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  1. Invariantist, Contextualist, and Relativist Accounts of Gender Terms.Dan Zeman - 2020 - EurAmerica 4 (50):739-781.
    In this paper, I explore a range of existent and possible ameliorative semantic theories of gender terms: invariantism, according to which gender terms are not context-sensitive, contextualism, according to which the meaning of gender terms is established in the context of use, and relativism, according to which the meaning of gender terms is established in the context of assessment. I show that none of these views is adequate with respect to the plight of trans people to use their term of (...)
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  2. Gender Affirmation and Loving Attention.Matt Hernandez - forthcoming - Hypatia.
    In this article, I examine the moral dimensions of gender affirmation. I argue that the moral value of gender affirmation is rooted in what Iris Murdoch called loving attention. Loving attention is central to the moral value of gender affirmation because such affirmation is otherwise too fragile or insincere to have such value. Moral reasons to engage in acts that gender affirm derive from the commitment to give and express loving attention to trans people as a way of challenging their (...)
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  3. Beyond Binary: Genderqueer as Critical Gender Kind [Chinese].Robin Dembroff - 2020 - Philosophers' Imprint 20 (9):1-23.
    Chinese translation courtesy of Zhuanxu Xu. We want to know what gender is. But metaphysical approaches to this question solely have focused on the binary gender kinds men and women. By overlooking those who identify outside of the binary–the group I call ‘genderqueer’–we are left without tools for understanding these new and quickly growing gender identifications. This metaphysical gap in turn creates a conceptual lacuna that contributes to systematic misunderstanding of genderqueer persons. In this paper, I argue that to better (...)
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  4. From Duration to Self-Identification?: The Temporal Politics of the California Gender Recognition Act.Marie Draz - 2019 - Transgender Studies Quarterly.
    This article examines the temporal politics of the 2017 California Gender Recognition Act (CGRA). The author first offers a brief history of the dominant temporal requirements for “gender recognition” in prior legislation around sex/gender markers on identity documents in the United States and United Kingdom, focusing on how this legislation places temporal boundaries around legitimate gender identity. Then, turning directly to the CGRA, the author asks to what extent the act's emphasis on self-identification revises or intervenes in these prior conceptualizations (...)
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  5. Escaping the Natural Attitude About Gender.Robin Dembroff - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 178 (3):983-1003.
    Alex Byrne’s article, “Are Women Adult Human Females?”, asks a question that Byrne treats as nearly rhetorical. Byrne’s answer is, ‘clearly, yes’. Moreover, Byrne claims, 'woman' is a biological category that does not admit of any interpretation as (also) a social category. It is important to respond to Byrne’s argument, but mostly because it is paradigmatic of a wider phenomenon. The slogan “women are adult human females” is a political slogan championed by anti-trans activists, appearing on billboards, pamphlets, and anti-trans (...)
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  6. Hormone Replacement Therapy: Informed Consent Without Assessment?Toni C. Saad, Bruce Philip Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (12):1-2.
    Florence Ashley has argued that requiring patients with gender dysphoria to undergo an assessment and referral from a mental health professional before undergoing hormone replacement therapy is unethical and may represent an unconscious hostility towards transgender people. We respond, first, by showing that Ashley has conflated the self-reporting of symptoms with self-diagnosis, and that this is not consistent with the standard model of informed consent to medical treatment. Second, we note that the model of informed consent involved in cosmetic surgery (...)
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  7. Beyond Binary: Genderqueer as Critical Gender Kind.Robin Dembroff - 2020 - Philosophers' Imprint 20 (9):1-23.
    We want to know what gender is. But metaphysical approaches to this question solely have focused on the binary gender kinds men and women. By overlooking those who identify outside of the binary–the group I call ‘genderqueer’–we are left without tools for understanding these new and quickly growing gender identifications. This metaphysical gap in turn creates a conceptual lacuna that contributes to systematic misunderstanding of genderqueer persons. In this paper, I argue that to better understand genderqueer identities, we must recognize (...)
