liberation on Twin Earth.B. R. George & R. A. Briggs - manuscript
    What is it to be a woman? What is it to be a man? We start by laying out desiderata for an analysis of 'woman' and 'man': descriptively, it should link these gender categories to sex biology without reducing them to sex biology, and politically, it should help us explain and combat traditional sexism while also allowing us to make sense of the activist view that gendering should be consensual. Using a Putnam-style 'Twin Earth' example, we argue that none of (...)
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  13. What Even is 'Gender'?B. R. George - manuscript
    This paper presents a new taxonomy of sex/gender concepts based on the idea of starting with a few basic components of the sex/gender system, and exhausting the possible types of simple associations and identities based on these. The resulting system is significantly more fine-grained than most competitors, and helps to clarify a number of points of confusion and conceptual tension in academic and activist conversations about feminism, transgender politics, and the social analysis of gender.
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  14. Ethical First-Person Authority and The Moral Status of Rejecting.Burkay Ozturk - manuscript
    There are two popular ways of explaining why a person has authority over her own gender identity: epistemic FPA and ethical FPA. Both have problems. Epistemic FPA attributes to the self-identifier an unrealistic degree of doxastic reliability. Ethical FPA implies the existence of an unqualified obligation not to reject which is too strong to be plausible. This essay offers a third explanation called “weak FPA” and investigates how far first-person authority reaches in terms of grounding rights and obligating others. Weak (...)
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