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  1. Gender Exaggeration as Trans.Dan Demetriou & Michael Prideaux - manuscript
    [NOTE: I now disavow this essay, which was too accommodating of trans ideology.] Surprisingly, it follows from commonplaces about sex and gender that there is a widely-practiced variety of transgenderism achievable through sex/gender “exaggerating.” Recognizing exaggeration as trans---or at least its moral equivalent---has several important consequences. One is that, since most traditional cultures endorse exaggeration, trans lifestyles have often been mainstream. But more importantly, recognizing that gender exaggeration is trans (or its moral equivalent) reveals a number of sex- and gender-discriminatory (...)
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  2. What even is 'gender'?B. R. George - manuscript
    (Added April 2023: This draft is superseded by Briggs, R.A., & George, B.R. (2023). 'What Even Is Gender?'. Routledge. DOI 10.4324/9781003053330, and in particular by the first three chapters thereof. While this much earlier draft remains available for archival purposes, you are encouraged to read and cite the 2023 book and to use its terminology.) -/- This paper presents a new taxonomy of sex/gender concepts based on the idea of starting with a few basic components of the sex/gender system, and (...)
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  3. Science Fiction Double Feature: Trans Liberation on Twin Earth.B. R. George & R. A. Briggs - manuscript
    What is it to be a woman? What is it to be a man? We start by laying out desiderata for an analysis of 'woman' and 'man': descriptively, it should link these gender categories to sex biology without reducing them to sex biology, and politically, it should help us explain and combat traditional sexism while also allowing us to make sense of the activist view that gendering should be consensual. Using a Putnam-style 'Twin Earth' example, we argue that none of (...)
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  4. Gender First.Cameron Domenico Kirk-Giannini - manuscript
    Let the label binary category terms refer to natural language expressions like ‘woman’, ‘man’, ‘female’, and ‘male’. Focusing on ‘woman’ and ‘female’, I develop a novel, empirically supported theory of the meanings of English binary category terms. Given plausible assumptions about the metaphysics of sex and gender, this gender-first theory predicts that the sentence ‘Trans women are women’ expresses a truth in all contexts and the sentence ‘Women are adult human females’ expresses a truth in most ordinary contexts — thus (...)
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  5. Warum Hochschulen die Identität von trans Studierenden respektieren sollten.Johannah Sprinz - manuscript
    Die aktuelle Gesetzeslage in Deutschland sieht für amtliche Namens- und Personenstandsänderungen von trans Personen ein langwieriges, erniedrigendes und kostspieliges Gerichts- und Begutachtungsverfahren vor. Viele Hochschulen und Universitäten führen Studierende unter amtlichem Namen und Geschlechtseintrag, wodurch trans Studierende häufig erheblicher Diskriminierung ausgesetzt sind. Der vorliegende Critical Essay führt basierend auf einer Darstellung der aktuellen Situation Gründe an, warum Hochschulen trans Studierenden die Verwendung des selbst gewählten Vornamens und der zur geschlechtlichen Identität passenden Anrede bereits vor amtlicher Namens- und Personenstandsänderung ermöglichen sollten (...)
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  6. Trans Women, Cis Women, Alien Women, and Robot Women Are Women: They Are All (Simply) Adults Gendered Female.Marcus Arvan - 2023 - Hypatia 38 (2):373-389.
    Alex Byrne contends that women are (simply) adult human females, claiming that this thesis has considerably greater initial appeal than the justified true belief (JTB) theory of knowledge. This paper refutes Byrne’s thesis in the same way the JTB theory of knowledge is widely thought to have been refuted: through simple counterexamples. Lessons are drawn. One lesson is that women need not be human. A second lesson is that biology and physical phenotypes are both irrelevant to whether someone is a (...)
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  7. Gender Without Identity.Avgi Saketopoulou & Ann Pellegrini - 2023 - Unconscious in Translation.