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  8. Epistemic Injustice and Trans Lives.Matthew J. Cull - forthcoming - In Trans Bodies, Trans Selves 2nd Ed.
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  9. Against Abolition.Matthew J. Cull - 2019 - Feminist Philosophy Quarterly 5 (3).
    Analytic metaphysics of gender has taken an ameliorative turn towards ethical and political questions regarding what our concept of gender ought to be, and how gendered society should be structured. Abolitionism about gender, which claims that we ought to mandate gender out of existence, has therefore seen renewed interest. I consider three arguments for abolitionism from radically different perspectives: Haslanger’s simple argument, Escalante’s Gender Nihilism, and Okin’s argument from ideal theory. I argue that none of the above manage to establish (...)
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  10. The Normativity Problem as a Serious Obstacle to Modelling Gender.Weston Richey - 2018 - Aporia 18 (2):1-11.
    In this paper, I explore Sally Haslanger’s (2000) proposed approach to modelling gender which she intends to overcome several problems for such a project. I specifically focus on what Haslanger calls the normativity problem, in which definitions meant to overcome oppression only reinforce oppressive norms. I argue that the normativity problem is a serious one for defining gender and that Haslanger does not successfully overcome it with her definitions of man and woman. In §§1 and 2, I offer background for (...)
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  11. Pour défendre le transracialisme.Rebecca Tuvel - 2017 - Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 12 (2-3):100-119.
    REBECCA TUVEL,VINCENT DUHAMEL | : La tentative de l’ancienne cheffe d’une section de la NAACP 1 Rachel Dolezal de passer de la race blanche à la race noire a occasionné une intense controverse. Son histoire est devenue célèbre au même moment où Caitlyn Jenner2 faisait la couverture de Vanity Fair, signe d’une acceptation grandissante de l’identité trans. Pourtant, les critiques adressées à Dolezal pour avoir caché sa race natale indiquent qu’il existe une perception sociale largement répandue selon laquelle il n’est (...)
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  12. The Right to Privacy and the Right to Use the Bathroom Consistent with One’s Gender Identity.Vincent Samar - 2016 - Duke Journal of Gender Aw and Policy 24 (1):33-59.
    The Right to Privacy and the Right to Use the Bathroom Consistent with One’s Gender Identity.
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  13. Racial Transitions and Controversial Positions.Rebecca Tuvel - 2018 - Philosophy Today 62 (1):73-88.
    In this essay, I reply to critiques of my article “In Defense of Transracialism.” Echoing Chloë Taylor and Lewis Gordon’s remarks on the controversy over my article, I first reflect on the lack of intellectual generosity displayed in response to my paper. In reply to Kris Sealey, I next argue that it is dangerous to hinge the moral acceptability of a particular identity or practice on what she calls a collective co-signing. In reply to Sabrina Hom, I suggest that relying (...)
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  14. Strategic Conceptual Engineering for Epistemic and Social Aims.Ingo Brigandt & Esther Rosario - 2020 - In Alexis Burgess, Herman Cappelen & David Plunkett (eds.), Conceptual Engineering and Conceptual Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 100-124.
    Examining previous discussions on how to construe the concepts of gender and race, we advocate what we call strategic conceptual engineering. This is the employment of a (possibly novel) concept for specific epistemic or social aims, concomitant with the openness to use a different concept (e.g., of race) for other purposes. We illustrate this approach by sketching three distinct concepts of gender and arguing that all of them are needed, as they answer to different social aims. The first concept serves (...)
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  15. On Gender Neutrality: Derrida and Transfeminism in Conversation.Marie Draz - 2017 - philoSOPHIA: A Journal of Continental Feminism 7 (1):91-98.
    There is already a long history of conversation between feminism and deconstruction, feminist theorists and Derrida or Derrideans. That conversation has been by turns fraught and constructive. While some of these interactions have occurred in queer feminism, to date little has been done to stage an engagement between deconstruction and transfeminism. Naysayers might think that transfeminism is too recent and too identitarian a discourse to meaningfully interact with Derrida’s legacy. On the other hand, perhaps Derrida’s work was too embedded in (...)
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  16. In Defense of Transracialism.Rebecca Tuvel - 2017 - Hypatia 32 (2):263-278.
    Former NAACP chapter head Rachel Dolezal's attempted transition from the white to the black race occasioned heated controversy. Her story gained notoriety at the same time that Caitlyn Jenner graced the cover of Vanity Fair, signaling a growing acceptance of transgender identity. Yet criticisms of Dolezal for misrepresenting her birth race indicate a widespread social perception that it is neither possible nor acceptable to change one's race in the way it might be to change one's sex. Considerations that support transgenderism (...)
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  17. Public Health, Private Parts: A Feminist Public-Health Approach to Trans Issues.Krista Scott-Dixon - 2008 - Hypatia 24 (3):33 - 55.
    This paper identifies and examines the possible contributions that emerging fields of study, particularly feminist public health, can make to enhancing and expanding trans/feminist theory and practice. A feminist public-health approach that is rooted in a tradition of political economy, social justice and equity studies, and an anti-oppression orientation, provides one of the most comprehensive "toolboxes" of perspectives, theoretical frameworks, methods, practices, processes, and strategies for trans-oriented scholars and activists.
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  18. Resisting Definition: Gendering Through Interaction and Relational Selfhood.Alexis Shotwell & Trevor Sangrey - 2008 - Hypatia 24 (3):56 - 76.
    This paper argues that trans and genderqueer people affect the gender formation and identity of non-trans people. We explore three instances of this relationship between trans and non-trans genders: an allegiance to inadequate liberal-individualist models of selfhood; tropes through which trans people are made to stand as theoretical objects with which to think about gender broadly; and a narrow focus on gender and evasion of an intersectional understanding of gender formation.
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  19. Feminism and Trans-Women.Rupert Read - 2013 - The Philosophers' Magazine 61 (61):26-28.
  20. Sex Rights: The Oxford Amnesty Lectures 2002.Nicholas Bamforth (ed.) - 2005 - Oxford University Press.
    The 2002 volume of the internationally renowned Oxford Amnesty Lectures series. This volume seeks to explore the role and limitations of ideas of human rights in the area of gender and sexuality; in particular, when considering the social position of women, gay men, trans-gendered and transsexual persons. The authors are internationally distinguished writers from the areas of literature, social theory, law, and journalism.
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  21. You’Ve Changed: Sex Reassignment and Personal Identity.Laurie J. Shrage (ed.) - 2009 - Oup Usa.
    Is sex identity a feature of one's mind or body, and is it a relational or intrinsic property? Who is in the best position to know a person's sex, do we each have a true sex, and is a person's sex an alterable characteristic? When a person's sex assignment changes, has the old self disappeared and a new one emerged; or, has only the public presentation of one's self changed? "You've Changed" examines the philosophical questions raised by the phenomenon of (...)
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  22. Merleau-Ponty's Sexual Schema and the Sexual Component of Body Integrity Identity Disorder.Helena Preester - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (2):171-184.
    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID), formerly also known as apotemnophilia, is characterized by a desire for amputation of a healthy limb and is claimed to straddle or to even blur the boundary between psychiatry and neurology. The neurological line of approach, however, is a recent one, and is accompanied or preceded by psychodynamical, behavioural, philosophical, and psychiatric approaches and hypotheses. Next to its confusing history in which the disorder itself has no fixed identity and could not be classified under a (...)
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  23. Cultural Norms, the Phenomenology of Incorporation, and the Experience of Having a Child Born with Ambiguous Sex.Kristin Zeiler - 2010 - Social Theory and Practice 36 (1):133-156.