    Gender Without Identity offers an innovative and at times unsettling theory of gender formation. Rooted in the metapsychology of Jean Laplanche and in conversation with bold work in queer and trans studies, Avgi Saketopoulou and Ann Pellegrini jettison “core gender identity” to propose, instead, that gender is something all subjects acquire -- and that trauma sometimes has a share in that acquisition. Conceptualizing trauma alongside diverse genders and sexualities is thus not about invalidating transness and queerness, but about illuminating their (...)
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  8. Why the Trans Inclusion Problem cannot be Solved.Tomas Bogardus - 2022 - Philosophia 50 (4):1639-1664.
    What is a woman? The definition of this central concept of feminism has lately become especially controversial and politically charged. “Ameliorative Inquirists” have rolled up their sleeves to reengineer our ordinary concept of womanhood, with a goal of including in the definition all and only those who identify as women, both “cis” and “trans.” This has proven to be a formidable challenge. Every proposal so far has failed to draw the boundaries of womanhood in a way acceptable to the Ameliorative (...)
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  9. Prefiguring the Otokonoko Genre: A Comparative Trans Analysis of Stop!! Hibari-Kun! and No Bra.Riley Hannah Lewicki - 2022 - Journal of Anime and Manga Studies 3:62-84.
    This article examines two manga, Stop!! Hibari-Kun! and No Bra, which prefigure the increasingly popular anime and manga genre of otokonoko from a queer studies perspective. Otokonoko, also known as otoko no musume, is a genre of manga in which persons assigned male at birth (AMAB) wear women’s clothing and are perceived as attractive women. The term otokonoko (男の娘) is pronounced identically to the term男の子, meaning boy-child; however, due to a pun in the kanji which replaces "child" (子) with "daughter"/"girl" (...)
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  10. Trans-Feminist Punk in The United States: Collective Action, Activism, and a Libidinal Economy of Noise.Casey Robertson - 2022 - In Jim Donaghey, Will Boisseau & Caroline Kaltefleiter (eds.), Smash the System! Punk Anarchism as a Culture of Resistance. Karlovac: Active Distribution Press. pp. 317-346.
    This chapter explores the tripartite relationship between transgender identities, political activism, and sonic practice. In particular, this chapter employs theorizations of noise to explore a rupture in the prevalent binarisms of sound and gender in the American punk scene and its aesthetics. Drawing upon theoretical frameworks such as Herbert Marcuse’s one-dimensional society and Jean-François Lyotard’s conception of a libidinal economy, the sonic practices of trans-feminist artists such as GLOSS (Girls Living Outside Society’s Shit) and the HIRS Collective are re-examined to (...)
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  11. Transgender Athletes and Principles of Sport Categorization: Why Genealogy and the Gendered Body Will Not Help.Irena Martínková, Jim Parry & Miroslav Imbrišević - 2021 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 4 (1):1-13.
    This paper offers a discussion of the rationale for the creation of sports categorization criteria based on sporting genealogy and the gendered body, as proposed by Torres et al. in their article ‘Beyond Physiology: Embodied Experience, Embodied Advantage, and the Inclusion of Transgender Athletes in Competitive Sport’. The strength of their ‘phenomenological’ account lies in its complex account of human experience; but this is also what makes it impractical and difficult to operationalize. Categorization rather requires simplicity and practicability, if it (...)
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  12. Rethinking Rachel Doležal and Transracial Theory.Molly Littlewood McKibbin - 2021 - Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Using real-life examples, this book asks readers to reflect on how we—as an academic community—think and talk about race and racial identity in twenty-first century America. One of these examples, Rachel Doležal, provides a springboard for an examination of the state of our discourse around changeable racial identity and the potential for “transracialism.” An analysis of how we are theorizing transracial identity (as opposed to an argument for/against it), this study detects some omissions and problems that are becoming evident as (...)
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  13. Evaluating Arguments for the Sex/Gender Distinction.Tomas Bogardus - 2020 - Philosophia 48 (3):873-892.