    The influence of pervasive cultural norms on people’s actions constitutes a longstanding problem for autonomy theory. On the one hand, such norms often seem to elude the kind of reflection that autonomous agency requires. On the other hand, they are hardly entirely beyond the pale of autonomy: people do sometimes reflect critically on them and resist them. This paper draws on phenomenological accounts of embodiment in order to reconcile these observations. We suggest that pervasive cultural norms exert a strong and (...)
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  24. Transgender and Global Media: Global Activism or Casualty of Globalisation.Kathleen O'Riordan - unknown
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  25. Post-Queer: In Defense of a 'Trans-Gender Approach' or Trans-Gender as an Analytical Category.Patrick Cardon - 2010 - Diogenes 57 (1):138-150.
    The notion of gender, introduced into France by queens and drags in the late 20th century (the glorious period of the "drag-queens") and revitalized by American "queer", follows a traditionally feminist path where homosexual and particularly male issues are once again being hidden away. Having played a big part in popularizing that first version, Patrick Cardon proposes, in order to avoid any misunderstanding and escape once for all from any attempts at reification, to use the term and the universal notion (...)
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  26. Review of Katrina Karkazis, Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience. [REVIEW]Elizabeth Reis - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (6-7):105-106.
  27. Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment.H. Draper - 1988 - Journal of Medical Ethics 14 (1):47-48.
  28. The Ethics of Helping Transgender Men and Women Have Children.Timothy F. Murphy - 2010 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 53 (1):46-60.
    A transgender man legally married to a woman has given birth to two children, raising questions about the ethics of assisted reproductive treatments (ARTs) for people with cross-sex identities. Psychiatry treats cross-sex identities as a disorder, but key medical organizations and the law in some jurisdictions have taken steps to protect people with these identities from discrimination in health care, housing, and employment. In fact, many people with cross-sex identities bypass psychiatric treatment altogether in order to pursue lives that are (...)
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  29. What Many Transgender Activists Don't Want You to Know: And Why You Should Know It Anyway.J. Michael Bailey & Kiira Triea - 2007 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 50 (4):521-534.
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  30. Book Review:The Intermediate Sex. A Study of Some Transitional Types of Men and Women. Edward Carpenter. [REVIEW]J. Arthur Thompson - 1911 - Ethics 21 (4):502-.
  31. Sameness, Alterity, Flesh: Luce Irigaray and the Place of Sexual Undecidability.Gayle Salamon - 2010 - In Elena Tzelepis & Athena Athanasiou (eds.), Rewriting Difference: Luce Irigaray and "the Greeks". State University of New York Press.
  32. A Mere Switch or a Fundamental Change? Theorizing Transgender Marriage.Ruthann Robson - 2007 - Hypatia 22 (1):58-70.
    : Focusing on the legal cases that have been litigated in the United States, and making references to popular culture, this article considers whether marriages in which one of the partners is transgendered necessarily challenge or necessarily reinforce heterosexual hegemony.
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  33. Queer Kids: A Comprehensive Annotated Legal Bibliography on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Youth.Sarah Valentine - unknown
    This annotated bibliography is published at 19 Yale Journal of Law and Feminism 449 (2008). It is a comprehensive collection of law review articles, and selected other materials, relevant to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and questioning youth. These "queer kids"--minors between the ages of ten and twenty who are perceived as being gender or sexuality nonconforming--are the most endangered and underserved adolescent population in the United States. They face danger in their homes, schools, and the juvenile justice system. Their ability (...)
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  34. Intersexuality and the Categories of Sex.Georgia Warnke - 2001 - Hypatia 16 (3):126-137.
    : Operations on intersexuals indicate that the sex of a person is based on more than biology. Expectations about proper gender activities furnish the frameworks through which certain features and combinations of features are understood to be fundamental to bodies and to comprise their sex. Yet, we can ask whether this interpretation is either coherent or consistent with our fuller conceptions of ourselves. Is there a point to interpreting a person as a sex?
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Gender Identity Disorder
  1. Ethical First-Person Authority and The Moral Status of Rejecting.Burkay Ozturk - manuscript
    There are two popular ways of explaining why a person has authority over her own gender identity: epistemic FPA and ethical FPA. Both have problems. Epistemic FPA attributes to the self-identifier an unrealistic degree of doxastic reliability. Ethical FPA implies the existence of an unqualified obligation not to reject which is too strong to be plausible. This essay offers a third explanation called “weak FPA” and investigates how far first-person authority reaches in terms of grounding rights and obligating others. Weak (...)
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Intersexuality
  1. Schämt euch! [REVIEW]Karsten Schubert - 2012 - HugsandKisses 9.
    Wir - als Queers - sollten uns schämen. Denn Scham ist, so verspricht „Gay Shame“, ein Weg zu einer neuen Radikalisierung von queerer Kritik. Gay Shame ist der wörtliche Gegensatz zu Gay Pride und kritisiert, dass der stolze Mainstream der LGBT-Community in den letzten Jahren immer angepasster, bürgerlicher, kapitalistischer und homonormativer geworden ist. Stolz ist man vor allem darauf, endlich dazuzugehören und mitheiraten oder mitkämpfen zu dürfen. Was Scham ist und welche queerpolitische Bedeutung sie hat wird in dem Sammelband von (...)
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  2. Sexuelle und geschlechtliche Selbstbestimmung als Menschenrecht.Karsten Schubert - 2016 - Bundeszentrale Für Politische Bildung.
    Diskriminierung und Menschenrechtsverletzungen gegenüber LSBTI-Personen werden heute international thematisiert und angeprangert – ein vergleichsweise neues Phänomen. Dennoch tragen die herrschenden Normen von Zweigeschlechtlichkeit und Heterosexualität weiterhin zur Diskriminierung bei: So sind gleichgeschlechtliche Partnerschaften in fast allen Staaten schlechter gestellt als heterosexuelle. Transgeschlechtliche Menschen erfahren Gewalt, weil ihr Verhalten und Äußeres nicht geltenden Normen entsprechen.
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  3. Stopping Hard, for a Girl [Part One].Paul Bali - unknown
    contents -/- 1. can sexual decadence lead to extinction? 2. sex plugs a man into a feminine system 3. stopping hard, for a girl 4. Venus in Furs 5. a Hero saves Helen from blame - so condescends .
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  4. Is Sex Binary?Alex Byrne - 2018 - Arc Digital (nov 1).
    Response to Anne Fausto-Sterling's New York Times Op-Ed, in which she purports to explain why sex isn't binary.
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  5. Is Competitive Elite Sport Really Morally Corrupt?Rognvaldur Ingthorsson - 2017 - Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research 75 (1):05–14.
    It has been argued that competitive elite sport both (i) reduces the humanity of athletes by turning them into beings whose sole value is determined in relation to others, and (ii) is motivated by a celebration of the genetically superior and humiliation of the weak. This paper argues that while (i) is a morally reproachable attitude to competition, it is not what competitive elite sport revolves around, and that (ii) simply is not the essence of competitive elite sport. Competitive elite (...)
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  6. Philosophical Autobiography, Meaning and Self-Discovery.Tony Summer - manuscript
    A human life is meaningful to the extent that it connects with something greater than itself in a way that produces good for others and provides future challenges, past achievements, interpersonal connection and fulfilment for the person whose life it is. Self-fulfilment depends upon self-discovery. Adapting the logic of scientific discovery I suggest that a person can best discover who she is by employing an organised and critical process of conjecture and refutation, testing kinds of life by living them and (...)
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  7. Making Sense of Intersex: Changing Ethical Perspectives in Biomedicine by Ellen Feder. [REVIEW]Marie Draz - 2016 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 26 (2):34-39.
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  8. Gender Exaggeration as Trans.Dan Demetriou & Michael Prideaux - manuscript
    Surprisingly, it follows from commonplaces about sex and gender that there is a widely-practiced variety of transgenderism achievable through sex/gender “exaggerating.” Recognizing exaggeration as trans---or at least its moral equivalent---has several important consequences. One is that, since most traditional cultures endorse exaggeration, trans lifestyles have often been mainstream. But more importantly, recognizing that gender exaggeration is trans (or its moral equivalent) reveals a number of sex- and gender-discriminatory practices and intolerant attitudes: from pathologizing hypergender to legally restricting androgenic hormones, many (...)