    Many philosophers believe that our ordinary English words man and woman are “gender terms,” and gender is distinct from biological sex. That is, they believe womanhood and manhood are not defined even partly by biological sex. This sex/gender distinction is one of the most influential ideas of the twentieth century on the broader culture, both popular and academic. Less well known are the reasons to think it’s true. My interest in this paper is to show that, upon investigation, the arguments (...)
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  14. Cisgender Commonsense and Philosophy's Transgender Trouble.Robin Dembroff - 2020 - TSQ: Transgender Studies Quarterly 7 (3).
    Analytic philosophy has transgender trouble. In this paper, I explore potential explanations for this trouble, focusing on the notion of 'cisgender commonsense' and its place in philosophical methodology.
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  15. COVID-19 and Trans Healthcare: Yes, Global Pandemics are (also) a Trans Rights Issue.Gen Eickers - 2020 - Gender Forum 76.
    Trans healthcare and thus trans people have been severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Trans people’s healthcare situations have turned out to be so vulnerable in this crisis because they have been precarious to begin with. There are multiple ways in which trans healthcare has been affected: Surgeries and other procedures have been cancelled or postponed, and mental health services have been paused or moved online. This raises ethical questions around discrimination against trans people in the healthcare system. This article (...)
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  16. Contextual Injustice.Jonathan Ichikawa - 2020 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 30 (1):1–30.
    Contextualist treatments of clashes of intuitions can allow that two claims, apparently in conflict, can both be true. But making true utterances is far from the only thing that matters — there are often substantive normative questions about what contextual parameters are appropriate to a given conversational situation. This paper foregrounds the importance of the social power to set contextual standards, and how it relates to injustice and oppression, introducing a phenomenon I call "contextual injustice," which has to do with (...)
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  17. A Dilemma Regarding Gendered Pronouns.Jill Malry - 2020 - Philosophia 51 (1):255-259.
    My goal in this short paper is to introduce a dilemma regarding the pronouns ‘ she ’, ‘ he ’, and their various declensions. This dilemma arises from the practice, common in the English speaking world and especially the USA, of letting people choose their own pronouns. And as will become apparent at the end of this paper, I want to suggest that this dilemma might be unique to the English language.
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  18. Social and Medical Gender Transition and Acceptance of Biological Sex.Helen Watt - 2020 - Christian Bioethics 26 (3):243–268.
    Biological sex should be “acknowledged” and “accepted”—but which responses to gender dysphoria might this preclude? Trans-identified people may factually acknowledge their biological sex and regard transition as purely palliative. While generally some level of self-deception and even a high level of nonlying deception of others are sometimes justified, biological sex is important, and there is a nontrivial onus against even palliative, nonsexually motivated cross-dressing. The onus is higher against co-opting the body, even in a minor and/or reversible way, to make (...)
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  19. Critique without judgment in political theory: Politicization in Foucault’s historical genealogy of Herculine Barbin.Colin Koopman - 2019 - Contemporary Political Theory 18 (4):477-497.
    The historical specificity of Michel Foucault’s practice of critical genealogy offers a valuable model for political theory today. By bringing into focus its historical attention to detail, we can locate in Foucault’s genealogical philosophy an alternative to prominent assumptions in contemporary political theory. The work of political theory is often positioned in light of an assumed goal of staking political theory to certain political positions, judgments, or normative determinations that already populate the terrain of politics. This goal may be illusory; (...)
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  20. Homosexual, Masochistic Transvestite: How I Eventually Overcame Self-Deception and Became Myself.Tony Summer - 2019 - Charleston, SC: Independent Publisher.
    This book is the story of my self-deception about my “deviant” sexuality and my protracted and painful progress toward self-understanding and self-acceptance. Unavoidably, the book involves explicit descriptions of a wide range of activities often regarded as sexually deviant. It is not intended as pornographic; though some people may use it that way. It describes how I deceived myself about my sexuality as a consequence of trying to conform to the norms of my inherited culture. I hope that it will (...)