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  9. Intersex und Geschlechterstudien.Jennifer John - 2003 - Die Philosophin 14 (28):120-122.
  10. Intersex Athletes: Do We Need A Gender Police In Professional Sports?Maren Behrensen - 2010 - IWM Junior Visiting Fellows' Conferences XXIX.
    Based on the case of Caster Semenya, I argue in this paper that the practice of Gender Verification Testing (GVT) in professional sports is unethical and pointless. The presumed benefit of GVT—ensuring fair competition for female athletes—is virtually nonexistent compared to its potential harms, in particular the exposure of individual athletes to a largely interphobic public. GVTs constitute a serious incursion on the athlete’s dignity, autonomy, and privacy; an incursion that cannot be justified by the appeal to fairness. My argument (...)
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  11. Tilting the Ethical Lens: Shame, Disgust, and the Body in Question.Ellen K. Feder - 2011 - Hypatia 26 (3):632-650.
    Cheryl Chase has argued that “the problem” of intersex is one of “stigma and trauma, not gender,” as those focused on medical management would have it. Despite frequent references to shame in the critical literature, there has been surprisingly little analysis of shame, or of the disgust that provokes it. This paper investigates the function of disgust in the medical management of intersex and seeks to understand the consequences—material and moral—with respect to the shame it provokes.Conventional ethical approaches may not (...)
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  12. Cultural Norms, the Phenomenology of Incorporation, and the Experience of Having a Child Born with Ambiguous Sex.Kristin Zeiler - 2010 - Social Theory and Practice 36 (1):133-156.
    The influence of pervasive cultural norms on people’s actions constitutes a longstanding problem for autonomy theory. On the one hand, such norms often seem to elude the kind of reflection that autonomous agency requires. On the other hand, they are hardly entirely beyond the pale of autonomy: people do sometimes reflect critically on them and resist them. This paper draws on phenomenological accounts of embodiment in order to reconcile these observations. We suggest that pervasive cultural norms exert a strong and (...)
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Transgender Issues, Misc
  1. Social and Medical Gender Transition and Acceptance of Biological Sex.Helen Watt - forthcoming - Christian Bioethics.
    Biological sex should be “acknowledged” and “accepted”—but which responses to gender dysphoria might this preclude? Trans-identified people may factually acknowledge their biological sex and regard transition as purely palliative. While generally some level of self-deception and even a high level of nonlying deception of others are sometimes justified, biological sex is important, and there is a nontrivial onus against even palliative, nonsexually motivated cross-dressing. The onus is higher against co-opting the body, even in a minor and/or reversible way, to make (...)
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  2. COVID-19 and Trans Healthcare: Yes, Global Pandemics Are (Also) a Trans Rights Issue.Gen Eickers - 2020 - Gender Forum 76.
    Trans healthcare and thus trans people have been severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Trans people’s healthcare situations have turned out to be so vulnerable in this crisis because they have been precarious to begin with. There are multiple ways in which trans healthcare has been affected: Surgeries and other procedures have been cancelled or postponed, and mental health services have been paused or moved online. This raises ethical questions around discrimination against trans people in the healthcare system. This article (...)
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  3. Evaluating Arguments for the Sex/Gender Distinction.Tomas Bogardus - 2020 - Philosophia 48 (3):873-892.
    Many philosophers believe that our ordinary English words man and woman are “gender terms,” and gender is distinct from biological sex. That is, they believe womanhood and manhood are not defined even partly by biological sex. This sex/gender distinction is one of the most influential ideas of the twentieth century on the broader culture, both popular and academic. Less well known are the reasons to think it’s true. My interest in this paper is to show that, upon investigation, the arguments (...)
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