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  21. Gender Identities and Feminism.Josh T. U. Cohen - 2018 - Ethics, Politics and Society.
    Many feminists (e.g. T. Bettcher and B. R. George) argue for a principle of first person authority (FPA) about gender, i.e. that we should (at least) not disavow people's gender self-categorisations. However, there is a feminist tradition resistant to FPA about gender, which I call "radical feminism”. Feminists in this tradition define gender-categories via biological sex, thus denying non-binary and trans self-identifications. Using a taxonomy by B. R. George, I begin to demystify the concept of gender. We are also able (...)
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  22. Non-ideal Theory and Gender Voluntarism in Against Purity.Kathryn J. Norlock - 2018 - Apa Newsletter on Feminism and Philosophy 18 (1):1-5.
    In Against Purity, Alexis Shotwell takes up a multiplicity of tasks with respect to what I think of as non-ideal ethical theory. In what follows, I trace the relationship of her work to that of non-ideal theorists whose work influences mine. Then, more critically, I probe her analysis of gender voluntarism in Chapter 5, “Practicing Freedom: Disability and Gender Transformation,” partly to better understand what she takes it to be, and partly to advance a cautious defense of some of the (...)
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  23. Puzzle Pieces: Shapes of Trans Curiosity.Perry Zurn - 2018 - APA Newsletter on LGBTQ Issues in Philosophy 1 (18):10-16.
    Whether in journalism or medicine, education, law, or television, trans writers and trans studies scholars consistently develop this critique of the representational totalization of trans people, whereby they are and have been made whats, not whos; objects, not subjects; voiceless, not vocal; passive, not active; dehistoricized, not historical; and single, not multiple. In what follows, I aim to supplement this critique by attending to the role of curiosity both as a technique of (trans) objectification and as a practice of (trans) (...)
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  24. Meaning and Fulfilment in Life: The Roles of Criticism, Self-Discovery and Autobiography.Tony Summer - 2017 - Journal of Philosophy of Life 7 (3):391-405.
    I offer a personal case-study to show how poor self-knowledge due in part to self-deception led to wasted life, a life lacking in meaning, and descent into severe anxiety and depression. A meaningful human life connects with things of value outside of itself and provides fulfilment for its bearer. For humans, fulfilment depends upon self-discovery, which requires a process of conjecture and refutation, a willingness to question and criticise received views and to welcome challenges and criticism to views that one (...)
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  25. Discovering Oneself: A Philosophical Autobiography of a Boy Named 'Susie'.Tony Summer - 2017 - Createspace Independent Publishing Platform.
    This autobiography addresses philosophical questions concerning the meaning of life, the possibility of knowledge, ethical challenges of the human condition, and how a person discovers who he or she is or ought to be. I wasted large stretches of my life being things, or trying to be things, that were not really me, such as a revolutionary, a drunk, a tough-guy and a heterosexual. I also spent years trying to hide from myself what I really was. I take myself to (...)
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  26. Post-identity politics and the social weightlessness of radical gender theory.Paddy McQueen - 2016 - Thesis Eleven 134 (1):73-88.
    This paper examines recent forms of post-identity thought within contemporary gender theory, specifically the works of Rosi Braidotti, Elizabeth Grosz and Bobby Noble. Despite the many insights that these theories offer, I argue that they suffer from what Lois McNay has labelled ‘social weightlessness’ insofar as their models of subjectivity and agency are disconnected from the everyday realities of social subjects. I identify two ways in which this social weightlessness is manifested in radical gender theories that endorse a post-identity politics: (...)
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  27. Trans*formative Experiences.Rachel McKinnon - 2015 - Res Philosophica 92 (2):419-440.
    What happens when we consider transformative experiences from the perspective of gender transitions? In this paper I suggest that at least two insights emerge. First, trans* persons’ experiences of gender transitions show some limitations to L.A. Paul’s (forthcoming) decision theoretic account of transformative decisions. This will involve exploring some of the phenomenology of coming to know that one is trans, and in coming to decide to transition. Second, what epistemological effects are there to undergoing a transformative experience? By connecting some (...)
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  28. Stereotype Threat and Attributional Ambiguity for Trans Women.Rachel McKinnon - 2014 - Hypatia 29 (1):857-872.
    In this paper I discuss the interrelated topics of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity as they relate to gender and gender identity. The former has become an emerging topic in feminist philosophy and has spawned a tremendous amount of research in social psychology and elsewhere. But the discussion, at least in how it connects to gender, is incomplete: the focus is only on cisgender women and their experiences. By considering trans women's experiences of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity, we gain (...)
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  29. "Trans Women and the Meaning of ‘Woman’".Talia Mae Bettcher - 2013 - In A. Soble, N. Power & R. Halwani (eds.), Philosophy of Sex: Contemporary Readings, Sixth Edition. Rowan & Littlefield. pp. 233-250.
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  30. Trans Women and Interpretive Intimacy: Some Initial Reflections”.Talia Mae Bettcher - 2013 - In D. Castenada (ed.), The Essential Handbook of Women's Sexuality. Praeger. pp. 51-68.
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  31. Full‐Frontal Morality: The Naked Truth about Gender.Talia Mae Bettcher - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (2):319-337.
    This paper examines Harold Garfinkel's notion of the natural attitude about sex and his claim that it is fundamentally moral in nature. The author looks beneath the natural attitude in order to explain its peculiar resilience and oppressive force. There she reveals a moral order grounded in the dichotomously sexed bodies so constituted through boundaries governing privacy and decency. In particular, naked bodies are sex-differentiated within a system of genital representation through gender presentation—a system that helps constitute the very boundaries (...)
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  32. Review of Laurie Shrage, You've Changed: Sex Reassignment and Personal Identity[REVIEW]Patricia Marino - 2010 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (1).
  33. Sexualized Brains. [REVIEW]Yiftach J. H. Fehige - 2009 - Isis: 100 (4):887-888.
  34. Artifice and Authenticity: Gender Technology and Agency in Two Jenny Saville Portraits.Diana Tietjens Meyers - 2009 - In Laurie Shrage (ed.), You’ve Changed”: Sex Reassignment and Personal Identity. Oxford University Press.
    This paper addresses two related topics: 1. The disanalogies between elective cosmetic practices and sex reassignment surgery. Why does it seem necessary for me – an aging professional woman – to ignore the blandishments of hairdressers wielding dyes and dermatologists wielding acids and scalpels? Why does it not seem equally necessary for a transgendered person to repudiate sex reassignment procedures? 2. The role of the body in identity and agency. How do phenomenological insights regarding the constitution of selfhood in relation (...)
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  35. Dear Kate Bornstein.Lisa Heldke - 2006 - Radical Philosophy Today 3:101-109.
    In this brief paper, I want to begin to explore the possibility that bi-trans dialogue can challenge those forms of oppression that are grounded in sex, gender, and sexuality. I am particularly interested in pursuing the possibility that bi-trans dialogue might result in additional critiques of the sex-gender-sexuality triad. Despite multiple challenges, and myriad historical transmogri-fications (including, it must be noted, the very late addition of gender), that triad maintains its foundationality and posits deep causal links among its three parts. (...)
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  36. Ethical First-Person Authority and The Moral Status of Rejecting.Burkay Ozturk - manuscript
    There are two popular ways of explaining why a person has authority over her own gender identity: epistemic FPA and ethical FPA. Both have problems. Epistemic FPA attributes to the self-identifier an unrealistic degree of doxastic reliability. Ethical FPA implies the existence of an unqualified obligation not to reject which is too strong to be plausible. This essay offers a third explanation called “weak FPA” and investigates how far first-person authority reaches in terms of grounding rights and obligating others. Weak (...)
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